CN1064398C - Process for producing fermentable wort - Google Patents

Process for producing fermentable wort Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1064398C
CN1064398C CN97192223A CN97192223A CN1064398C CN 1064398 C CN1064398 C CN 1064398C CN 97192223 A CN97192223 A CN 97192223A CN 97192223 A CN97192223 A CN 97192223A CN 1064398 C CN1064398 C CN 1064398C
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China
Prior art keywords
exopeptidase
cereal
paddy
liquefaction
accordance
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CN97192223A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1211275A (en
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M-P·拉罗伊
J·索比
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吉斯特·布罗卡迪斯股份有限公司
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Priority to EP96200325.7 priority
Priority to EP96202227.3 priority
Priority to EP96202227 priority
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C7/00Preparation of wort
    • C12C7/04Preparation or treatment of the mash
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C11/00Fermentation processes for beer
    • C12C11/003Fermentation of beerwort
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C5/00Other raw materials for the preparation of beer
    • C12C5/004Enzymes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C7/00Preparation of wort
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C7/00Preparation of wort
    • C12C7/04Preparation or treatment of the mash
    • C12C7/047Preparation or treatment of the mash part of the mash being unmalted cereal mash
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

Abstract

The invention provides a process for the production of a fermentable wort from cereal grains, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of cereal material, with the aid of alpha -amylase and/or endoprotease activity, to obtain a liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the said liquefied mash in the presence of alpha -amylase; (c) filtration of the liquefied and saccharified mash to obtain a fermentable wort, wherein at least one of the steps (a) and (b) above is carried out in the presence of an enzyme having exo-peptidase activity. Useful as enzymes having exo-peptidase activity are exopeptidases, preferably thermostable exopeptidases, such as the fungal amino-peptidases, but also thermostable carboxy-peptidases are useful. Particularly preferred according to the invention are amino-peptidases endogenous to Aspergillus fungi, more in particular A. niger, A. oryzae or A. sojae.

