CN102231546B - Battery management system with balanced charge and discharge functions and control method thereof - Google Patents

Battery management system with balanced charge and discharge functions and control method thereof Download PDF

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CN102231546B
CN102231546B CN 201110181014 CN201110181014A CN102231546B CN 102231546 B CN102231546 B CN 102231546B CN 201110181014 CN201110181014 CN 201110181014 CN 201110181014 A CN201110181014 A CN 201110181014A CN 102231546 B CN102231546 B CN 102231546B
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battery
relay
management
discharge
module
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CN 201110181014
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CN102231546A (en
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王和平
阮浩
张昌青
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武汉市菱电汽车电子有限责任公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a battery management system with balanced charge and discharge functions and a control method thereof, relating to a battery management system of a dynamic battery pack. The battery management system is structurally characterized in that a central processing unit (CPU) control unit is connected with a battery and relay set so as to detect the working condition of the battery and relay set; the CPU control unit and a balanced discharge module are successively connected with the battery and relay set so as to control the balanced discharge of the battery and the relay set; the CPU control unit, a balanced charge module and the battery and the relay set are successively connected so as to control the balanced charge of the battery and relay set; and a super-capacitor is connected with the balanced discharge module so as to store the discharge energy of the battery and relay set for supplying power for the battery management system. The battery management system can be widely applied to management of various battery packs such as a lead-acid battery, a lithium battery, a nickel-metal hydride battery and the like, supports the expansion of a lower computer, and can conveniently detect and monitor the conditions of multiple batteries.

Description

Battery management system and control method thereof with balance charge/discharge function
Technical field
The present invention relates to the battery management system of power battery pack, relate in particular to a kind of battery management system and control method thereof with balance charge/discharge function.
Background technology
Along with attention and the investment of national governments and car enterprise to the electric automobile project, the car manufactures that some are big and battery supplier have been done big quantity research and test at various electrokinetic cells, and successfully develop relevant battery management system.
One, abroad, the research of electric automobile power battery and administrative skill thereof relatively early.More representational have:
1, the battery management system on the electric automobile EV of General Motors Overseas Corporation's research and development; this system is made up of battery module, battery pack heat management module, battery pack high pressure power-off protection apparatus (High Voltage Disconnect) and software BPM (Battery Pack Module), and wherein BPM realizes battery voltage current acquisition, electric weight or functions such as mileage calculating, overdischarge warning.
2, the battery management system of the BatOpt of U.S. ACPropulsion company exploitation is made up of a plurality of single battery monitoring modules and a central control unit, be built into the system of a distributed frame, by the transmission of twowire bus realization battery information, central control unit can provide manually tactful with automatic charging according to single battery information.The SmartGuard system of U.S. Aerovironment company exploitation is equipped with a distributed management devices (application-specific integrated circuit) at battery, can detect single battery voltage and temperature, carry out battery information historical record and filing, dump energy information of the poorest cell etc. is provided.
Two, at home, the research of cell management system of electric automobile aspect still is in the starting stage.Mainly be that some colleges and universities' big car manufactures and battery supplier of associating conduct a research jointly, and obtained certain achievement:
1, Tsing-Hua University is the supporting battery management system of EV-6580 type electric motor coach, can in vehicle traveling process, monitor in real time parameters such as battery set charge/discharge voltage, electric currents, prevent from overcharging, cross and put, improve battery useful life and efficient, also developed the charging system that matches with this system simultaneously.
2, the nickel-hydrogen battery management system major function of BJ University of Aeronautics ﹠ Astronautics's development has: the collection of battery voltage, electric current and temperature and storage, SOC estimation, running status judgement and battery charging and discharging defencive function etc.
3, the lithium ion battery management system major function of Beijing star constant cells Co., Ltd and Tongji University cooperative development has: the collection of battery current, voltage and temperature, SOC estimation, accident treatment and record, charge balancing etc.; The lithium-ion-power cell management system of Shenzhen Lei Tian company research and development is made up of with temperature collect module and communication interface modules management host (CPU), electric current and voltage.Can detect and show total voltage, the total current of battery pack, the temperature of battery case, limiting cases such as battery overvoltage, under-voltage, excess temperature, low temperature, overcurrent, short circuit are reported to the police and controlled output, RS232 and CAN bus interface etc. are provided.
Battery management system to the safe operation of electric automobile whole, integrated vehicle control tactics select, selection and the operation cost of charge mode have very big influence.No matter in the vehicle operating process or in charging process, battery management system all will be finished real-time monitoring and the failure diagnosis of battery status, and inform entire car controller or charger by the mode of bus, in order to adopt rational control strategy, reach the purpose of effectively and efficiently using battery.
