CN106476646B - Electric automobile energy managing device - Google Patents

Electric automobile energy managing device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106476646B
CN106476646B CN201611039831.5A CN201611039831A CN106476646B CN 106476646 B CN106476646 B CN 106476646B CN 201611039831 A CN201611039831 A CN 201611039831A CN 106476646 B CN106476646 B CN 106476646B
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module
battery
single channel
battery pack
channel relay
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CN106476646A (en
Inventor
杨鹏
张冬颖
刘金枝
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Hebei University of Technology
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Hebei University of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/18Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries of two or more battery modules
    • B60L58/22Balancing the charge of battery modules
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/40Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries

Abstract

The present invention is that a kind of electric automobile energy manages system.The system composition include control main controller module, the first relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit, too can battery module, super-capacitor module and battery module;Wherein main controller module is connected with the first relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit respectively;First relay unit, solar battery group module, the second relay unit, super-capacitor module, third relay unit and battery module are sequentially connected;Main controller module is also connected with battery module.The present invention can preferably manage electric automobile energy system, improve the service efficiency of battery, increase the service life of lithium ion battery.

Description

Electric automobile energy managing device
Technical field:
The present invention relates to electric automobile energies to manage system regions, automatically controlled in particular for electric automobile power battery charge and discharge The research of system strategy and stack battery (generally two to three group batteries) switching application method.
Technical background:
Electric vehicle has low noise, efficiency of energy utilization height, without mobile exhaust gas row as a kind of new energy vehicles The features such as putting, it has also become one of the strategic emerging industries that China's emphasis is supported.Energy resource supply is in ev industry chain The development of important link, energy resource supply pattern and electric vehicle is closely related.The energy supply of current electric vehicle is mostly single Li-ion batteries piles provide, and managing device is only limitted to the detection of relatively simple voltage and current and to battery dump energy Estimation.This device cannot be to battery using the relatively reasonable scope of application is proposed, simultaneously because technique in cell fabrication processes Difference, internal cell is once damage monoblock battery occur cannot use, and cell damage replacement cost can be significantly Increase.A large amount of heat is will produce during during single battery pack use simultaneously, it is very unfavorable to be used for.
Invention content:
The technical problem to be solved in the invention is electric automobile energy management system, it is proposed that solar cell, super Quick charge between capacitance and lithium ion battery.And two groups of lithium ion batteries quick charge and grouping charging and discharging under alternating current Control strategy provides a kind of control system based on PIC single chip microcomputer, can detect vehicle-mounted lithium ion battery voltage, electric current It is realized on the basis of accurate measurement and on-vehicle battery capacity is relatively accurately calculated, and scientific and reasonable two groups are proposed according to result of calculation The switching of battery and occupation mode, to realize to the control of electric automobile whole energy resource system and cutting for rational battery pack It changes and uses control strategy.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is:
A kind of electric automobile energy management system;The system composition include control main controller module, the first relay unit, Second relay unit, third relay unit, solar battery group module, super-capacitor module and battery module;Wherein Main controller module is connected with the first relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit respectively;First relay Device unit, solar battery group module, the second relay unit, super-capacitor module, third relay unit and battery pack mould Block is sequentially connected;Main controller module is also connected with battery module;
First relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit include SRS4100 relays;
It is described too can battery module include solar panel;
Super-capacitor module is super capacitor;
The battery module is two groups of mutually independent master battery packs and battery backup;
The composition of the main controller module includes microcontroller.
The group of the main controller module becomes microcontroller, 2 groups of battery switch controllers, data-storing module, temperature control Module, display module, alarm module;The composition of every group of battery switch controller includes 1 battery voltage sensing module, 1 electricity Pond group handover module and 1 current detection module;Battery voltage sensing module, battery pack handover module, battery current detect mould Block, data-storing module, temperature control module, display module, alarm module are connected with the corresponding pin of microcontroller;Every group of battery is cut In changer controller, current detection module is connected with battery pack handover module and voltage detection module respectively, voltage detection module, electricity Pond group handover module is connected with master battery pack, battery backup respectively;Wherein, as the composition of charging end, one group of battery switching In controller, battery voltage sensing module, battery current detection module are connected with charge controller module respectively, charge controller Module is also connected with master battery pack, battery backup respectively;And as the composition of equipment end, another group of battery switch controller In, battery voltage sensing module, battery current detection module are connected with electrical equipment respectively, electrical equipment also respectively with main battery Group, battery backup are connected.
