CN106973752A - 一种提高山银花产量和质量的方法 - Google Patents

一种提高山银花产量和质量的方法 Download PDF

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CN106973752A
CN106973752A CN201710325815.0A CN201710325815A CN106973752A CN 106973752 A CN106973752 A CN 106973752A CN 201710325815 A CN201710325815 A CN 201710325815A CN 106973752 A CN106973752 A CN 106973752A
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种利用叶面喷施药剂加菌素提高山银花产量和质量的方法,该方法包括(1)称取水杨酸和尖孢镰刀菌菌素,用水配成一定浓度的溶液;(2)药剂的喷施,3‑10月份期间选择无雨的日子,在日出前或日落后进行喷施,每月喷施2‑3次,每次喷施间隔不低于10天,使植株均匀沾有溶液;4‑8月份期间,选择无雨的日子,每月喷施2‑3次磷酸二氢钾溶液,使植株均匀沾有溶液。本发明可以全面提升山银花的产量和质量,采收时,山银花的产量比同等条件下不进行叶面喷施的产量高出15%‑20%,干花中绿原酸和皂甙类化合物的含量均高出25%‑30%,产量和质量的提升效果都十分显著。

Description

一种提高山银花产量和质量的方法
技术领域
本发明涉及一种提高山银花产量和质量的方法,具体指通过叶面喷施药剂和菌素来提高产量,并增加绿原酸、皂甙类有效成分含量的方法。
背景技术
山银花是忍冬科植物灰毡毛忍冬、红腺忍冬、华南忍冬或黄褐毛忍冬的干燥花蕾或带初开的花,生于溪边、旷野疏林下或灌木丛中,目前已经人工广泛栽培,主要分布在华南地区,木质藤本,长2~5m,树皮黄褐色渐次变为白色,嫩时有短柔毛。叶对生,卵圆形至椭圆形,长4~8cm,宽3.5~5cm,上面绿色,主脉上有短疏毛,下面带灰白色,密生白色短柔毛;花冠管状,长1.6~2cm,稍有柔毛,初开时白色,后变黄色,花期6~9月,果期10~11月。
山银花呈棒状而销弯,长3~4.5cm,上部直径2mm,下部直径1mm,表面绿棕色至黄白色。总花梗集结成簇。开放者花冠裂片,不及全长之半,质稍硬,手捏之稍有弹性,气清香,味微苦甘,中医认为山银花甘,寒;归肺,心、胃经。主治清热解毒,疏散风热;用于痈肿疔疮,喉痹、丹毒,热毒血痢,风热感冒,温热发病等;现代医学研究表明:山银花的主要有效成份为绿原酸和木犀草苷、灰毡毛忍冬皂苷乙、川续断皂苷乙等皂甙类。
现阶段,山银花人工栽培的产量和质量均不高,绿原酸、皂甙类化合物含量偏低,国内也非常缺乏提高山银花产量和质量的研究报道。因此,通过叶面喷施药剂和菌素来有效提高山银花的产量,并增加绿原酸、皂甙类有效成分含量,对于提高山银花中药材的利用度,提高经济效益,促进中药材标准化种植都具有重要意义。
发明内容
为解决上述山银花现有技术存在的问题,本发明人经过大量的实践,终于摸索和总结出一种通过叶面喷施药剂和菌素来提高山银花产量,并增加山银花中绿原酸、皂甙类化合物含量的方法。
本发明包括以下几个步骤:
(1)药剂的配制,称取一定量的水杨酸和尖孢镰刀菌菌素,用水溶解,使溶解后的水溶液中水杨酸的浓度为30-80ppm,尖孢镰刀菌菌素的质量分数为0.08%-0.15%。
(2)药剂的喷施,3-10月份期间,将上述配好的溶液选择无雨的日子,往正在生长的山银花进行叶面喷施,在日出前或日落后进行喷施,每月喷施2-3次,每次喷施间隔不低于10天,每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液;4-8月份期间,选择无雨的日子,每月喷施2-3次磷酸二氢钾溶液(质量分数为0.20%),每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液。
所述尖孢镰刀菌菌素的制备方法为:将尖孢镰刀菌接种于种子培养液中,28℃-35℃、转速120 rpm-160 rpm,培养48-72 h获得种子液;将种子液以体积比5%-10%的接种量接于扩大发酵培养液,发酵温度28℃-35℃、转速120 rpm-160 rpm,发酵培养时间为4d-5d;发酵培养液离心过滤后,获得尖孢镰刀菌菌丝体,将菌丝体用甲醇或乙醇溶液提取后即得尖孢镰刀菌菌素。
所述种子培养液的优选制备方法为:马铃薯200g、葡萄糖20g、蒸馏水l000ml、pH6-7、121℃灭菌20 min得到种子培养液。
所述扩大发酵培养液的优选制备方法为:马铃薯150g-200g、工业蛋白胨15g-20g、葡萄糖15g-20g、氯化钾0.05g -0.1g、硫酸钠1g-1.5g、硫酸镁1g-1.5g、碳酸钙1g-2g、加水定容至1000 ml,调节pH值 6-7,121℃灭菌20 min得到扩大发酵培养液。