Description

Produce the method for fermentable wort
Invention field
The present invention relates to from cereal, particularly do not prepare the method for fermentable wort (wort) in the germinated ceral.The invention still further relates to the paddy juice that makes according to the method for the invention.The present invention relates to again according to the fermentation reaction of the prepared paddy juice of the method for the invention in Alcohol Production, distillating industries or brewage.
Background technology
Beer utilize to germinate or not germinated ceral fermentation and producing.In a kind of situation in back, liquefaction and saccharification take place in cereal under commercial enzyme effect, produce paddy juice, wherein contain the necessary fermentable saccharide of yeast fermentation, amino acid or other form nitrogen and (are called " can free usability nitrogen ", Freely Available Nitrogen, FAN).
For example, (Macfadden D.P. and Clayton M. such as Macfadden, brewage and drink industry (Brewing and Beverage Industries International) (1989) world, the 1st volume, the 77-81 page or leaf) suggestion does not add some enzymes when the Chinese sorghum beer brewing is germinateed in utilization, as α-Dian Fenmei, proteolytic enzyme, beta-glucanase, cellulase, Mycophyta α-Dian Fenmei, amyloglucosidase or the like.MacFadden etc. also advise not adding yeast food to ferment when Chinese sorghum is germinateed in use.
(Bajomo M.F. and Young T.W., zymurgy meeting magazine (J.Inst.Brew),, the 88th volume, 515-523 page or leaf in 1992 such as Bajomo; Bajomo M.F. and YoungT.W., zymurgy meeting magazine (J.Inst.Brew), 1994, the 100th volume, the 79-843 page or leaf) reported 100% method of not germinateing the sorghum grain beer brewing of utilizing, in the paddy juice that Chinese sorghum makes although utilization is not germinateed, its FAN content (51 mg/litre) is far below the basic horizontal of utilizing the obtained wheat juice of malted barley after fermentation.
A kind of method of producing alcohol has been described among the international patent application no WO92/20777, it may further comprise the steps: under diastatic action do not germinate complete cereal or animal feed are liquefied, carry out the saccharification of paddy slurry under glucoamylase and acid fungal protease effect.This method requires to add proteolytic enzyme in fermenting process and saccharifying.The pH value of fermention medium is between 4-5, and with this understanding, the Mycophyta exopeptidase is not have active (Labbe JP, Rebeyrotte P., biological chemistry (Biochimie) (1974), the 56th volume, 839-844 page or leaf; Lehman K. and Uhlig H., Hoppe Seyler ' s Z.Physiol.Chem (1969), the 350th volume, 99-104 page or leaf).Therefore, a shortcoming of aforesaid method is, under its reaction conditions, used Mycophyta proteolytic enzyme only carries out endoproteolysis, and product mainly is an oligopeptides, and total free aminoacids then seldom.
For this area there being a general understanding, can be with reference to summary (Palmer G.H., the cereal science and technology of Palmer." cereal science and technology " (1989), Abbe fourth university press edits, Abbe fourth, Scotland, 61-242 page or leaf).
Brief summary of the invention
The invention provides the not method of germinated ceral production paddy juice of a kind of utilization.The paddy juice of Sheng Chaning by this method, its character is very good, as be rich in can free usability nitrogen (back will be represented with FAN), and the filterability of paddy juice is good, and output is also high.During the paddy juice that this method also can be used for germinated ceral is produced, but it germinated ceral is especially not outstanding as the paddy juice production superiority of the Chinese sorghum that do not germinate, do not germinate Chinese sorghum and corn mixture being used for.When carrying out " mixing is brewageed ", when promptly utilizing germinated ceral (as malted barley) and the mixture of germinated ceral (as corn, rice or Chinese sorghum) not being produced paddy juice, these advantages still exist.
Therefore, the invention provides the method for utilizing cereal to produce fermentable wort, this method comprises following step:
(a) under α-Dian Fenmei and/or endo-protease active function, cereal liquefaction is formed liquefaction paddy slurry (mash);
(b) under the α-Dian Fenmei effect, said paddy slurry is carried out saccharification;
(c) to liquefying and the paddy of saccharification slurry filters and produces fermentability paddy juice.
The above-mentioned steps (a) and (b) first at least carry out in the presence of the active enzyme of tool exopeptidase.Have the active available enzyme of exopeptidase exopeptidase is arranged, preferred heat-staple exopeptidase such as Mycophyta aminopeptidase, heat-staple carboxypeptidase is also more effective.According to the present invention, preferably use the particularly endogenous aminopeptidase of aspergillus niger (Aspergillus niger), aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillus oryzae) or beans aspergillus (Aspergillus sojae) of aspergillus mushroom.
When unmalted grain in the cereal accounts at least 20% particularly 50% when above, when mixing the corn that do not germinate, rice or other cereal in sorghum grain, this method is very effective.According to the present invention, it is very useful adding exopeptidase in the liquefaction step of grain.
The present invention also provides a kind of fermentable wort, and it can obtain according to method of the present invention.The present invention also relates to a kind of method of beer brewing, wherein used fermentable wort of the present invention.
The present invention also provides a kind of method of brew alcohol class beverage such as beer etc., comprises according to method of the present invention producing paddy juice, subsequently or simultaneously said paddy juice being fermented, and obtains as some steps such as beer thus.