The current detection module group becomes the first chip, resistance R7, resistance R9, the first sampling resistor * 3;First core The RG1 pins of piece are connected with one end of resistance R7, and the other end of resistance R7 is connected with the first sampling resistor, the RG2 of the first chip Pin is connected with resistance R9, and the other end of resistance R9 is connected with 3 other ends of the first sampling resistor *, the first sampling resistor it is another End also connect respectively with 1 end of the first single channel relay of battery pack handover module, 1 end of the 4th single channel relay, voltage examine The resistance R1 for surveying module is connected, and the GND pin of the first chip is connected ground connection with SHDN pins;The OUT pins of first chip with The RA2 pins of microcontroller are connected;
The voltage detection module group become divider resistance R1, R2, specific connection type be resistance R1 respectively with battery Group handover module the first single channel relay 1 end connection, third single channel relay 1 end be connected, resistance R1 also respectively with electricity Flow the first sampling resistor resistance of detection module, resistance R9 is connected, the R1 other ends respectively with resistance R2, the RA1 pins of microcontroller It is connected, the other end ground connection of resistance R2;
Battery pack handover module group becomes the first single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the first NPN type triode, the Three NPN type triodes, the first diode, third diode, resistance R6, resistance R14;Specific connection type is the first NPN type three Pole pipe ground level is connected with resistance R6, and resistance R6 is connected with the RB4 pins of main controller module, the first NPN type triode emitter Ground connection, the first NPN type triode collector are connected with 5 ends of the first single channel relay, 4 ends and 5 ends of the first single channel relay The first diode IN1 is met, 1 end of the first single channel relay connects with the first sampling resistor of current detection module, resistance R9 respectively It connects, 1 end of the first single channel relay is also connected with the resistance R1 with voltage detection module;2 ends of the first single channel relay and master Battery anode is connected, the third at 2 ends of the first single channel relay and battery handover module in another group of battery switch controller 2 ends of single channel relay connect;Third NPN type triode ground level is connected with resistance R14, resistance R14 and main controller module RB5 pins are connected, third NPN type triode emitter ground connection, third NPN type triode collector and the 4th single channel relay 5 ends are connected, and 4 ends of the 4th single channel relay and 5 termination third diodes, 1 end of the 4th single channel relay are examined with electric current respectively Survey the first sampling resistor of module, resistance R9 is connected, 1 end of the 4th single channel relay also with the resistance R1 phases of voltage detection module Even;2 ends of the 4th single channel relay are connected with battery backup anode;2 ends of the 4th single channel relay and another group of battery The 2 ends connection of second single channel relay of battery handover module in switch controller.
The control method of the electric automobile energy managing device, including electric vehicle run when discharge control method and Charge control method both of which after electric vehicle is flame-out:
Pattern one, discharge control method when electric vehicle is run, includes the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, main controller module are obtained detection by current detection module, voltage detection module Voltage, current data are passed to microcontroller, by calculating, when system judges remaining capacity in 10%-90%, and microcontroller control the Three single channel relays are connected, and the first single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, battery module In master battery pack it is in running order, battery backup is in off position;Persistently use master battery pack, and periodic sampling Main battery voltage, current signal estimate its remaining capacity;When main controller module detects that master battery pack remaining capacity is less than 10%, battery backup remaining capacity enters step 2 in 10%-90%;
Step 2, the second single channel relay conducting in microcontroller control battery pack handover module, the first single channel relay, Third single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay disconnect, and to cut off master battery pack, enable battery backup;Battery backup In running order, master battery pack is in off position;Persistently use battery backup, and periodic sampling master battery pack electricity Pressure, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When main controller module detects that master battery pack remaining capacity is less than 10% and spare When battery pack remaining capacity is less than 10%, 3 are entered step;
Step 3, microcontroller is by controlling the first single channel relay of battery pack handover module, third single channel relay, the Four single channel relays, the second single channel relay disconnect, master battery pack, spare to cut off master battery pack, battery backup link Battery pack is stopped.