Existing battery management system has multiple topological connectivity scenario, wherein adopts scheme such as Fig. 1 of relay group.This system is made up of battery and relay group 100, CPU control unit 200, balanced discharge module 300 and discharge resistance 400; Battery is connected with relay group 100 closed loop successively with relay group 100, CPU control unit 200, balanced discharge module 300 and battery, and balanced discharge module 300 is connected with discharge resistance 400.Its operation principle is: by the relay closes of CPU control unit 200 selection respective channel, and sampling monomer whose battery voltage value, and select the higher cell of voltage to discharge resistance 400 discharges, play the equalization discharge effect.Because power battery pack 101 is to be composed in series by a plurality of cells, because factors such as manufacturing process make battery behavior impossible in full accord, the monomer whose battery capacity has the cell above and below average size simultaneously by normal distribution.As it is all adopted equalization discharge, time for balance is longer.Because adopt conductive discharge, energy content of battery utilization ratio is not high, caloric value is big.In addition, SOC (battery charge state) value of whole Battery pack depends on that piece cell that the SOC value is minimum, and that piece battery that minimum piece cell of SOC value is full of at first often and has put at first, the therefore simple SOC value that adopts the equalization discharge pattern to be difficult to improve whole Battery pack.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention just is to overcome the shortcoming and defect that prior art exists, and a kind of battery management system and control method thereof with balance charge/discharge function is provided.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
One, the battery management system (abbreviation battery management system) that has the balance charge/discharge function
Battery management system comprises battery and relay group, CPU control unit, balanced discharge module;
Be provided with super capacitor and equalizing charge module;
The CPU control unit is connected with the relay group with battery, detects the working condition of battery and relay group;
CPU control unit, balanced discharge module and battery are connected successively with the relay group, the balanced discharge of control battery and relay group;
CPU control unit, equalizing charge module and battery are connected successively with the relay group, the equalizing charge of control battery and relay group;
Super capacitor is connected with the balanced discharge module, the discharge energy of storage batteries and relay group.
This battery management system is by setting up monitoring function module and charge and discharge balancing module, and electric automobile is realized that function under the different situations is rationally separated and the management of organic cooperation.The rear end load of balanced discharge module is super capacitor, utilizes the discharge electricity amount of super capacitor storage balancing battery to give battery management system and relay power supply.The equalizing charge module has adopted accessory power supply (DC-DC) to give the battery boost charge.Owing to adopted charging and the two kinds of battery balanced modes of discharging, utilizing super capacitor to discharge powers to battery management system (BMS), utilize the mutual electrical isolation between relay network realization battery management system power supply and the detected cell, bootstrapping charging and voltage measurement, power consumption, volume and weight have been reduced, anti-mechanical impact property is stronger, realized the harmless balancing energy of battery, do not have to use complicated energy conversion device again, simple in structure, realize easily and maintenance and expansion convenient.
Two, the control method of the battery management system of charged pool equalization function (abbreviation control method)
This control method comprises the following steps:
1. power-on self-test is surveyed battery management system and relevant demarcation and configuration parameter;
2. after treating that super capacitor is charged to certain voltage, begin that cell is carried out relay and patrol and examine, each only closed relay records the voltage of every battery and calculates cell SOC value in real time;
3. when inserting charger and battery pack SOC value deficiency, start charger and press the charging curve of battery correspondence to batteries charging, in charging process, as it is too fast the monomer battery voltage rising to occur, then it is carried out balanced discharge, as when monomer battery voltage occurring and being lower than other battery, under the situation that accessory power supply is connected, start the equalizing charge module it is carried out boost charge, guarantee that battery pack charges into many electric weight as far as possible, make the SOC value maximum;
4. under the non-charged state, when detection has external accessory power supply, start the equalizing charge module, the cell low to the SOC value carries out boost charge, and the SOC value of whole Battery pack is risen;
5. under the non-charged state, the cell higher to the SOC value carries out balanced discharge, replenishes electric weight to super capacitor, guarantees the normal operation of battery management system;
6. after every relay scan period finishes, check high-pressure system insulation against ground situation, and detect and the control battery temperature, carry out battery thermal management;
7. record discharges and recharges the correlated process parameter, and the health degree assessment to battery provides suggestion or alarm;
8. with the upper and lower computer communication, transmit battery data and setup parameter.
The present invention has following advantage and good effect:
1, in single integrated unit, integrates battery cell monitoring, battery balanced, a complete set of battery management systems such as detection and SOC capacity check that insulate, made things convenient for terminal block and debugging, reduced the complexity of system;
2, equalizing charge adopts the accessory power supply of main battery to charge to cell, and balanced discharge has utilized the energy storage characteristic of super capacitor to power to battery management system, and The whole control system does not have the additional energy loss, reaches the purpose of energy-conserving and environment-protective;
3, park under the situation closing accessory power supply, battery management system relies on the electrokinetic cell power supply fully, the electric power of any reserve battery of not loss, when power battery pack energy occurring also during not enough situation, battery management system enters resting state, stop power consumption with the protection power battery pack, guaranteed that like this battery management system is in running order always, battery balanced effective;
4, the present invention has adopted charging and the two kinds of battery balanced modes of discharging simultaneously, utilizing super capacitor to discharge powers to battery management system (BMS), utilize the mutual isolation between relay network realization battery management system power supply and the cell, bootstrapping charging and voltage measurement, reduced power consumption, volume and weight also has greater advantage, and anti-mechanical impact property is stronger.Realized the harmless balancing energy of battery, do not had to use complicated energy conversion device again, simple in structure, realize easily and maintenance and expansion convenient.
5, battery management system of the present invention can be widely used in various battery set managements, as lead-acid battery, lithium battery and Ni-MH battery etc., and supports the slave computer expansion, can conveniently detect and monitor the multiple batteries situation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the block diagram of existing battery management system;
Fig. 2 is the block diagram of battery management system of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the power battery charging curve chart;
Fig. 4 is battery SOC electric weight estimation Kalman filtering algorithm flow chart;
Fig. 5 is battery management system software block diagram.
Among the figure:
100-battery and relay group, 101-power battery pack, 102-relay group;
The 200-CPU control unit;
300-balanced discharge module;
The 400-discharge resistance;
The 500-super capacitor;
600-equalizing charge module.
