CN106767213B - A kind of Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production - Google Patents

A kind of Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106767213B
CN106767213B CN201710035123.2A CN201710035123A CN106767213B CN 106767213 B CN106767213 B CN 106767213B CN 201710035123 A CN201710035123 A CN 201710035123A CN 106767213 B CN106767213 B CN 106767213B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
hole
ore
blasting
plate
production
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CN201710035123.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106767213A (en
Inventor
甘怀营
段进超
刘福春
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长沙有色冶金设计研究院有限公司
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Publication of CN106767213A publication Critical patent/CN106767213A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/22Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/04Arrangements for ignition
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Roof Control blasting methods of soft broken top plate ore body back production, using Controlled blasting technique, by short-delay blasting the ore avalanche below controlled blasting layer, ore shield top layer are reserved, to safeguard Stope roof safety.This method uses shallow bore hole rock drilling, there is two class borehole of controlled blasting hole and main blast hole, controlled blasting hole is arranged on controlled blasting line, main armament hole is arranged perpendicular to rock drilling working face by vertical setting of types, it uses elementary errors detonator, along the scope of freedom, explosion main armament hole, last time guiding detonating controlling blast hole are pressed downward ore deposit by row.It is apparent that the present invention is suitable for ore body boundary line, top plate built on the sand and ore body is hard firm, and it needs to stay the orebody mining for setting ore shield top, ore shield top can effectively be reserved, prevent the stope ore losses caused by top plate collapses, it so as to improve the rate of extraction, while effectively reduces top plate barren rock and is mixed into, reduce ore dilution rate.

Description

A kind of Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of Underground Mining Methods, and in particular to a kind of Roof Control of soft broken top plate ore body back production Blasting method.
Background technology
In recent years, as society is increasingly exhausted with easy fief table resource to being continuously increased for alumina mineral products resource requirement, I State enters underground mining by strip mining transformation.According to the occurrence condition of bauxite, bauxitic ore is hard firm, and its immediate roof Layer is thin, the laminated structure of shale is developed, property is soft, frangible, and compression strength is extremely low, and top plate, which discloses, in production process is caving, and seriously affects stope peace Entirely.The domestic breast stoping that alumina mine down-hole uses at present causes working face that can not work and causes since top plate collapses Ore losses amount it is very big, therefore, need the ore shield top layer of reserved 200 ~ 300mm in process of production, however traditional Common shallow bore hole falls the blasting procedure of ore deposit, is not that backbreak be exactly to owe to dig, it is difficult to reserved regular lean ore stone shield top layer is realized, even if reluctantly Leave the intensity requirement that supporting roof is but often not achieved in shield top layer due to explosion is shattered.
Invention content
Ore shield top can be effectively reserved the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of, Stope roof safety is safeguarded, improves ore The rate of extraction, suitable for top plate built on the sand and ore body is hard firm, need to stay the Roof Control blasting method for setting ore shield top.
The Roof Control blasting method of this soft broken top plate ore body back production provided by the invention, using Controlled blasting technique, By short-delay blasting the ore avalanche below controlled blasting layer, ore shield top layer is reserved, to safeguard Stope safty, including following Step:
(1)After determining explosion section, in the nearly lower section one row's controlled blasting of lateral arrangement in the boundary line of immediate roof and ore body Hole is longitudinally arranged several columns main armament hole below controlled blasting hole;
(2)According to step(1)Determining hole position is punched, and the direction of each blast hole is made to be mutually parallel, the depth in main armament hole Degree is more than the depth in controlled blasting hole;
(3)To main armament hole spaced loading is pressed to controlled blasting hole by the degree of packing of design by continuous charging structure powder charge Structure powder charge;
(4)Blasthole is blocked after the completion of powder charge, is detonated by detonator and elementary errors detonator using series system Networking;
(5)Since the main armament hole at the nearly scope of freedom, ignite main armament hole by column by longitudinal direction, last guiding detonating controlling blast hole to Ore deposit is pushed, make the ore left after explosion shield top bottom surface smooth and leaves half blasthole eye trace.