Alternatively, pattern two, charge control method after electric vehicle is flame-out, include the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, main controller module will be detected by detecting current detection module, voltage detection module Voltage, current data be passed to microcontroller, if the system determine that its remaining capacity is in 10%-90%, microcontroller controls battery pack The first single channel relay processed of handover module is connected, and third single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the second single channel relay are disconnected It opens, master battery pack 31 is in charged state, and battery backup is in off position.It persistently charges to master battery pack, and the period Main battery voltage, current signal are sampled, estimates its remaining capacity;When system detectio master battery pack remaining capacity be more than 90%, Battery backup carrying capacity enters step 2 in 10%-90%;
Step 2, the 4th single channel relay conducting of microcontroller control battery pack handover module, the first single channel relay, the Three single channel relays, the second single channel relay disconnect, and battery backup is in charged state, and master battery pack is in the shape that do not work State;It persistently charges to battery backup, and periodic sampling battery backup voltage, current signal, estimates its remaining capacity;Work as inspection Detection master battery pack remaining capacity is measured more than 90% and when detection battery backup remaining capacity is more than 90%, enters step 3;
Step 3, the first single channel relay in microcontroller control battery pack handover module, third single channel relay, the 4th Single channel relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, and master battery pack, battery backup automatic charging are completed.
Beneficial effects of the present invention are:
The present invention provides a kind of electric automobile energy managing device, devises solar cell, super capacitor and lithium ion Quick charge and two groups of lithium ion batteries quick charge and grouping charging and discharging control strategy under alternating current between battery, i.e., " one It is standby with one " control thought, preferably manage electric automobile energy system.The service efficiency for improving battery, preferably increases The service life of lithium ion battery.Specially:
1. the present invention proposes the energy management apparatus that one kind " the using and the reserved " master battery pack and battery backup are used cooperatively, The present invention proposes master battery pack and battery backup reasonably switches use scope, controls the switching use scope of two battery packs Between the 10%-90% of its capacity, a large amount of experimental data shows battery during charging use, and capacity is below 10% After rising to 90%, the electricity that can be charged into battery is very limited.When battery capacity is low during battery discharge use After 10%, capacity can also decline rapidly.In addition setting switching condition is also possible to prevent two groups of over-charging of battery overdischarge pair The damage of battery pack reduces the extent of deterioration of every group of battery, greatly increases its service life.Therefore we use in two groups of batteries Its use scope is controlled in the process between 10%-90%.
2. the present invention first uses main battery in use in two groups of batteries, it is then switched to battery backup, two groups Circulating battery is alternately used cooperatively.Master battery pack is first filled when charging, is charged to state-of-charge 90% and is stopped charging, switches to spare Battery pack continues to charge, and charges to state-of-charge 90% and stops charging, charging terminates.Master battery pack, electric discharge are first used when electric discharge To state-of-charge 10%, battery backup electric discharge is switched to, state-of-charge 10% is discharged to and stops electric discharge, electric discharge terminates.At this Battery is made under energy management apparatus and is switched fast experiment, and master battery pack switches intermittent discharge curve and only uses master battery pack group Continuous discharge curve comparison (such as Fig. 6), as can be seen from the figure master battery pack in handoff procedure voltage step rise, battery energy Amount also rises therewith, thus it is seen that the switching of two groups of batteries using process with energy recovery process, master battery pack and spare Battery pack switching use realizes 1+1>2 effect.
3. two groups of batteries, which are used cooperatively, can significantly improve its service efficiency.Its service efficiency is several according to according to from stack battery Switching is obtained using charge-discharge test.It can be obtained from 5 battery availability factor of schematic diagram.90% service efficiency refers specifically to master battery pack It charges to the electric discharge of capacity 30% or so to use, so on circulate.In practical application, master battery pack, which charges to 90% electric discharge, to be made With so on circulate.Service efficiency is 68% or so.Directly 90% is charged to using one group of battery put a use, it is so past Multiple cycle.Service efficiency is 60% or so.Service efficiency improves 8% or so.Battery backup service efficiency and master battery pack Service efficiency is close.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is that electric automobile energy manages system main assembly block diagram;
Fig. 2 is the 11 specific connection figure in periphery of main controller module;
Fig. 3 is that the battery of energy management system proposed by the present invention switches process for using figure;
Fig. 4 is the connection figure of two groups of battery switch controllers;
Fig. 5 is battery pack service efficiency figure;
Fig. 6 is battery pack continuous use and discontinuously uses electric discharge figure.
Specific implementation mode
Fig. 1 is that electric automobile energy manages system main assembly block diagram.The system composition include control main controller module 11, First relay unit 12, the second relay unit 13, third relay unit 14, too can battery module 15, super capacitor Module 16 and battery module 17;Wherein main controller module 11 respectively with the first relay unit 12, the second relay unit 13, third relay unit 14 is connected;First relay unit 12, solar battery group module 15, the second relay unit 13, super-capacitor module 16, third relay unit 14 and battery module 17 are sequentially connected.Main controller module 11 also with electricity Pond group module 17 is connected for detecting and switching battery pack.
Relay Unit 12,13,14 is that SRS4100 relays and its driving circuit form, and is known technology.