English to Chinese
1, BMS (Battery Management System): battery management system; Be used for battery pack is carried out security monitoring and effectively management, improve the service efficiency of battery, increase continual mileage, prolong its useful life, reduce operating cost, the reliability and the car load fail safe that further improve battery pack.
2, SOC (State of charge): battery charge state; It is the dump energy of battery.Usually the state of charge in batteries under the uniform temperature to can not absorb electric weight again the time is defined as state-of-charge SOC=100%; And the state when storage battery can not be emitted electric weight again is defined as state-of-charge SOC=0%.Voltage/current characteristic when battery is worked under different SOC has a great difference.Therefore both at home and abroad the state-of-charge SOC that comparatively generally adopts battery is as battery capacity state description parameter, the residual capacity of reflection battery, and the residual capacity that its numerical value is defined as battery accounts for the ratio of battery capacity.
Embodiment
Describe in detail below in conjunction with drawings and Examples:
One, battery management system
1, general structure
As shown in Figure 2, battery management system comprises battery and relay group 100, CPU control unit 200, balanced discharge module 300;
Be provided with super capacitor 500 and equalizing charge module 600;
CPU control unit 200 is connected with relay group 100 with battery, detects the working condition of battery and relay group 100;
CPU control unit 200, balanced discharge module 300 and battery are connected successively with relay group 100, the balanced discharge of control battery and relay group 100;
CPU control unit 200, equalizing charge module 600 and battery are connected successively with relay group 100, the equalizing charge of control battery and relay group 100;
Super capacitor 500 is connected with balanced discharge module 300, the discharge energy of storage batteries and relay group 100.
2, operation principle
Battery management system has been used relay group 102 dexterously and has been isolated CPU control unit 200 and other periphery, as common mode high voltage of High-Voltage Insulation monitoring and battery etc., also utilize the big current lead-through ability of relay group 102 to realize the balance charge/discharge function.Battery management system powers on the back from detecting and relevant demarcation and configuration parameter; After treating that super capacitor 500 is charged to certain voltage, begin that cell is carried out relay and patrol and examine, each only closed relay records the voltage of every cell and calculates cell SOC value in real time; When inserting charger and battery pack SOC value deficiency, the startup charger is pressed the charging curve of battery correspondence to power battery pack 101 chargings, and in charging process, as it is too fast the monomer battery voltage rising to occur, then it is carried out balanced discharge; As when monomer battery voltage occurring and being lower than other battery, under the situation that accessory power supply is connected, start equalizing charge module 600 it is carried out boost charge, guarantee that power battery pack 101 charges into many electric weight as far as possible, make SOC value maximum; Under non-charged state, when detection has external accessory power supply, start equalizing charge module 600, the cell low to the SOC value carries out boost charge; The cell higher to the SOC value carries out balanced discharge, replenishes electric weight for super capacitor 500, guarantees the normal operation of battery management system; After every relay scan period finishes, check high-pressure system insulation against ground situation, and detect and the control battery temperature, carry out the battery thermal management operation; Record discharges and recharges the correlated process parameter, and the health degree assessment to battery provides suggestion or alarm.
3, each functional block of battery management system
1. battery and relay group 100
Battery and relay group 100 comprise interconnective power battery pack 101 and relay group 102;
Power battery pack 101 is composed in series by N cell, and battery types can be lead-acid battery, lithium iron battery, lithium battery or Ni-MH battery etc.
A relay that two groups contact is arranged in parallel on the both positive and negative polarity of each cell, the load current value of this relay contact is set to the maximum current of battery balanced charge and discharge process.In a cover checkout gear, a relay closes can only be arranged at every turn, form voltage detecting and charging and discharging circuit, realize the mutual isolation between the cell in the series battery.
2. the CPU control unit 200
Battery management system relates to collection and the processing of mass data, and not only data bulk is big, the battery joint number is many, and the battery remaining power Kalman filtering algorithm is had relatively high expectations to calculation process ability and real-time.CPU control unit 200 of the present invention adopts 32 fixed-point dsps of the up-to-date release of American TI Company
TMS320F28035 is as control chip.This DSP has 32 kernels, has monocycle 32 * 32 hardware multipliers and one-cycle instruction executive capability, can realize complicated control algolithm.The various integration modules that also comprise oscillator, analog comparator, electrification reset and power down protection etc. on powerful ADC analog to digital converter, special-purpose high resolution PWM, the high-precision sheet simultaneously.Floating-point control law accelerator (CLA) can be independent of the complicated Kalman filtering algorithm of kernel operation and calculate battery capacity, high-precision 12 AD detecting units can be measured monomer battery voltage accurately, analog signal such as electric current and temperature makes control system have control precision height, simple, the reliability advantages of higher of hardware.
3. the balanced discharge module 300
Balanced discharge module 300 is the non-isolated DC power modules that small-power is controlled, input equals monomer battery voltage, be output as the operating voltage of super capacitor 500, in actual applications it is charged to about 5.4V, to guarantee the normal power supply of battery management system, when detecting monomer battery voltage, balanced discharge module 300 and equalizing charge module 600 are closed to improve the voltage measurement precision.
4. super capacitor 500
Super capacitor 500 is double electric layer capacitor, gold electric capacity or farad capacitor, is a kind of electrochemical element, comes energy storage by the polarization electrolyte.Chemical reaction does not take place in the process of its energy storage, and its thermal energy storage process is reversible, can repeated charge hundreds thousand of times.Super capacitor 500 can be issued to the capacitance of farad level at very little volume, especially charging circuit and control discharge circuit; Compare with battery and to overcharge, to cross to put and its life-span is not constituted negative effect; Use super capacitor to come discharge capacity in the storage battery balanced discharge process in the present invention, offer battery management system self and use, avoided energy dissipation, environmental protection.
