CN114108575B - Stepped grading spillway with energy dissipation effect - Google Patents

Stepped grading spillway with energy dissipation effect Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114108575B
CN114108575B CN202111544728.7A CN202111544728A CN114108575B CN 114108575 B CN114108575 B CN 114108575B CN 202111544728 A CN202111544728 A CN 202111544728A CN 114108575 B CN114108575 B CN 114108575B
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stage
stilling pool
stilling
steep groove
groove
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CN114108575A (en
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文浩
刘曜
秦晓亮
王明
房彬
吕康
王杰
罗佩玉
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PowerChina Guiyang Engineering Corp Ltd
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PowerChina Guiyang Engineering Corp Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B8/00Details of barrages or weirs ; Energy dissipating devices carried by lock or dry-dock gates
    • E02B8/06Spillways; Devices for dissipation of energy, e.g. for reducing eddies also for lock or dry-dock gates

Abstract

The invention discloses a stepped grading spillway with an energy dissipation effect, and belongs to the technical field of water conservancy and hydropower constructional engineering. This spillway includes that one-level stilling pond, one-level steep groove, second grade stilling pond, tertiary stilling pond, second grade steep groove, level four stilling pond and the sea overflow that set gradually from the upper reaches to low reaches, the upper reaches side and the flood discharge hole of one-level stilling pond meet, the downstream side and the former river course of sea overflow smoothly meet. The spillway is arranged at the outlet of the flood discharge hole, and flood discharge water flows are discharged into the original river channel after being fully dissipated by the multistage stilling ponds and the multistage abrupt grooves, so that the scouring of the original river channel is reduced, and the safety of downstream buildings is ensured; meanwhile, the first-stage stilling pool, the first-stage steep groove, the second-stage stilling pool, the third-stage stilling pool, the second-stage steep groove and the fourth-stage stilling pool are transversely of a closed structure, so that flood discharge and atomization caused in the energy dissipation process can be prevented.