It is described too can battery module 15, composition includes solar panel and attached charging unit, known in commercially available Product.
Super-capacitor module 16 is super capacitor, the specially super capacitor of model spsscap, is commercially available known products.
When automobile is in halted state, equipment end is stopped, and master controller 11 detects voltage detection module 21, electric current 23 information of detection module.When meeting rechargeable solar battery condition, main controller module 11 controls the first relay unit 12 Connect solar panel power generation;Master controller 11 controls the second relay unit 13 and connects simultaneously, and solar cell is to super Capacitor charging;When master controller 11 uses number according to the battery discharge end that voltage detection module 21, current detection module 23 provide According to being judged, if you need to charge, connects 14 super capacitor of third relay unit and charge to battery pack.
The battery module 17 is that two groups of mutually independent master battery packs 31 and battery backup 32 form;
The composition of the main controller module 11 includes pic16f877 microcontrollers and peripheral circuit composition (microcontroller Relevant pins be directly connected respectively with the first relay unit 12, the second relay unit 13, third relay unit 14 Connect), as shown in Fig. 2, it includes microcontroller, 2 groups of battery switch controllers, data-storing module 24, temperature control module 25, display mould Block 26, alarm module 27;The composition of every group of battery switch controller includes 1 battery voltage sensing module, 21,1 battery packs Handover module 22 and 1 current detection module 23;Battery voltage sensing module 21, battery pack handover module 22, battery current inspection Module 23, data-storing module 24, temperature control module 25, display module 26, alarm module 27 are surveyed with the corresponding pin of microcontroller It is connected, has drawn the wiring of voltage detection module and microcontroller;In every group of battery switch controller, current detection module 23 is distinguished Be connected with battery pack handover module 22 and voltage detection module 21, voltage detection module 21, battery pack handover module 22 respectively with Master battery pack 31, battery backup 32 are connected;Wherein, as the composition of charging end, in one group of battery switch controller, battery electricity Pressure detection module 21, battery current detection module 23 are connected with charge controller module 41 respectively, as charging external equipment Charge controller module 41 is also connected with 220V alternating currents, master battery pack 31, battery backup 32 respectively;And as equipment end It forms, in another group of battery switch controller, battery voltage sensing module 21, battery current detection module 23 are set with electricity consumption respectively Standby to be connected, electrical equipment is also connected with master battery pack 31, battery backup 32 respectively.
In use, for different situations, switching charging is used and discharged to be used battery module 17.It, will such as Fig. 2 Charging using being partly summarized as charging end, will electric discharge using being partly summarized as equipment end.In charging end, main controller module 11 divides It is not connected with voltage detection module 21, current detection module 23, battery pack handover module 22.For by voltage, current signal Main controller module 11 is inputted, control instruction is sent to battery pack handover module 22 by 11 module of master controller.Similarly in equipment End, main controller module 11 are connected with voltage detection module 21, current detection module 23, battery pack handover module 22 respectively. For voltage, current signal to be inputted main controller module 11, control instruction is sent to battery pack and cut by 11 module of master controller Change the mold block 22.To realize main controller module 11 to battery module 17 in the control that 220v is commercial power charged and discharges when using And display, and discharge electrical equipment and control and show when using.
The charge controller 41 is commercially available well-known device, model GDY294020.
When running state of electric motor car is using wherein master battery pack 31, main controller module 11 passes through 23 electricity of current detection module Pressure detection module 21 monitors this group of battery voltage electric current in real time, and estimates its remaining capacity.When detecting that this group of battery be not inconsistent When closing use condition, master controller sends out instruction control battery handover module 22 and disconnects battery pack 31, while it is next to switch enabling Battery pack 32.When electric vehicle is in halted state, main controller module 11 detects and estimates 31 state-of-charge of battery pack, when Main controller module 11 controls 22 connection of battery handover module and starts to charge to battery pack 31 when meeting charge condition, while prison in real time 31 voltage and current of battery pack, charging time are surveyed, stops charging, main controller module when detection battery pack meets full of condition 11 control battery handover modules 22 switch to next battery pack, continue to charge.Until two groups of fully charged electricity of battery.Master controller Module 11 sends out control instruction and stops charging.
Microcontroller in main controller module 11 also respectively with data-storing module 24, temperature control module 25, display module 26, Alarm module 27 is connected.It is stored for the data to two groups of batteries, temperature detection and battery status show and alarm.The number It is commercially available known products according to memory module 24, temperature control module 25,26 alarm module 27 of display module.