The position in the controlled blasting hole is at 200 ~ 300mm below immediate roof and the boundary line of ore body, adjacent Controlled blasting hole is arranged that the quick-fried layer thickness of light is 800 ~ 900mm by the spacing of 400 ~ 600mm.
Spacing between main armament hole described in adjacent row is 1000mm or so, often arranges the spacing between the adjacent shot hole in main armament hole For 1200 ~ 1500mm.
The hole depth in the controlled blasting hole and main armament hole is controlled in 1800 ~ 2000mm, and the depth in main armament hole compares controlled blasting The depth depth 200mm in hole or so.
The open eye position in the controlled blasting hole, which allows to make error along contour line on design section contour line, to be not more than The adjustment of 5cm, each borehole direction should be mutually parallel, and offset error is no more than 5%.
The eye mouth array pitch in the main armament hole, line-spacing error are no more than 10cm.
The controlled blasting hole and main blast hole use powder charge bar powder charge.
The present invention is in the nearly arranged beneath controlled blasting hole of ore body immediate roof and the boundary line of ore body, in controlled blasting hole Each blast hole is carried out detonation networking by the main blast hole of arranged beneath using series system, successively will be main using short-delay blasting technique Blast hole and controlled blasting hole are ignited.Can make excavation face smooth in this way, reduce the disturbance to country rock, rock without broken, Reduce crack, out break amount can be greatly reduced, realize that ore shield top layer stays and set, not only protect top plate, but also reduce the rate of dilution, It realizes and effectively reserves ore shield top, safeguard Stope roof safety, prevent top plate from collapsing, improve the rate of extraction, effectively reduce simultaneously Top plate barren rock is mixed into, and reduces ore dilution rate.
Description of the drawings
The facade that Fig. 1 is the present invention arranges schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is the B-B schematic diagrames in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the C-C schematic diagrames in Fig. 1.
The charge constitution schematic diagram of Fig. 4 blast holes in order to control.
Fig. 5 is the charge constitution schematic diagram of main blast hole.
Each serial number in figure:1- controlled blastings hole;2- main armaments hole;3- top plates;4- ores protect top layer;5- production ores;6- is led Booster;7- stemmings;8- air columns;9-2 rock expanded ammonium nitrate explosives;10- elementary errors detonators.
Specific embodiment
By taking the bauxite of Henan as an example, which is in approximately EW strip spread, the continuous long 3000m of thing, north and south Wide 200m~700m, mean breadth 350m, ore body area about 1.3km2.Ore bed thickness 0.43m~52.79m, average 5.70m, mainly It is made of bauxitic ore, at the top of it or there is paper clay ore deposit in intermediate part.Ore compression strength for 66.15MPa~ 132.87MPa, average internal friction angle is 40 ° of 42 ˊ, and ore bed belongs to solid rock, and ore bed stability is good.
Ore bed immediate roof is bury, and layer is thin, laminated structure of shale development, property are soft, frangible, the characteristics of showing water-swellable, Compression strength is extremely low, and underground mining needs supporting, prevents roof fall slump.
Indirect top plate is Taiyuan Forma-tion(C3t)Hypomere kern stone, is mainly made of quartz, and silicious gangue is close, and crack is not Development, according to surveying and determination, compression strength are more than 89.5MPa, belong to solid rock, can make the firm top plate of underground mining.Such as local crack During development, supporting must be carried out.
Since ore body value is not high, and earth's surface does not allow to subside, and excludes filling and avalanche mining methods, suitable for ore body Mining methods are only barnyard mining methods.