5. equalizing charge module 600
Equalizing charge module 600 is controlled isolated DC power modules, the input power supply is generally the accessory power supply of electric automobile, also can directly use the power battery pack total voltage, output voltage equals monomer battery voltage, output current is restricted to the rated current that relay contact can bear, when detecting accessory power supply work, (connects as firing key) the CPU control unit, according to control algolithm corresponding battery is carried out equalizing charge, the auxiliary winding of this charging module also provides Hall current to detect the positive and negative insulating power supply that uses simultaneously.
Two, battery management system concrete function
At pure electric automobile, battery management system not only will detect the battery related data, such as monomer battery voltage and battery temperature etc., and can predict dump energy (SOC), make the driver know current driving cycle, alleviate its psychological burden, cast anchor to avoid midway.And for hybrid vehicle, also to increase the function of prediction power of battery intensity, so that the applying working condition of monitoring battery provides enough power outputs when automobile starting or acceleration, battery pack can reclaim more energy and battery do not produced injury during brake.The dump energy of battery directly determines the maximum continual mileage of electric automobile, and the power level of battery then directly influences the acceleration capacity of hybrid vehicle.In the long-term charge and discharge process of electric automobile, the inconsistency of battery can show more and more obvious, the cell that the SOC value is little is always finished charge and discharge process at first in battery pack, with respect to also being to lose efficacy at first and damage with other battery of battery pack, and the SOC value of whole Battery pack depends on that piece cell that the SOC value is minimum, and therefore the battery balanced function that discharges and recharges seems particularly important!
According to the main task of batteries of electric automobile operation needs and battery management system, battery management system should be finished following function:
1, the detection of monomer battery voltage
The battery voltage measurement scheme mainly contains common mode mensuration and differential mode mensuration.The common mode measurement is to choose same reference point, utilizes one group of precision resistance equal proportion attenuation measurement voltage then, measures each node voltage and subtracts each other successively then and obtain each batteries voltage; The differential mode measurement is to utilize each single battery of relay gating directly to measure.Relatively two class method of measurement can be found: common mode mensuration circuit is simple, but measure error can accumulate, and certainty of measurement is not high, and it is less or to the less demanding occasion of certainty of measurement just to be used for the series-connected cell number.Therefore, when series-connected cell more for a long time, can only adopt differential mode to measure.
This battery management system adopts the differential mode mensuration.Owing to may have common-mode voltage between the measuring junction, so can not adopt the analog switch gating.Native system selects for use relay as isolating switch, and each closed pair answered the relay of a single battery, treats that the AD converter by 12 bit resolutions reads cell voltage after the battery stabilized input voltage.
2, the detection of battery pack operating current
For guaranteeing certainty of measurement, with the hall effect current sensor battery current of sampling, owing to need dual power supply, therefore the detection of battery pack operating current can only just can be carried out when accessory power supply is worked, namely can only measure discharging current, as need monitoring charging current, then need to allow the input power supply of charge balancing module also operate as normal when battery pack charging status.
3, the estimation of battery pack SOC
Battery status calculates and comprises SOC and SOH two aspects.SOC tells driver's remaining battery how many electric weight, and how many mileages can also travel.SOH tells the life-span of driver's battery.
Determining of battery charge state (SOC) is emphasis and difficult point among the BMS.Because the height that batteries of electric automobile in use shows is non-linear, makes accurate estimation SOC have great difficulty.The basic evaluation method of traditional SOC has open circuit voltage method, internal resistance method and ampere-hour method.Develop many novel algorithms to battery SOC in recent years again in succession, for example fuzzy logic method model, adaptive neural network fuzzy inference model, Kalman Filter Estimation model algorithm and emerging linear model method and impedance spectroscopy etc.Because various SOC evaluation methods have its pluses and minuses, therefore select multiple algorithm to combine and estimate that SOC is a kind of preferable scheme.The present invention has selected the Kalman filtering algorithm of expanding for use, and (Extended Kalman Filter EKF) comes the SOC of estimating battery, and carries out initial SOC in conjunction with the open circuit voltage method and revise integration scenario.
1) influences the factor of battery SOC
1. the energy content of battery and specific energy
Current density size when discharging current refers to battery discharging.The size of discharging current directly influences the various performance index of storage battery, is one of principal element that influences battery capacity.Therefore when speaking of the capacity of storage battery, the size of mandatory declaration discharging current or indicate discharging condition.Usually represent with discharge rate.Commonly used " time rate " or " multiplying power " expression.
2. the final discharging voltage of battery
During battery discharging, the terminal voltage of storage battery drops to the minimum operating voltage that should not continue again to discharge and is called final voltage.Experiment shows that final discharging voltage is directly related to the judgement of battery SOC, and the final discharging voltage that must spell out battery could be determined the SOC of battery.