Fig. 3 is that the battery of energy management system proposed by the present invention switches process for using figure, is specifically comprised the following steps:
Initialization is carried out after system electrification first determines whether battery then executes into charged state if started to charge up Charging time of start recording battery pack, charging current, battery both ends voltage, will record data transfer to main program, call Soc estimation programs estimate battery pack remaining capacity.Judge whether current battery is up to standard, if without up to standard, enters charging State opens charging power mode.Next battery pack can be switched to if up to standard, until two pieces of batteries complete charging.Such as Fruit does not enter into charged state, then system judges whether battery into discharge condition executes start recording if starting to discharge The battery power discharge time, discharge current, battery both ends voltage, and will record data transfer to main program, call soc to estimate journey Sequence estimates battery pack remaining capacity.Judge whether current battery is up to standard, if without up to standard, enter discharge condition, open Open discharge mode.Next battery pack can be switched to if up to standard, until two pieces of battery power discharges terminate.
Fig. 4 be two groups of battery switch controllers connection figure, i.e., battery pack handover module 22, voltage detection module 21 and 23 circuit diagram of current detection module.
Wherein 23 groups of current detection module becomes:In charging end, the first chip * 6, resistance R7, resistance R9, the first sampling electricity * 3 composition of resistance, the RG1 pins of the first chip * 6 are connected with one end of resistance R7, the other end of resistance R7 and the first sampling resistor * 3 It is connected, the RG2 pins of the first chip * 6 are connected with resistance R9, the other end of resistance R9 and 3 other end phases of the first sampling resistor * Even, the other end of the first sampling resistor * 3 also connect respectively with 1 end of the first single channel relay * 1 of battery pack handover module 22, 1 end of 4th single channel relay * 10, the resistance R1 of voltage detection module 23 are connected, the GND pin and SHDN of the first chip * 6 Pin, which is connected, to be grounded;The OUT pins of first chip * 6 are connected with the RA2 pins of microcontroller.First chip * 6 is MAX472 and phase Powered-down resistance is commercial devices.Current signal is acquired by the first sampling resistor * 3 and the first chip * 6 cooperations when a system is powered up, The current signal of acquisition is sent to main controller module 11 by OUT pins.Similarly in equipment end, 23 groups of current detection module At same with charging end.
21 groups of voltage detection module becomes:In charging end, divider resistance R1, R2 composition, specific connection type is resistance R1 Connect respectively with 1 end of the first single channel relay * 1 of battery pack handover module 22,1 end of third single channel relay * 2 be connected, Resistance R1 is also connected with the first sampling resistor resistance * 3, the resistance R9 of current detection module 23 respectively, the R1 other ends respectively with electricity Hinder R2, the RA1 pins of microcontroller are connected, the other end ground connection of resistance R2.R1 resistance values are 5.1k Ω, R2 resistance values are 10k Ω.Together Reason is identical as charging end in equipment end voltage detection module 23.The resistance is commercial devices.(R1,2 meet U1, and U1 is voltage inspection Survey the interface of the external microcontroller of module).
22 groups of battery pack handover module becomes in charging end, the first single channel relay * 1, the 4th single channel relay * 10, the One NPN type triode * 7, third NPN type triode * 12, the first diode IN 1, third diode IN3, resistance R6, resistance R14, specific connection type are as described below, and 7 ground levels of the first NPN type triode * are connected with resistance R6, resistance R6 and master controller mould The RB4 pins of block 11 are connected, 7 emitters of the first NPN type triode * ground connection, 7 collectors of the first NPN type triode * and the first list 5 ends of road relay * 1 are connected, 4 ends of the first single channel relay * 1 and 5 the first diode IN1, the first single channel relay * of termination 11 end is connect with the first sampling resistor * 3, the resistance R9 of current detection module 23 respectively, and 1 end of the first single channel relay * 1 is also It is connected with the resistance R1 with voltage detection module 21.2 ends of first single channel relay * 1 are connected with 31 anode of master battery pack, and first 2 ends of single channel relay * 1 and 2 of the third single channel relay * 2 of battery handover module 22 in another group of battery switch controller End connection.12 ground levels of third NPN type triode * are connected with resistance R14, the RB5 pin phases of resistance R14 and main controller module 11 Even, 12 emitters of third NPN type triode * ground connection, 12 collectors of third NPN type triode * and the 4th single channel relay *'s 10 5 ends are connected, the 1 end difference at 4 ends of the 4th single channel relay * 10 and 5 termination third diode IN3, the 4th single channel relay * 10 It is connected with the first sampling resistor * 3, the resistance R9 of current detection module 23,1 end of the 4th single channel relay * 10 is also examined with voltage The resistance R1 for surveying module 21 is connected.2 ends of 4th single channel relay * 10 are connected with 32 anode of battery backup.4th single channel 2 ends at 2 ends of relay * 10 and the second single channel relay * 11 of battery handover module 22 in another group of battery switch controller Connection.Similarly, it is formed with charging end in equipment end battery pack handover module 22 essentially identical.