与现有技术相比,本发明的有益效果在于:
药剂和菌素的喷施能有效促进山银花生长和绿原酸、皂甙类化合物的生物合成,通过本方法进行叶面喷施的山银花,产量和质量都有明显提升,采收时,山银花的产量比同等条件下不进行叶面喷施的产量高出15%-20%,绿原酸和皂甙类化合物的含量均高出25%-30%,产量和质量的提升效果都十分显著。
本发明所应用的药剂较为常见,价格较低,也容易获得;尖孢镰刀菌既有市售,有条件的单位也可自行分离,很容易获得,菌素的制备也不复杂;所采用的喷施方法较为简单,喷施的次数也不多,在不需要太多投入的条件下就能实现,而由于喷施带来的经济效益却很显著,以亩产150公斤干花为例,通过叶面喷施,山银花的干花亩产达180公斤左右,价格由30元/公斤提升至35元/公斤,喷施所需成本只需800-1000元,而由于产量和质量提升带来的收益却有1800元左右,经济效益十分显著,该方法还便于进行产业化、规模化和标准化实施,市场应用前景广阔。
具体实施方式
以下对利用叶面喷施药剂和菌素提高山银花产量和质量的方法进行详细说明。
实施例1:
(1)药剂的配制,称取一定量的水杨酸和尖孢镰刀菌菌素,用水溶解,使溶解后的水溶液中水杨酸的浓度为35ppm,尖孢镰刀菌菌素的质量分数为0.09%。
(2)药剂的喷施,3-10月份期间,将上述配好的溶液选择无雨的日子,往正在生长的山银花进行叶面喷施,在日出前或日落后进行喷施,每月喷施2次,每次喷施间隔不低于10天,每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液;4-8月份期间,选择无雨的日子,每月喷施2次磷酸二氢钾溶液(质量分数为0.20%),每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液。
所述尖孢镰刀菌菌素的制备方法为:将尖孢镰刀菌接种于种子培养液中,30℃、转速130 rpm,培养50h获得种子液;将种子液以体积比6%的接种量接于扩大发酵培养液,发酵温度30℃、转速125 rpm,发酵培养时间为4d;发酵培养液离心过滤后,获得尖孢镰刀菌菌丝体,将菌丝体用甲醇或乙醇溶液提取后即得尖孢镰刀菌菌素。
所述种子培养液的制备方法为:马铃薯200g、葡萄糖20g、蒸馏水l000ml、pH 6-7、121℃灭菌20 min得到种子培养液。
所述扩大发酵培养液的制备方法为:马铃薯160g、工业蛋白胨17g、葡萄糖16g、氯化钾0.06g、硫酸钠1.1g、硫酸镁1.1g、碳酸钙1.1g、加水定容至1000 ml,调节pH值 6.5,121℃灭菌20 min得到扩大发酵培养液。
通过本方法进行叶面喷施的山银花,产量和质量都有明显提升,采收时,山银花的产量比同等条件下不进行叶面喷施的产量高出16%,绿原酸和皂甙类化合物的含量分别高出25%和27%,产量和质量的提升效果都十分显著。
实施例2
(1)药剂的配制,称取一定量的水杨酸和尖孢镰刀菌菌素,用水溶解,使溶解后的水溶液中水杨酸的浓度为72ppm,尖孢镰刀菌菌素的质量分数为0.13%。
(2)药剂的喷施,3-10月份期间,将上述配好的溶液选择无雨的日子,往正在生长的山银花进行叶面喷施,在日出前或日落后进行喷施,每月喷施3次,每次喷施间隔不低于10天,每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液;4-8月份期间,选择无雨的日子,每月喷施3次磷酸二氢钾溶液(质量分数为0.20%),每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液。
所述尖孢镰刀菌菌素的制备方法为:将尖孢镰刀菌接种于种子培养液中,33℃、转速150 rpm,培养70 h获得种子液;将种子液以体积比8.5%的接种量接于扩大发酵培养液,发酵温度33℃、转速150 rpm,发酵培养时间为5d;发酵培养液离心过滤后,获得尖孢镰刀菌菌丝体,将菌丝体用甲醇或乙醇溶液提取后即得尖孢镰刀菌菌素。
所述种子培养液的优选制备方法为:马铃薯200g、葡萄糖20g、蒸馏水l000ml、pH6-7、121℃灭菌20 min得到种子培养液。
所述扩大发酵培养液的优选制备方法为:马铃薯188g、工业蛋白胨19g、葡萄糖18g、氯化钾0.08g、硫酸钠1.3g、硫酸镁1.3g、碳酸钙1.6g、加水定容至1000 ml,调节pH值6.8,121℃灭菌20 min得到扩大发酵培养液。
通过本方法进行叶面喷施的山银花,产量和质量都有明显提升,采收时,山银花的产量比同等条件下不进行叶面喷施的产量高出19.5%,绿原酸和皂甙类化合物的含量分别高出28%和29%,产量和质量的提升效果都十分显著。
上述实施例并非对本发明作任何形式上的限制,任何熟悉本领域的技术人员,在不脱离本发明技术方案范围的情况下,都可利用上述揭示的技术内容对本发明技术方案做出许多可能的变动和修饰,或修改为等同变化的等效实施例。因此,凡是未脱离本发明技术方案的内容,依据本发明技术实质对以上实施例所做的任何简单修改、等同变化及修饰,均应落在本发明技术方案保护的范围内。