3. the temperature of battery
In battery, the electromobility of electrolyte is all relevant with battery temperature with activity of electrode material etc.In general, the electric weight that the electric weight that battery is emitted when high temperature is emitted during obviously than low temperature is big, this is because the activity of battery material increases during high temperature, improved the diffusion of active ion, electrolytical conductivity also increases along with the rising of temperature in the electrolyte simultaneously, makes the migration internal resistance reduce.The active of battery obviously reduced when temperature was low, and the discharge capability of battery descends, and battery is more prone to reach discharge by voltage, and the active volume that shows as battery reduces, and the energy utilization efficiency of battery descends.Battery works long hours under hot environment in addition, can make electrode material rotten, thereby accelerates the aging of battery, and the life-span can significantly shorten.Under limit hot conditions, battery even meeting blast on fire.
4. battery recycles number of times
Battery charge and discharge once are called a cyclic process.For a battery of just having brought into use, along with the increase of access times, capacity rises earlier, and then descends.
5. the recovery Effects of battery influence
Recovery Effects refers under the condition of discontinuous discharge, after discharge a period of time, and storage battery open circuit or when changing low discharging current into from big electric current, the electric charge redistribution of internal storage battery reaches new balance, the dump energy of storage battery increases to some extent like this.When storage battery after being discharged to final voltage under a certain discharge rate, can also under lower discharge rate, continue the discharge.The recovery Effects of storage battery is not only relevant with factors such as current discharging current, temperature, also relevant with the discharge mode in future, but following discharge mode is unpredictable, especially automobile running working condition complexity, the electricity consumption situation is very complicated, so the recovery Effects of storage battery makes accurate prediction very difficult to the influence of storage battery actual discharge.
6. the lack of uniformity of battery pack influence
The accumulator of electric car group adopts series system to connect, because the temperature of each monolithic storage battery each monolithic storage battery in manufacture view, initial capacity, voltage, internal resistance and batteries case is all inequality.So in use, will cause overcharging or the overdischarge phenomenon of certain piece storage battery, can cause the most of storage batterys of Capacity Ratio of indivedual storage batterys all low when serious.In discharge process, its electric weight has at first been put, and at this moment this storage battery just becomes an electrical appliance, at first enters the charging stage, the storage battery reverse electrode phenomena occurs.When other charge in batteries, this storage battery can at first be full of ahead of time again and enter the stage of overcharging, and makes whole battery group normally not to be full of, and then makes whole batteries cisco unity malfunction.
7. self discharge factor
Battery self-discharge phenomenon can occur under static condition, cause battery capacity to descend.The factor that causes self-discharge of battery is many-sided, comprises the disproportionated reaction on the electrode, the dissolving of active material, and the corrosion of electrode etc., wherein main factor is the self discharge of anode and the corrosion of negative pole.
2) open circuit voltage method
Battery is under the condition that leaves standstill for a long time, and its SOC and open circuit voltage have relatively-stationary functional relation, can be by setting up SOC-OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) relation estimation SOC.This method can obtain effect preferably at the initial stage that discharges and recharges and latter stage.The shortcoming of open circuit voltage method is that battery is after charge or discharge, its polarizing voltage needs a recovery process, stable to reach open circuit voltage, this process often needs several hrs even tens hours, can not be used for continuous, online, dynamic battery SOC estimation.And this method is measured strict to the relation between the SOC-OCV.Though have certain relation between the SOC-OCV, be subjected to the influence of factors such as temperature, time of repose easily.When variations in temperature was bigger, the OCV that same battery shows under identical SOC differed greatly.
3) Kalman filtering algorithm
Kalman filtering algorithm a kind of Recursive Linear minimum variance estimate that to be the Kalman propose in nineteen sixty can obtain the optimal estimation on the linear system state variable minimum variance meaning.When Kalman filtering method was applied to the battery SOC estimation, battery was seen as dynamical system, and SOC is internal state amount of system.
Kalman filtering method is applicable to all kinds battery, can not only provide the estimated value of SOC, but also can provide the scope of estimation error.Kalman filtering method has very strong correcting action to the error of initial value simultaneously, compares with additive method, and it is particularly suitable for the estimation of the more violent battery car SOC of current fluctuation.
The estimation in a moment is added the data that measure in real time and is estimated in real time in the Kalman filtering utilization.And in Kalman filtering constantly a state estimation be utilize go up one more constantly and before measurement data obtain, therefore this recursion estimates it is to utilize all measurement data to estimate in real time.The Kalman filtering algorithm idiographic flow as shown in Figure 4.Discrete-time system state space equation and observational equation are as follows:
x(k+1)=Ax(k)+Bu(k)+σ(k)(1)
y(k)=Cx(k)+Du(k)+u(k)(2)
Wherein σ (k) is the random disturbances noise, and u (k) is the random observation noise.
The prerequisite that adopts Kalman filtering can obtain minimum variance estimate is Q, and the R noise statistics must be known accurately, if Q, R can accurately not know, not only can not get minimum variance estimate, and result of calculation may be dispersed.
4) improved Kalman filtering algorithm
In order in the process of SOC estimation, to utilize this actual value of open circuit voltage method SOC-OCV relation curve, after estimation, will estimate that the value of result and SOC-OCV relation curve compares, draw error and go to revise the estimation result.Designed the SOC estimating algorithm of current integration method in conjunction with Kalman filtering method based on this thinking, this algorithm at first utilizes the input of current integration method prognoses system, the output noise value (σ (k) in the corresponding Kalman filtering of they difference, u (k)), be applied to the accuracy that Kalman filtering method improves predicted value then.