Description

Stepped grading spillway with energy dissipation effect
Technical Field
The invention relates to a stepped grading spillway with an energy dissipation effect, and belongs to the technical field of water conservancy and hydropower building engineering.
Background
In water conservancy and hydropower engineering, the energy of water flow flowing out of an outlet of a general flood discharge tunnel (or a spillway) is large, the scouring force applied to a downstream riverbed is large, the influence on the riverbed and the surrounding environment is large, and particularly the energy dissipation problem of the outlet of the flood discharge tunnel arranged on a steep mountain is prominent. Flood discharge and energy dissipation are crucial links in the design of a hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering hub, and in order to ensure the safety of a building and reduce the scouring of a downstream river channel, energy dissipaters are usually arranged in a water discharge building to link up upstream and downstream water flows and perform centralized energy dissipation. Therefore, energy dissipation facilities need to be arranged at the outlet of the flood discharge tunnel (or the spillway), so that the energy of outlet water flow is reduced, the erosion of the water flow to the river channel is reduced, and buildings on two banks of the river channel are protected. The energy dissipation measures of the spillway mainly comprise two modes of trajectory energy dissipation and underflow energy dissipation. The trajectory energy dissipation flood discharge water flow is subjected to longer distance in the air, is adjusted to diffuse and finally falls into the plunge pool, and the trajectory water tongue mainly carries out centralized energy dissipation in the plunge pool (or the stilling pool) through friction, diffusion or collision in the air; the energy dissipater is generally arranged at the outlet of the water tongue, achieves the purpose of rectifying and dissipating energy through contraction, diffusion or hollowing and the like, easily forms submerged swirling flow state in a plunge pool or a stilling pool, and has high energy dissipation efficiency. The underflow energy dissipation mainly takes hydraulic jump energy dissipation in the stilling pool, a mode of combining a chute with the stilling pool is mostly adopted, and in order to increase the energy dissipation effect, energy dissipators are mostly arranged at the inlet of a flow passage or in the stilling pool, for example, a wide tail pier, a small flip bucket and the like at a gate pier, and a falling sill, a diversion pier, a reverse step, a tooth sill, a reverse collision and the like are arranged in the stilling pool (the energy dissipators are generally submerged below the water level of the stilling pool), so that a three-dimensional swirling water jump flow state is more easily formed in the stilling pool or the energy consumption along the process is increased, and the purpose of rectifying and energy dissipation is finally achieved.
However, both of the above two energy dissipation methods have certain applicable conditions and disadvantages. The trajectory energy dissipation mode easily causes the problem of flood discharge and atomization, and the downstream water tongues are selected to wash the riverbed water cushion to easily form a washing pit which is generally adopted under the condition. The underflow energy dissipation mode is widely applied, however, the local conditions and the building arrangement limit, the high-fall flood discharging hole (or flood spillway) has large flow velocity and concentrated energy, if the downstream water level is low, the hydraulic jump flow state in the stilling pool is unstable, even a long-distance hydraulic jump is formed, the energy dissipation is insufficient, the length of the stilling pool needs to be lengthened, and even if energy dissipation measures are added in the stilling pool, the higher energy dissipation effect is difficult to achieve. At this moment, how to design a flood discharge and energy dissipation facility which is flexible in arrangement, good in energy dissipation effect, small in influence on buildings on both banks and suitable for high and steep mountain terrains is an important problem researched by technical personnel in the field.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention provides a stepped grading spillway with energy dissipation effect.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the stepped graded spillway with the energy dissipation effect comprises a first-level stilling pool, a first-level steep groove, a second-level stilling pool, a third-level stilling pool, a second-level steep groove, a fourth-level stilling pool and a sea overflow, wherein the first-level stilling pool, the first-level steep groove, the second-level stilling pool, the third-level stilling pool, the second-level steep groove, the fourth-level stilling pool and the sea overflow are sequentially arranged from the upstream to the downstream, the upstream side of the first-level stilling pool is connected with a flood discharge hole, and the downstream side of the sea overflow pool is smoothly connected with an original river channel.
The one-level stilling pool is arranged at the outlet or the tail end of the flood discharge hole, a transition section is arranged in the one-level stilling pool to adjust the width of flood discharge water flow into the width of the one-level steep groove from the width of the flood discharge hole, a plurality of energy dissipation piers are arranged at the top of the upstream section of the one-level stilling pool at intervals, and the tail of the one-level stilling pool is provided with a slope comb-shaped tail ridge.
The clear distance between the energy dissipation piers is 0.5-1 m, and the bottom slope of the slope type comb-shaped end sill is 1:3-1:5.
One-level abrupt groove and second grade abrupt groove are the multistage formula structure that jumps water of stairstepping, and the one-level abrupt groove and the steep groove of second grade jump water single-stage height h all is greater than corresponding jump water single-stage width B, and every grade downstream end that jumps water in the one-level abrupt groove all is equipped with tooth bank A, and every grade downstream end that jumps water in the steep groove of second grade all is equipped with tooth bank B.