This part of by the agency of has been to battery pack commercial power charged to device other parts working condition in fig. 1 and 2 The introduction of switch instances and the lower battery pack switching service condition of vehicle operation.Whole device advantage:It is proposed a kind of electric vehicle energy Management system plans as a whole solar panel super capacitor and battery operation, especially control its charging process and The electric discharge of accumulator group the using and the reserved uses process.
The control method of the electric automobile energy managing device, including electric vehicle run when discharge control method and Charge control method both of which after electric vehicle is flame-out (the switching service condition of accumulator does not do independent explanation):
After electric automobile is lighted a fire, system electrification, main controller module 11 passes through 21 pieces of battery voltage detection mould and electricity Pond current detection module 23 acquires the voltage value and discharge current of currently used battery pack according to certain sampling period, if electric Pond group voltage is down to rated voltage or less, then sends out sound-light alarm by alarm module 27, while in the screen of display module 26 The upper relevant information of display, while battery module 17 is adjusted, it closes and works as master battery pack 31, open battery backup 32, maintain Electric vehicle runs well.Specifically switching mode is:
Pattern one, discharge control method when electric vehicle is run, includes the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, main controller module 11 will be detected by current detection module 21, voltage detection module 22 Obtained voltage and current data are passed to microcontroller, by calculating, when system judges remaining capacity in 10%-90%, and microcontroller It controls third single channel relay * 2 to be connected, the first single channel relay * 1, the 4th single channel relay * 10, the second single channel relay * 11 It disconnects, the master battery pack 31 in battery module 17 is in running order, and battery backup 32 is in off position;Persistently make With master battery pack 31, and 31 voltage of periodic sampling master battery pack, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;Work as main controller module 11 detect that 31 remaining capacity of master battery pack is less than 10%, and 32 remaining capacity of battery backup is entered step in 10%-90% 2;
Step 2, the second single channel relay * 11 conductings in microcontroller control battery pack handover module, the first single channel relay Device * 1, third single channel relay * 2, the 4th single channel relay * 10 are disconnected, and to cut off master battery pack 31, enable battery backup 32;Battery backup 32 is in running order, and master battery pack 31 is in off position;Battery backup 32 is persistently used, and 32 voltage of periodic sampling battery backup, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When main controller module 11 detects standby battery 31 remaining capacities of group enter step 3 less than 10% and when 32 remaining capacity of battery backup is less than 10%;
Step 3, the first single channel relay * 1, the third single channel relay * of microcontroller control control battery pack handover module 2, the 4th single channel relay * 10, the second single channel relay * 11 are disconnected, to cut off master battery pack 31,32 chain of battery backup It connects, master battery pack 31, battery backup 32 are stopped.
After electric vehicle is flame-out, master controller 11 detects whether that city is electrically accessed and charges for battery module 17.If not yet Have, detect whether to meet rechargeable solar battery condition, if meeting, main controller controls 11 control the first relay unit 12 Solar panel is connected to start to generate electricity;Simultaneously master controller 11 control the second relay unit 13 connect, solar cell to Super capacitor charges;When master controller 11 makes according to the battery discharge end that voltage detection module 21, current detection module 23 provide Judged with data, if you need to charge, connects 14 super capacitor of third relay unit and charge to battery pack.Until battery pack is filled Electricity is completed.Main controller module 11 controls the first relay unit 12, the second relay unit if detection detection city is electrically accessed 13, third relay unit 14 disconnects, while controlling battery pack handover module 22 and carrying out commercial power charged control to battery pack 17.