E{σ(i)}=Qn[SOC(K)-SOC(k)]/(∑η c)(3)
E{u(i)}=(M-E{σ(i)}N)/L(4)
If noise is the colored noise sequence of nonzero value, the result of Kalman filtering will have very mistake so in Kalman filtering, or even disperse.Estimate time started k each time, the actual value SOC (K) of SOC can both obtain by the SOC-OCV relation curve.Real voltage value x{k} can be by calculating.Like this when each estimation process starts, noise Q, R can be by calculating.The estimation process of SOC is made up of current integration method and Kalman filtering method two parts, provides the corresponding computing formula of every part below.
The current integration method is to the estimation equation of SOC:
SOC (k)=SOC (k-1)+[i (k) E{ σ }] η cT/Q n(5)
Kalman filtering method is to the estimation equation of SOC:
x(k+1/k)=Ax(k\k)+B[u(k)-E{σ}](6)
x(k+1/k+1)=[I-K(k+1)C]x(k+1/k)+K(k+1)[y(k+1)-E{u}](7)
The estimation flow process of algorithm is as follows: when system starts, at first detect down time whether greater than time of default, whether judge that with this SOC value with the SOC-OCV relation curve is used as initial value, if initialization SOC value then, and by formula 3,4 calculate E{ σ (i) } and E{u (i), the predicted value of SOC obtained then by current integration method formula and Kalman filtering method formula; If otherwise the result of calculation of utilizing previous step also obtains the predicted value of SOC by current integration method formula 5 and Kalman filtering method formula 6,7.
4, the balance charge/discharge of battery is handled
The electric automobile power battery group adopts series system to connect, because the temperature of each monoblock battery each monoblock battery in manufacture view, initial capacity, voltage, internal resistance and battery pack box is all inequality.So in use, will cause overcharging or the overdischarge phenomenon of certain piece battery, can cause the most of batteries of Capacity Ratio of individual cell all low when serious.In discharge process, its electric weight has at first been put, and at this moment this battery just becomes an electrical appliance, at first enters the charging stage, the battery reverse electrode phenomena occurs.When other battery charge, thereby this battery can at first be full of ahead of time again and enters the stage of overcharging, and makes whole battery group normally not to be full of, and then makes the whole battery group cisco unity malfunction.In fact, one group of actual capacity of emitting of series-connected cell is that battery by the capacity minimum determines.Therefore in the battery operated process of electric automobile, the lack of uniformity between battery pack is an adverse factor, should reduce as far as possible with the lack of uniformity between Battery pack.
Battery pack in use shows unbalanced reason to be had following several:
Battery capacity basically identical in A, the battery pack, wherein the capacity of a few batteries is less than all the other batteries;
Battery capacity basically identical in B, the battery pack, wherein the capacity of a few batteries is greater than all the other batteries;
Each batteries capacity volume variance is very big in C, the battery pack, and this is the worst situation.
Cause the factor of these several unbalanced reasons to have following several:
A, battery self reason: the inconsistent initial capacity that causes of amount owing to inner material when battery is made is inconsistent, the initial capacity that manufacturing process difference in the process of manufacturing battery causes is inconsistent, resistance value when the lug of battery links to each other with inner pole piece is inconsistent, and the capacity in use that internal resistance difference just causes is inconsistent;
B, the outside reason that connects: the different connection resistance that cause with material of the component shape that battery connects when connection in series-parallel is used are different, the inconsistent contact resistance that causes that connects tightness is inconsistent, cause the energy of cell exchange when discharging and recharging inconsistent, show as the inconsistent of whole Battery pack;
C, external environment condition reason, when battery uses in connection in series-parallel, the factor differences such as temperature, humidity or pressure of the each point that whole Battery pack layout causes, cause respectively save the capacity that cell can use can be inconsistent with the difference of various field distribution.
In charging process, the battery that battery capacity is little can take the lead in being filled, and this moment, battery pack still need be charged, so the little battery of capacity can be overcharged, and produces gassing or irreversible structural damage takes place, and battery capacity further reduces.
In discharge process, the cell voltage that battery capacity is little descends the fastest, when this batteries depleted of energy, battery two ends even reversed polarity can occur, be equivalent to be caused the discharge capability of whole Battery pack to weaken by other battery reverse charge, cross simultaneously to put and also can make inside battery that irreversible chemical reaction takes place, reduce battery capacity.
Show as in actual use, when battery charge, have a certain batteries voltage and be higher than all the other cell voltages and arrive first the charging cut-ff voltage, thus the complete charge process; When battery discharge, have a certain batteries voltage and be lower than all the other cell voltages and arrive first discharge cut-off voltage, finish discharge process.
The present invention has adopted charging and the two kinds of battery balanced modes of discharging, utilize accessory power supply to give the cell equalizing charge, utilize the super capacitor balanced discharge to give battery management system (BMS) power supply, use relay network to realize the isolation and bootstrapping charging of battery management system power supply, and realize equalizing charge and the discharge of battery simultaneously, reduced power consumption, volume and weight also has greater advantage, and anti-mechanical impact property is stronger.Realized the balancing energy of battery, do not had to use complicated energy conversion device again, simple in structure, realize easily and maintenance and expansion convenient.
Because the dynamic equalization mode combines the advantage of charge balancing and equalization discharge, in whole use battery pack is carried out equilibrium, has avoided the variety of issue in the single equilibrium mode.Even under the automobile power source closed condition, battery management system relies on the power battery pack still can operate as normal, and time for balance is long, and portfolio effect is good, and the battery consistency height has prolonged the useful life of power battery pack fully.
5, the detection of high-voltage insulating resistance
Because the voltage ratio of battery pack is higher, exceeded the voltage that human body can bear, generally in the 300-700V scope, and link to each other with other heavy current installations, include motor, generator etc., be in the consideration to the passenger safety aspect, should measure the insulation resistance between car body and the battery pack positive and negative busbar, ensure passenger's the safety of taking.