The heights of the tooth ridges A and B are not lower than 0.2m.
The bottom of the first-level steep groove is connected with the foundation through a plurality of anti-pulling anchor rods A, and the bottom of the second-level steep groove is connected with the foundation through a plurality of anti-pulling anchor rods B.
The afterbody in second grade absorption basin is equipped with the practical weir that is used for huding up water, and the axis of practical weir is parallel with the axis in one-level abrupt groove, and the height of practical weir is greater than 2m.
The three-level stilling pool and the two-level stilling pool are closely connected, the longitudinal section of the three-level stilling pool is in an irregular polygonal structure, a continuous tail ridge A is arranged at the tail of the three-level stilling pool, a continuous tail ridge B is arranged at the tail of the four-level stilling pool, the sea is in a stone mortar or dry stone structure, and the width of the sea is as wide as that of the four-level stilling pool.
The longitudinal section of the third-stage stilling pool is pentagonal, the first side of the pentagon is parallel to the axis of the first-stage steep groove, the second side and the fifth side are perpendicular to the axis of the first-stage steep groove, the third side is perpendicular to the axis of the second-stage steep groove, and the downstream end of the fourth side inclines towards the direction close to the second side relative to the upstream end.
The axes of the first-stage steep groove, the first-stage stilling basin and the flood discharge tunnel are overlapped, and the axes of the second-stage steep groove, the fourth-stage stilling basin and the sea skimming are overlapped and inclined to the downstream direction of the original river channel.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the spillway is arranged at the outlet of the flood discharge hole, and flood discharge water flows are discharged into the original river channel after being fully dissipated by the multistage stilling ponds and the multistage abrupt grooves, so that the scouring of the original river channel is reduced, and the safety of downstream buildings is ensured; meanwhile, the first-stage stilling pool, the first-stage steep groove, the second-stage stilling pool, the third-stage stilling pool, the second-stage steep groove and the fourth-stage stilling pool are transversely of a closed structure, so that flood discharge and atomization caused in the energy dissipation process can be prevented.
2. The spillway is classified and arranged in a broken line manner, so that the flood discharge water flow direction is changed to adapt to various topographic and geological conditions, and the spillway is particularly suitable for small-flow high-fall flood discharge.
3. The steep groove is arranged to be of a multistage drop structure with the tooth ridges so as to disperse flood discharge water flow main flows and destroy water body shock waves, so that energy dissipation efficiency is improved.
4. The tail ridge of the flood discharge outlet first-stage stilling pool is set to be of a slope type comb-shaped tail ridge structure, and meanwhile, the effects of silt discharging and good energy dissipation are achieved.
5. The anti-pulling anchor rods are arranged on the bottom plates of the steep grooves, so that the steep grooves can maintain stable structure under the dragging force and the self-weight action of the flood discharge water body, and the structural safety of the spillway is ensured.
6. The method has the advantages of flexible arrangement, good energy dissipation effect, safe structure, strong adaptability and the like, overcomes the defects and the limitation of use conditions of the conventional flood discharge and energy dissipation technology, has obvious engineering benefits, and can be popularized and applied in similar engineering.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 isbase:Sub>A cross-sectional view taken along A-A of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of FIG. 1 at A;
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view of FIG. 1 at D;
FIG. 5 is a thumbnail view at B of FIG. 2;
fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of fig. 2 at C.
In the figure: 1-flood discharge tunnel, 2-first-stage stilling pool, 21-slope comb-shaped tail ridge, 22-energy dissipation pier, 3-first-stage steep groove, 31-tooth ridge A, 32-uplift anchor rod A, 4-second-stage stilling pool, 41-practical weir, 5-third-stage stilling pool, 51-continuous tail ridge A, 52-first side, 53-second side, 54-third side, 55-fourth side, 56-fifth side, 6-second-stage steep groove, 61-tooth ridge B, 62-uplift anchor rod B, 7-fourth-stage stilling pool, 71-continuous tail ridge B, 8-romantic and 9-original river channel.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is further described below, but the scope of the claimed invention is not limited to the described.
As shown in fig. 1 to 6, the stepped graded spillway with energy dissipation effect of the invention comprises a first-stage stilling pool 2, a first-stage steep groove 3, a second-stage stilling pool 4, a third-stage stilling pool 5, a second-stage steep groove 6, a fourth-stage stilling pool 7 and a sea wall 8 which are arranged from upstream to downstream in sequence, wherein the upstream side of the first-stage stilling pool 2 is connected with a spillway tunnel 1, and the downstream side of the sea wall 8 is smoothly connected with an original river channel 9. When using, the horizontal enclosed construction that is of one-level stilling pond 2, one-level abrupt groove 3, second grade stilling pond 4, tertiary stilling pond 5, second grade abrupt groove 6, level four stilling pond 7 prevents to arouse the flood discharge atomizing at the energy dissipation in-process, adopts the mode of multistage energy dissipation to discharge into former river course 9 again after fully dissipating the energy with the flood discharge rivers to alleviate the washing away to former river course 9, and guarantee low reaches building safety.