Claims (4)

1.一种利用叶面喷施药剂和菌素提高山银花产量和质量的方法,其特征在于包括以下几个步骤:
(1)药剂的配制,称取一定量的水杨酸和尖孢镰刀菌菌素,用水溶解,使溶解后的水溶液中水杨酸的浓度为30-80ppm,尖孢镰刀菌菌素的质量分数为0.08%-0.15%;
(2)药剂的喷施,3-10月份期间,将上述配好的溶液选择无雨的日子,往正在生长的山银花进行叶面喷施,在日出前或日落后进行喷施,每月喷施2-3次,每次喷施间隔不低于10天,每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液;4-8月份期间,选择无雨的日子,每月喷施2-3次磷酸二氢钾溶液(质量分数为0.20%),每次喷施剂量为使植株均匀沾有溶液。
2.根据权利要求1所述提高山银花产量和质量的方法,其特征在于:所述尖孢镰刀菌菌素的制备方法为:将尖孢镰刀菌接种于种子培养液中,28℃-35℃、转速120 rpm-160 rpm,培养48-72 h获得种子液;将种子液以体积比5%-10%的接种量接于扩大发酵培养液,发酵温度28℃-35℃、转速120 rpm-160 rpm,发酵培养时间为4d-5d;发酵培养液离心过滤后,获得尖孢镰刀菌菌丝体,将菌丝体用甲醇或乙醇溶液提取后即得尖孢镰刀菌菌素。
3.根据权利要求2所述提高山银花产量和质量的方法,其特征在于:所述种子培养液的制备方法为:马铃薯200g、葡萄糖20g、蒸馏水l000ml、pH 6-7、121℃灭菌20 min得到种子培养液。
4.根据权利要求3所述提高山银花产量和质量的方法,其特征在于:所述扩大发酵培养液的制备方法为:马铃薯150g-200g、工业蛋白胨15g-20g、葡萄糖15g-20g、氯化钾0.05g -0.1g、硫酸钠1g-1.5g、硫酸镁1g-1.5g、碳酸钙1g-2g、加水定容至1000 ml,调节pH值 6-7,121℃灭菌20 min得到扩大发酵培养液。
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