In the GB GB/T of China 18384.1-18384.3-2001 " electric automobile safety requirements ", definition, method of measurement and the safety requirements of electric automobile insulation status are all made clear and definite regulation.The insulation status of electric automobile is weighed the insulation resistance of car body by the direct current positive and negative busbar.Be defined as: if certain some short circuit between power accumulator and the ground (electric chassis), maximum (under the worst case) the corresponding resistance of leakage current.The international standard of electric automobile and China's national Specification: insulating resistance value is divided by electric automobile direct current system nominal voltage U, and the result should just meet safe requirement greater than 100 Europe/V.This value is selected by following condition: " if people or other animals constitute the external circuit between electrokinetic cell system and the ground, leakage current is no more than 2mA under the worst situation, and this is the threshold values that human body does not have sensation ".
The present invention is because isolations of can booting of CPU control unit, can measure the insulation resistance of high-pressure system, assurance passenger personal safety accurately by bilateral convert resistance method.
6, battery temperature and Smoke Detection, battery case cooling blower and the control of battery heating system
The performance that all can directly influence battery too high or too low for temperature, battery temperature is too high to be had very big potential hazard and exists, if the caloric value of battery is excessive in addition, it itself also is a kind of waste to energy, it can reduce its energy that should supply with, make the service efficiency of battery reduce, increase manufacturing cost.
The temperature of same battery is crossed the low service efficiency that also can reduce battery, because the active material of inside battery can't fully discharge and recharge reaction under the low temperature, this will cause battery itself to have energy but to put to come out, and the outside has energy but can not fill, and has caused very big energy waste.How to guarantee the working temperature of battery, this work that will do of battery thermal management just.
Temperature acquisition scheme of the present invention has adopted the DS18B20 digital temperature sensor, and it adopts the 1-wire communications protocol, and it is simple to have a line, the function that realization able to programme is comparatively complicated, precision height, long transmission distance, advantage such as expansion is convenient.The 1-wire communications protocol is namely finished the agreement of both sides or exchanges data in many ways by a holding wire.In order to realize this function, monobus adopted one main many from structure, namely have only a host node (DSP) on the monobus, how from referring to connect at monobus according to the use needs of reality the DS18B20 device of respective number.Any communication all is to be initiated by main frame, and slave is replied.
The position of temperature sensor layout is also extremely important in addition.Transducer is arranged in inside battery can access precise dose data more than space outerpace, the non-uniform temperature of inside battery, the temperature sensor of limited quantity is can not the cell integrated variations in temperature of complete reaction, in design, need consider whole price and the selection of measurement point, generally in a battery case, arrange 3-20 temperature sensor.
Battery has different service behaviours under different temperature, variation of temperature can make SOC, open circuit voltage, internal resistance and the utilisable energy of battery change, even can have influence on the useful life of battery.The difference of temperature also is one of reason that causes battery balanced problem.Make battery operated in suitable temperature range by blower fan heat radiation or heating wire mode of heating; Reduce the temperature contrast between each battery module.Use air condition with camion can realize the temperature of battery is controlled in addition, this also is one of electric automobile temperature-controlled process commonly used.
7, battery failures analysis and online warning, battery SOC and discharge and recharge the number of times record
The designing requirement of battery management system also should comprise:
1) can monitor in real time each parts;
2) can identify and diagnose fault;
3) can record also managing failures information;
4) can carry out troubleshooting;
5) real time record and storage battery SOC value
6) relevant information such as record battery charging and discharging number of times.
Its course of work briefly comprises as follows: transducer, actuator and controller self carried out monitoring in real time, and data are judged, if find fault, then isolate fault message according to built-in algorithm, according to certain form and order fault is stored and managed, export control in case of necessity, record and store corresponding battery information, as discharge and recharge number of times, SOC value of battery, remaining life etc.
8, communicate by letter with charger, safety realizes the charging of battery pack
Battery management system can pass through CAN bus and charger interface, set charging voltage and charging current by the CAN bus, charging curve according to corresponding battery is controlled charger, can guarantee the safe handling of cell in the battery pack by this way to manage, realize way to manage and the very desirable result of use of battery pack of intelligence simultaneously.
9, communicate by letter with vehicle-mounted display device, inform driver's battery related data
System's display interface can be finished by the color touch screen, the touch-screen homepage can show information such as assembled battery total voltage, battery pack total current, dump energy (SOC), maximum temperature, can view all image data by touch-screen and comprise every monomer battery voltage, all temperature, SOC capacity etc.; Can arrange system operational parameters by touch-screen, system operational parameters comprises: every acquisition module management number of batteries is selected, and the cell voltage bound is reported to the police to limit and arranged, and the temperature bound is reported to the police and arranged, maximum charging current, upper current limit is reported to the police and is arranged, and voltage mutual deviation maximum upper limit is reported to the police charging times is set, the battery health index, the SOC initial value arranges, rated capacity, system clock etc.
10, communicate by letter with mobile unit, for car load control provides necessary battery data
Data communication is one of important component part of BMS.Adopt the CAN bus between battery management module and entire car controller, system reliability and antijamming capability are all more intense.Upload the various information of battery by the CAN bus, for car load control provides necessary battery data.