The present embodiment using the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production come this mine of safety coal extraction, using control Blasting technique processed, by short-delay blasting the ore avalanche below controlled blasting layer, the ore for reserving 200 ~ 300mm protects top layer, To safeguard Stope safty.It is as follows:
(1)Spray painting hole placing
First determine explosion section, further according to immediate roof and ore body boundary line offset downward 200 ~ 300mm and by 400 ~ Then main armament is arranged in one row's controlled blasting hole 1 of spacing lateral arrangement of 600mm by controlled blasting line by the distance of 800 ~ 900mm Hole 2, main armament hole 2 are arranged that row's spacing 1000mm or so, 1200 ~ 1500mm of blasthole spacing are left perpendicular to rock drilling working face by vertical setting of types Right arrangement, as shown in Figure 1 to Figure 3.Design parameter can be determined according to live section situation;
(2)Rock drilling
By step(1)Position perforating determined by spray painting, each blast hole it is deep-controlled in 1800 ~ 2000mm.Wherein, it controls The open eye position of blast hole 1 processed allows to adjust along contour line, but its error is not greater than 5cm, big gun on design section contour line Eye direction should be mutually parallel, and offset error is no more than 5%;The depth in main armament hole 2 is preferably than controlled blasting hole depth 200mm, eye mouth row Away from, line-spacing error no more than 10cm;
(3)Powder charge and detonation network connecting mode
Main armament hole 2 uses continuous charging structure, carries out powder charge by the degree of packing of design, as shown in Figure 5.The present embodiment The degree of packing of main blast hole is 0.6kg/m.
Controlled blasting hole 1 is spaced loading structure, and the degree of packing in the controlled blasting hole of the present embodiment is left for 0.3kg/m It is right.Air-isolation column is formed between adjacent powder stick, shown in Fig. 4.Interval between adjacent powder stick is very crucial, has been spaced small up to not To the requirement of controlled blasting, propagation of explosion failure may be caused and can not ignite explosive below by being spaced big, it is therefore desirable to stringent control System.The present embodiment using powder charge bar come the accurate interval controlled in controlled blasting hole between adjacent explosive cartridge, in controlled blasting hole Powder charge process using powder charge bar is as follows:When filling first volume explosive, by powder charge bar top to the end, its aperture position is marked on powder charge bar It puts, makes marks on powder charge bar by the sum of explosive length and Air space length, volume Two explosive pushes to label with powder charge bar Place, the rest may be inferred for the push of remaining explosive cartridge.
When powder charge bar powder charge is used in main armament hole, each powder stick is pushed into successively by powder charge bar, pays attention to feeling latter Stop exerting oneself when a powder stick contacts previous powder stick, in order to avoid the susceptibility of explosive is reduced due to compacting, so as to influence bursting property.
After the completion of all blast hole projectile fillings, all blastholes are used into series winding side after each blasthole is blocked using stemming Formula carries out detonation networking:Each hole is connected using a detonator per artillery salvo hole, the cloth at the last one blasthole in every artillery salvo hole Put the elementary errors detonator of a detonator connection.The mode of each series hole connection is to ensure that all blastholes can detonate, to avoid because a Other blasthole is miss-fired the security risk brought;
(4)Detonation
By elementary errors detonator since the nearly scope of freedom longitudinal direction explosion main armament hole 2 by column, make 1 last time of controlled blasting hole Ignition is pressed downward ore deposit.
The ore shield top layer 4 of 200mm or so is left after explosion, top plate is smooth and leaves half blasthole eye trace, and broken ore is broken Broken, boulder yield is less.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production, using Controlled blasting technique, passes through short-delay blasting handle Ore avalanche below controlled blasting layer is reserved ore shield top layer, to safeguard Stope safty, is included the following steps:
(1)After determining explosion section, one row's controlled blasting hole of lateral arrangement below the boundary line of immediate roof and ore body is near, Several columns main armament hole is longitudinally arranged below controlled blasting hole;
(2)According to step(1)Determining hole position is punched, and the direction of each blast hole is made to be mutually parallel, the depth in main armament hole is big Depth in controlled blasting hole;
(3)To main armament hole spaced loading structure is pressed to controlled blasting hole by the degree of packing of design by continuous charging structure powder charge Powder charge;
(4)Blasthole is blocked after the completion of powder charge, detonation company is carried out using series system by detonator and elementary errors detonator Net;
(5)Since the main armament hole at the nearly scope of freedom, main armament hole is ignited by column by longitudinal direction, last guiding detonating controlling blast hole is pressed downward Ore deposit makes the ore left after explosion shield top bottom surface smooth and leaves half blasthole eye trace.
2. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The control 200 ~ 300mm that the position of blast hole is in below immediate roof and the boundary line of ore body locates, and adjacent controlled blasting hole presses 400 ~ The spacing arrangement of 600mm, the quick-fried layer thickness of light are 800 ~ 900mm.
3. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Adjacent row institute It is 900 ~ 1100mm to state the spacing between main armament hole, and it is 1200 ~ 1500mm often to arrange the spacing between the adjacent shot hole in main armament hole.
4. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The control The control of the hole depth in blast hole and main armament hole in 1800 ~ 2000mm, the depth deeper than the depth in controlled blasting hole 150 in main armament hole ~ 200mm。
5. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The control The open eye position of blast hole allows to make adjustment of the error no more than 5cm, each borehole along contour line on design section contour line Direction should be mutually parallel, and offset error is no more than 5%.
6. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The main armament The eye mouth array pitch in hole, line-spacing error are no more than 10cm.
7. the Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The control Blast hole and main blast hole use powder charge bar powder charge.
CN201710035123.2A 2017-01-18 2017-01-18 A kind of Roof Control blasting method of soft broken top plate ore body back production CN106767213B (en)

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CN108132005B (en) * 2017-12-07 2019-09-17 长春黄金研究院 A kind of method of short-delay blasting in medium-length hole upward hole
CN110170350A (en) * 2019-03-28 2019-08-27 太原钢铁(集团)有限公司 Improve the method that jaw crusher breaks mine efficiency
CN110173247A (en) * 2019-05-19 2019-08-27 中铁十九局集团矿业投资有限公司 A kind of Roof Control fracturing process of soft broken top plate ore body back production
CN110185447A (en) * 2019-05-19 2019-08-30 中铁十九局集团矿业投资有限公司 A kind of vertical well fracturing control top plate method of the soft broken hard ore body back production of top plate in deep
CN110530219A (en) * 2019-09-06 2019-12-03 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 A kind of control blasting method reducing loss and dilution

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CN1047362A (en) * 1989-05-19 1990-11-28 冶金工业部马鞍山矿山研究院 Freeing mineral method by horizontally and vertically alternative control of blasting
RU2472931C1 (en) * 2011-06-08 2013-01-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный горный университет" Control method of poorly caving roof at mining of gas-bearing formations in faces with mechanised complexes
CN104213918A (en) * 2014-08-06 2014-12-17 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Multilayer gently-inclined extremely-narrow vein stoping blasting technology
CN105626072A (en) * 2016-03-14 2016-06-01 林立荣 Metal mine transverse drift four-mining one-reserving retreat mining structure and method
CN104453899B (en) * 2014-11-06 2016-08-24 大同煤矿集团有限责任公司 Complex condition island working face safety coal extraction method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1047362A (en) * 1989-05-19 1990-11-28 冶金工业部马鞍山矿山研究院 Freeing mineral method by horizontally and vertically alternative control of blasting
RU2472931C1 (en) * 2011-06-08 2013-01-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный горный университет" Control method of poorly caving roof at mining of gas-bearing formations in faces with mechanised complexes
CN104213918A (en) * 2014-08-06 2014-12-17 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Multilayer gently-inclined extremely-narrow vein stoping blasting technology
CN104453899B (en) * 2014-11-06 2016-08-24 大同煤矿集团有限责任公司 Complex condition island working face safety coal extraction method
CN105626072A (en) * 2016-03-14 2016-06-01 林立荣 Metal mine transverse drift four-mining one-reserving retreat mining structure and method

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