The one-level stilling pool 2 is arranged at the outlet or the tail end of the flood discharge hole 1, a transition section is arranged in the one-level stilling pool 2 to adjust the width of flood discharge water flow from the width of the flood discharge hole 1 to the width of the one-level steep groove 3, a plurality of energy dissipation piers 22 are arranged at the top of the upstream section of the one-level stilling pool 2 at intervals, and the tail part of the one-level stilling pool 2 is provided with a slope-type comb-shaped tail ridge 21. The effects of silt discharge and good energy dissipation are achieved simultaneously through the energy dissipation piers 22 and the slope type comb-shaped end ridges 21.
The clear distance between the energy dissipation piers 22 is 0.5-1 m, and the bottom slope of the slope type comb-shaped end sill 21 is 1:3-1:5. The bottom slope of the slope type comb-shaped end ridge 21 is arranged to be 1:3-1:5, when the water level is not obviously increased, the downward drainage flow carries silt to be smoothly discharged into the first-stage steep groove 3, if the water level is too steep, the water level is too high, the flood discharge 1 is influenced, and meanwhile, the sand discharge is not facilitated, and if the water level is too slow, the length of the first-stage stilling pool 2 is increased, and the engineering quantity is increased.
One-level abrupt groove 3 and second grade abrupt groove 6 are the multistage formula structure that jumps water of stairstepping, and the one-level abrupt groove 3 and the second grade abrupt groove 6 jump water single-stage height h all is greater than corresponding jump water single-stage width B, and every grade jumps water in the one-level abrupt groove 3 low reaches end all is equipped with tooth bank A31, and every grade jumps water in the second grade abrupt groove 6 low reaches end all is equipped with tooth bank B61.
The heights of the tooth threshold A31 and the tooth threshold B61 are not lower than 0.2m. So that the flood discharge water flow is swirled, collided and turbulently moved in the steep groove to achieve the effect of full energy dissipation.
The bottom of the first-level steep groove 3 is connected with the foundation through a plurality of uplift anchor rods A32, and the bottom of the second-level steep groove 6 is connected with the foundation through a plurality of uplift anchor rods B62. In use, the foundation refers to a stable foundation.
The afterbody of second grade absorption basin 4 is equipped with practical weir 41 that is used for huddling, and the axis of practical weir 41 is parallel with the axis of one-level abrupt groove 3, and the height of practical weir 41 is greater than 2m. So that flood discharge water flow can form a submerged hydraulic jump in the secondary stilling pool 4 to reduce the length of the secondary stilling pool 4.
The three-level stilling pool 5 is closely connected with the two-level stilling pool 4, the longitudinal section of the three-level stilling pool 5 is in an irregular polygonal structure, the tail of the three-level stilling pool is provided with a continuous tail ridge A51, the tail of the four-level stilling pool 7 is provided with a continuous tail ridge B71, the sea wall 8 is of a stone masonry or dry stone structure, and the width of the sea wall is as wide as that of the four-level stilling pool 7.
The longitudinal section of the third-stage stilling pool 5 is pentagonal, a first side 52 of the pentagonal shape is parallel to the axis of the first-stage steep groove 3, a second side 53 and a fifth side 56 of the pentagonal shape are perpendicular to the axis of the first-stage steep groove 3, a third side 54 of the pentagonal shape is perpendicular to the axis of the second-stage steep groove 6, and the downstream end of a fourth side 55 inclines towards the direction close to the second side 53 relative to the upstream end. So as to change the flood discharge water flow direction through the three-stage stilling pool 5.
The axes of the first-stage steep groove 3, the first-stage absorption basin 2 and the flood discharge tunnel 1 are coincided, and the axes of the second-stage steep groove 6, the fourth-stage absorption basin 7 and the sea inundates 8 are coincided and are inclined to the downstream direction of the original river channel 9. The spillway is arranged in a broken line manner, so that the applicability of the spillway to the terrain and geological conditions is improved.
The stepped grading spillway with the energy dissipation effect provided by the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the spillway is arranged at the outlet of the flood discharge hole 1, and flood discharge water flows are discharged into the original river channel 9 after being fully dissipated by the multistage stilling ponds and the multistage steep grooves, so that the scouring of the original river channel 9 is reduced, and the safety of downstream buildings is ensured; meanwhile, the first-stage stilling pool 2, the first-stage steep groove 3, the second-stage stilling pool 4, the third-stage stilling pool 5, the second-stage steep groove 6 and the fourth-stage stilling pool 7 are transversely of a closed structure, so that flood discharge and atomization caused in the energy dissipation process can be prevented.
2. The spillway is classified and arranged in a broken line manner, so that the flood discharge water flow direction is changed to adapt to various topographic and geological conditions, and the spillway is particularly suitable for small-flow high-fall flood discharge.
3. The steep groove is arranged to be of a multistage drop structure with the tooth ridges so as to disperse flood discharge water flow main flows and destroy water body shock waves, so that energy dissipation efficiency is improved.
4. The tail sill of the first-level stilling pool 2 at the outlet of the flood discharge 1 is set to be of a slope comb-shaped tail sill 21 structure, and the effects of silt discharge and good energy dissipation are achieved at the same time.
5. The anti-pulling anchor rods are arranged on the bottom plates of the steep grooves, so that the steep grooves can maintain stable structure under the dragging force and the self-weight action of the flood discharge water body, and the structural safety of the spillway is ensured.
6. The method has the advantages of flexible arrangement, good energy dissipation effect, safe structure, strong adaptability and the like, overcomes the defects and the limitation of use conditions of the conventional flood discharge and energy dissipation technology, has obvious engineering benefits, and can be popularized and applied in similar engineering.