Four, battery management system software design
For the reliability that strengthens battery management system, readability etc., battery management system adopts structuring and modularization idea to carry out the software design.Structured Programming is a kind of good software development technique that defines.Adopt the method for top-down design and realization, and strictly use structurized control structure, guarantee that program has only one " outlet ".Modularized design, module are the elements in the program level, are the batch processing statements that can compile separately in the program, call with module name.Program is divided into some modules, can reduces the complexity of program, reduce the development time, use modular technology, mistake can be confined to each inside modules, prevent wrong spreading, be convenient to debugging and maintenance.Adopt structuring and modularization not only to satisfy system's needs of control in real time, and have readability and a portability, make things convenient for software debugging and system calibrating, can also utilize and be proved to be reliable module and construct new system, reduce the workload of new system development, improve the reliability of software.
According to functional requirement and the instructions for use of battery management system, the system software module block diagram as shown in Figure 6.Software real-time processing module flow process is:
1st, each subprogram A is monitored and dispatched to master control cyclic program;
2nd, initialization and calibration system variable B behind the power-on self-test;
3rd, each monomer battery voltage current detecting C;
4th, cell balance charge/discharge control D;
5th, high-tension circuit insulating monitoring warning E;
6th, cell and battery electric quantity SOC calculate F;
7th, the cell-temperature monitoring heat management is handled G;
8th, charger communication, charging start and stop and charging curve control H;
9th, the switching value input/output signal of battery management system necessity is handled I;
10th, battery related data record and analyzing and processing J;
11st, in the battery management system that the multiple batteries group is arranged, system is made up of a plurality of monitoring modules, and main control module is inquired about the battery data of other slave computer module and concentrated and handle K;
12nd, transmit relevant information and parameter with the human-computer interaction interface communication, provide the battery related data to carry out vehicle Comprehensive Control decision-making L to entire car controller;
Return the circulation of the 3rd step and carry out each correlation step, realize the battery set management function.

Claims (2)

1. control method with battery management system of balance charge/discharge function, battery management system comprise battery and relay group (100), CPU control unit (200), balanced discharge module (300);
Be provided with super capacitor (500) and equalizing charge module (600);
CPU control unit (200) is connected with relay group (100) with battery, detects the working condition of battery and relay group (100);
CPU control unit (200), balanced discharge module (300) and battery are connected successively with relay group (100), the balanced discharge of control battery and relay group (100);
CPU control unit (200), equalizing charge module (600) and battery are connected successively with relay group (100), the equalizing charge of control battery and relay group (100);
Super capacitor (500) is connected with balanced discharge module (30), the discharge energy of storage batteries and relay group (100);
Described battery and relay group (100) comprise interconnective power battery pack (101) and relay group (102);
Power battery pack (101) is composed in series by a plurality of cells;
A relay that two groups contact is arranged in parallel on the both positive and negative polarity of each cell;
Described super capacitor (500) is double electric layer capacitor, gold electric capacity or farad capacitor, is a kind of electrochemical element;
Described equalizing charge module (600) is a kind of controlled isolated DC power module;
Described CPU control unit (200) adopts 32 fixed-point dsp TMS320F28035 as control chip;
It is characterized in that:
1. power-on self-test is surveyed battery management system and relevant demarcation and configuration parameter;
2. after treating that super capacitor is charged to certain voltage, begin that cell is carried out relay and patrol and examine, each only closed relay records the voltage of every battery and calculates cell SOC value in real time;
3. when inserting charger and battery pack SOC value deficiency, start charger and press the charging curve of battery correspondence to batteries charging, in charging process, as it is too fast the monomer battery voltage rising to occur, then it is carried out balanced discharge, as when monomer battery voltage occurring and being lower than other battery, under the situation that accessory power supply is connected, start the equalizing charge module it is carried out boost charge, guarantee that battery pack charges into many electric weight as far as possible, make the SOC value maximum;
4. under the non-charged state, when detection has external accessory power supply, start the equalizing charge module, the cell low to the SOC value carries out boost charge, and the SOC value of whole Battery pack is risen;
5. under the non-charged state, the cell higher to the SOC value carries out balanced discharge, replenishes electric weight to super capacitor, guarantees the normal operation of battery management system;
6. after every relay scan period finishes, check high-pressure system insulation against ground situation, and detect and the control battery temperature, carry out battery thermal management;
7. record discharges and recharges the correlated process parameter, and the health degree assessment to battery provides suggestion or alarm;
8. with the upper and lower computer communication, transmit battery data and setup parameter.
2. by the described control method of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
The workflow of CPU control unit (200) is:
1st, each subprogram (A) is monitored and dispatched to master control cyclic program;
2nd, initialization and calibration system variable (B) behind the power-on self-test;
3rd, each monomer battery voltage current detecting (C);
4th, cell balance charge/discharge control (D);
5th, high-tension circuit insulating monitoring warning (E);
6th, cell and battery electric quantity SOC calculate (F);
7th, the cell-temperature monitoring heat management is handled (G);
8th, charger communication, charging start and stop and charging curve control (H);
9th, the switching value input/output signal of battery management system necessity is handled (I);
10th, battery related data record and analyzing and processing (J);
11st, in the battery management system of multiple batteries group, to be formed by a plurality of monitoring modules, main control module is inquired about the battery data of other slave computer module and is concentrated and handle (K);
12nd, transmit relevant information and parameter with the human-computer interaction interface communication, provide the battery related data to carry out vehicle Comprehensive Control decision-making (L) to entire car controller;
Return the circulation of the 3rd step and carry out each correlation step, realize the battery set management function.
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