17 specific charging process of battery module is as follows:
Alternatively, pattern two, charge control method after electric vehicle is flame-out, include the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, main controller module 11 survey 21 voltage detection module 22 of module by detection by detecting electric current The voltage and current data arrived are passed to microcontroller, if the system determine that its remaining capacity, in 10%-90%, microcontroller controls battery pack Handover module 22 first single channel relay * 1 processed conductings, third single channel relay * 2, the 4th single channel relay * 10, the second single channel Relay * 11 is disconnected, and master battery pack 31 is in charged state, and battery backup 32 is in off position.Persistently to main battery 31 charging of group, and 31 voltage of periodic sampling master battery pack, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When system detectio master battery pack 31 remaining capacities are more than 90%, and 32 remaining capacity of battery backup enters step 2 in 10%-90%;
Step 2, the 4th single channel relay * 10 conductings of microcontroller control battery pack handover module 22, the first single channel relay Device * 1, third single channel relay * 2, the second single channel relay * 11 are disconnected, and battery backup 32 is in charged state, master battery pack 31 are in off position;It persistently charges to battery pack 32, and 32 voltage of periodic sampling master battery pack, current signal, estimates it Remaining capacity;It is more than when detecting that detection 31 remaining capacity of master battery pack is more than 90% and detects 32 remaining capacity of battery backup When 90%, 3 are entered step;
Step 3, the first single channel relay * 1, the third single channel relay * in microcontroller control battery pack handover module 22 2, the 4th single channel relay * 10, the second single channel relay * 11 are disconnected, and master battery pack 31,32 automatic charging of battery backup are complete At.
Fig. 6 is 31 service efficiency figure of master battery pack, capacity (energy) that service efficiency is released during being battery discharging with It is restored to the ratio between charging capacity (energy) needed for the state before electric discharge, service efficiency calculates as follows:
Its ηeFor energy efficiency, CfDischarge capacity, CCFor charging capacity, IfFor discharge current, VfFor discharge voltage, IcTo fill Electric current, VcFor charging voltage.
Service efficiency can effectively indicate ability to accept of the power battery pack to charging current, and electric energy when charging is mainly used Other irreversible losses such as thermal energy discharged in the chemical energy and charging process for being converted into battery.Service efficiency is higher, The part that the electric energy of expression charging is converted into battery chemistries energy is more, this portion of energy is only the energy being utilized in discharge process Amount.Master battery pack 31 is being measured in its SOC 20%, 30%, 40%, 60%, 70%, 80% using two groups of battery switching methods When state point, service efficiency is as shown in Figure 6.Its service efficiency has apparent improvement.
Unaccomplished matter of the present invention is known technology.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of electric automobile energy manages system, it is characterized in that system composition includes main controller module, the first relay Unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit, too can battery module, super-capacitor module and battery module;Its Middle main controller module is connected with the first relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit respectively;First after Electric appliance unit, solar battery group module, the second relay unit, super-capacitor module, third relay unit and battery pack Module is sequentially connected;Main controller module is also connect with battery module;
First relay unit, the second relay unit, third relay unit include SRS4100 relays;
It is described too can battery module include solar panel;
Super-capacitor module is super capacitor;
The battery module is two groups of mutually independent master battery packs and battery backup;
The composition of the main controller module includes microcontroller;
The group of the main controller module become microcontroller, 2 groups of battery switch controllers, data-storing module, temperature control module, Display module, alarm module;The composition of every group of battery switch controller is cut including 1 battery voltage sensing module, 1 battery pack Change the mold block and 1 current detection module;Battery voltage sensing module, battery pack handover module, battery current detection module, data Storage module, temperature control module, display module, alarm module are connected with the corresponding pin of microcontroller;Every group of battery switching control In device, current detection module is connected with battery pack handover module and voltage detection module respectively, and voltage detection module, battery pack are cut Mold changing block is connected with master battery pack, battery backup respectively;Wherein, as the composition of charging end, one group of battery switch controller In, battery voltage sensing module, battery current detection module are connected with charge controller module respectively, and charge controller module is also It is connected respectively with master battery pack, battery backup;And as the composition of equipment end, in another group of battery switch controller, battery Voltage detection module, battery current detection module are connected with electrical equipment respectively, electrical equipment also respectively with master battery pack, spare Battery pack is connected.