Claims (2)

1. The utility model provides a hierarchical spillway of stairstepping with energy dissipation effect which characterized in that: the device comprises a first-stage stilling pool (2), a first-stage steep groove (3), a second-stage stilling pool (4), a third-stage stilling pool (5), a second-stage steep groove (6), a fourth-stage stilling pool (7) and a sea buoy (8) which are sequentially arranged from upstream to downstream, wherein the upstream side of the first-stage stilling pool (2) is connected with a flood discharge tunnel (1), and the downstream side of the sea buoy (8) is smoothly connected with an original river channel (9);
the primary stilling pool (2) is arranged at the outlet or the tail end of the flood discharge tunnel (1), and a transition section is arranged in the primary stilling pool (2) to adjust the width of flood discharge water flow from the width of the flood discharge tunnel (1) to the width of the primary steep groove (3); a plurality of energy dissipation piers (22) are arranged at the top of the upstream section of the first-stage stilling pool (2) at intervals, and a slope-type comb-shaped tail sill (21) is arranged at the tail part of the first-stage stilling pool (2);
the clear distance between the energy dissipation piers (22) is 0.5 to 1m, and the bottom slope of the slope type comb-shaped tail sill (21) is 1;
the primary steep groove (3) and the secondary steep groove (6) are both in stepped multi-stage water jump type structures; the height h of each water jump single stage of the first-stage steep groove (3) and the second-stage steep groove (6) is larger than the width B of the corresponding water jump single stage, the downstream end of each water jump in the first-stage steep groove (3) is provided with a tooth ridge A (31), and the downstream end of each water jump in the second-stage steep groove (6) is provided with a tooth ridge B (61);
the bottom of the first-stage steep groove (3) is connected with the foundation through a plurality of anti-pulling anchor rods A (32), and the bottom of the second-stage steep groove (6) is connected with the foundation through a plurality of anti-pulling anchor rods B (62);
the tail part of the secondary stilling pool (4) is provided with a practical weir (41) for stopping up water, the axis of the practical weir (41) is parallel to the axis of the primary steep groove (3), and the height of the practical weir (41) is more than 2m;
the third-stage stilling pool (5) is tightly connected with the second-stage stilling pool (4), the longitudinal section of the third-stage stilling pool (5) is in an irregular polygon shape, and the tail of the third-stage stilling pool is provided with a continuous tail sill A (51); the tail part of the four-stage stilling pool (7) is provided with a continuous tail ridge B (71), the sea wall (8) is of a stone masonry or dry stone structure, and the width of the sea wall is as wide as that of the four-stage stilling pool (7);
the longitudinal section of the third-stage stilling pool (5) is pentagonal, a first side (52) of the pentagon is parallel to the axis of the first-stage steep groove (3), a second side (53) and a fifth side (56) of the pentagon are vertical to the axis of the first-stage steep groove (3), a third side (54) of the pentagon is vertical to the axis of the second-stage steep groove (6), and the downstream end of a fourth side (55) inclines towards the direction close to the second side (53) relative to the upstream end;
the axial coincidence of one-level abrupt groove (3), one-level absorption basin (2) and flood discharge tunnel (1), the axial coincidence of second grade abrupt groove (6), level four absorption basin (7) and sea inundation (8) to former river course (9) downstream direction of slant.
2. A stepped gradation spillway with energy dissipation effect as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the heights of the tooth ridge A (31) and the tooth ridge B (61) are not less than 0.2m.
CN202111544728.7A 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 Stepped grading spillway with energy dissipation effect Active CN114108575B (en)

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CN109797718A (en) * 2019-03-22 2019-05-24 广东水利电力职业技术学院(广东省水利电力技工学校) A kind of water pond reinforcement means and strengthening reconstruction formula pond body
CN210049213U (en) * 2019-05-15 2020-02-11 中国电建集团中南勘测设计研究院有限公司 Spillway layering energy dissipation chute
CN110552331A (en) * 2019-08-30 2019-12-10 中铁十四局集团有限公司 Composite energy dissipater suitable for long-distance and complex-terrain slope surface drainage

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