2. electric automobile energy as described in claim 1 manages system, the current detection module group described in feature becomes the One chip, resistance R7, resistance R9, the first sampling resistor;The RG1 pins of first chip are connected with one end of resistance R7, resistance R7 The other end be connected with the first sampling resistor, the RG2 pins of the first chip are connected with resistance R9, the other end of resistance R9 and first The sampling resistor other end is connected, the other end of the first sampling resistor also respectively with the first single channel relay of battery pack handover module 1 end, 1 end of the 4th single channel relay, the resistance R1 of voltage detection module be connected, the GND pin and SHDN of the first chip Pin, which is connected, to be grounded;The OUT pins of first chip are connected with the RA2 pins of microcontroller;
The voltage detection module group becomes divider resistance R1, R2, and specific connection type is that resistance R1 is cut with battery pack respectively 1 end of the connection of 1 end, third single channel relay that change the mold the first single channel relay of block is connected, and resistance R1 is also examined with electric current respectively The first sampling resistor, the resistance R9 for surveying module are connected, and the R1 other ends are connected with the RA1 pins of resistance R2, microcontroller respectively, electricity Hinder the other end ground connection of R2;
Battery pack handover module group becomes the first single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the first NPN type triode, the 3rd NPN Type triode, the first diode, third diode, resistance R6, resistance R14;Specific connection type is the first NPN type triode base Grade is connected with resistance R6, and resistance R6 is connected with the RB4 pins of main controller module, the first NPN type triode emitter ground connection, the One NPN type triode collector is connected with 5 ends of the first single channel relay, 4 ends of the first single channel relay and 5 terminations the one or two 1 end of pole pipe IN1, the first single channel relay are connect with the first sampling resistor of current detection module, resistance R9 respectively, and first is single 1 end of road relay is also connected with the resistance R1 with voltage detection module;2 ends of the first single channel relay and master battery pack anode It is connected, the third single channel relay at 2 ends of the first single channel relay and battery handover module in another group of battery switch controller 2 ends connection;Third NPN type triode ground level is connected with resistance R14, the RB5 pin phases of resistance R14 and main controller module Even, third NPN type triode emitter ground connection, third NPN type triode collector are connected with 5 ends of the 4th single channel relay, 4 ends of the 4th single channel relay and 5 termination third diodes, 1 end of the 4th single channel relay respectively with current detection module First sampling resistor, resistance R9 are connected, and 1 end of the 4th single channel relay is also connected with the resistance R1 of voltage detection module;4th 2 ends of single channel relay are connected with battery backup anode;2 ends of the 4th single channel relay and another group of battery switching control The 2 ends connection of second single channel relay of battery handover module in device.
3. the control method of electric automobile energy management system as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that being transported including electric vehicle Charge control method both of which after discharge control method and electric vehicle are flame-out when row:
Pattern one, discharge control method when electric vehicle is run, includes the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, the voltage that main controller module is obtained detection by current detection module, voltage detection module Current data is passed to microcontroller, and by calculating, when system judges remaining capacity in 10%-90%, microcontroller controls third list Road relay conducting, the first single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, in battery module Master battery pack is in running order, and battery backup is in off position;Persistently use master battery pack, and the main electricity of periodic sampling Pond group voltage, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When main controller module detects that master battery pack remaining capacity is less than 10%, battery backup remaining capacity enters step 2 in 10%-90%;
Step 2, the second single channel relay conducting in microcontroller control battery pack handover module, the first single channel relay, third Single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay disconnect, and to cut off master battery pack, enable battery backup;Battery backup is in Working condition, master battery pack are in off position;Persistently use battery backup, and periodic sampling battery backup voltage, Current signal estimates its remaining capacity;When main controller module detects that master battery pack remaining capacity is less than 10% and standby electricity When pond group remaining capacity is less than 10%, 3 are entered step;
Step 3, the first single channel relay of microcontroller control control battery pack handover module, third single channel relay, the 4th list Road relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, to cut off master battery pack, battery backup link, master battery pack, reserve battery Group is stopped;
Alternatively, pattern two, charge control method after electric vehicle is flame-out, include the following steps:
Step 1, system electrification, main controller module survey module voltage detection module by the voltage detected electricity by detecting electric current Flow data is passed to microcontroller, if the system determine that its remaining capacity is in 10%-90%, microcontroller controls battery pack handover module the One single channel relay conducting processed, third single channel relay, the 4th single channel relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, master battery pack In charged state, battery backup is in off position, persistently charges to master battery pack, and periodic sampling master battery pack electricity Pressure, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When system detectio master battery pack remaining capacity is more than 90%, battery backup is charged Amount enters step 2 in 10%-90%;
Step 2, the 4th single channel relay conducting of microcontroller control battery pack handover module, the first single channel relay, third list Road relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, and battery backup is in charged state, and master battery pack is in off position;It holds It is continuous to charge to battery backup, and periodic sampling main battery voltage, current signal, estimate its remaining capacity;When detecting Master battery pack carrying capacity is surveyed more than 90% and when detection battery backup carrying capacity is more than 90%, enters step 3;
Step 3, the first single channel relay in microcontroller control battery pack handover module, third single channel relay, the 4th single channel Relay, the second single channel relay disconnect, and master battery pack, battery backup automatic charging are completed.
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