Invention be also embodied in provides a kind of by enzyme solution, from the cereal that is rich in gluten and/or prolamine, produce can free usability nitrogen method.Mix in the liquefaction paddy slurry that this method is included in grain or utilizes said grain to produce and add endo-protease and this step of exopeptidase composition.
The invention provides a kind of method of producing alcohol.This method is included in a kind of yeast that can produce alcohol and exists down, the step that the FAN that makes according to the inventive method is fermented.
The present invention can be illustrated with following accompanying drawing.
Accompanying drawing is described
Fig. 1 is the pH curve that derives from the leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) of aspergillus niger.
Fig. 2 is the pH curve that derives from the phenylalanine aminopeptidase of aspergillus niger.
Fig. 3 is the temperature curve of two kinds of aminopeptidases.
The below is described in more detail whole invention.
The detailed description of invention
The invention provides a kind of method of from cereal, producing fermentable wort. Under the condition of work of the method, there is at least a protein with exopeptidase activity. The fungi particularly endogenous aminopeptidase of Aspergillus can be used as effective enzyme of said method, and this is that this just is the pH scope in the liquefaction step owing to all have enough stability and active in the environment of these enzymes between pH5-8. Under this temperature and pH environment, the using value of carboxypeptidase is just little. Because saccharification step than slightly acid of the environment in the liquefaction step, therefore, as long as carboxypeptidase is preferably enough stablized in 50-70 ℃ of scope at 50-60 ℃, uses carboxypeptidase also to have certain superiority in saccharification step.
Than the method that does not add exopeptidase, not only can improve in the paddy juice can free usability nitrogen (FAN) content in the use of exopeptidase among the present invention, can also improve filterability and the output of paddy juice.
When producing fermentable wort by germinated ceral not, then advantage is clearly to utilize method of the present invention. When used be that this advantage is especially outstanding when not germinateing Chinese sorghum. And also optionally add other cereal in this cereal, such as corn, wheat, oat or rice. The mentioned cereal of the present invention comprises Chinese sorghum, wheat, barley, oat, rice, corn and other analog.
Because exopeptidase can improve the organoleptic attribute (mouthfeel and/or smell) of fermentate, thereby common not only contained germinated ceral but also contained the rough rice thing that do not germinate (can reach more than 80% even 90 % such as germinated ceral, all the other are germinated ceral not) mixing brewage, add exopeptidase according to method of the present invention and also have much superiority. Verified, utilize germinated ceral, when germinated ceral or their mixture are not brewageed, these advantages are very general.
Utilizing exopeptidase to significantly improve when brewageing can free usability nitrogen content, the cereal of filterability, productive rate and organoleptic attribute all is rich in prolamin and glutelin component. Except Chinese sorghum, rice also belongs to this type of (wherein glutelin content about 80%). When using Chinese sorghum, should note the kind of selecting those polyphenol contents relatively low.
Except adding exopeptidase, the production of paddy juice (such as using for beer brewing) can be undertaken by usual method. In general, whole method comprises that the liquefaction of rough rice thing produces paddy slurry (mash) and the saccharification of the slurry of paddy subsequently produces the several steps of paddy juice. It is very important filtering before fermentation.
Liquefaction process generally includes following steps, namely first the rough rice thing is pulverized the flour that produces the suitable particles size, then add one to four part preferably three parts water carry out hydration process, at last according to employed endo protease needs, optionally add 50 to the 300ppm Ca of 200ppm preferably2+ Bacillus stearothermophilus source enzyme may be to Ca2+Dependence is less, thereby no longer adds Ca in this case2+ Cereal-granules size through pulverizing should be no more than 3 millimeters, and surpassing the particle of 1.3mm size should be no more than 3.5%, less than the particle of 0.25mm also no more than 1.5%. Available enzyme has in addition: cellulase, 1,4 beta-glucanase and/or some other plant cell-wall degrading enzymes.
The liquefaction culture medium usually utilizes such as materials such as calcium hydroxides and regulates pH to 5-8 preferably between the 6-7. Importantly addition is enough to the AMS (preferably heat-staple AMS) of partial hydrolysis cereal starch and the endo protease that amount is enough to Partial digestion protein at least in the liquefaction culture medium. When using B.A.T.S., its Optimum is about 0.5-2.0 kg/tonne, is preferably 1-1.5 kg/tonne. When using Brewers Protease2000, its enzyme dosage is greater than 0.5 kg/tonne of cereal, and preferable amount is greater than 1 kg/tonne. When using Panstimase400, its enzyme dosage is greater than 2 kg/tonnes, is preferably more than 5 kg/tonnes, most preferably is greater than 10 kg/tonnes.
In liquefaction process, series of steps is normally being carried out under the higher temperature: after adding AMS and protease, at 40-65 ℃, preferably 45-55 ℃, most preferably be under 50 ℃ of conditions with the mixture insulation until fully liquefaction. Temperature retention time length depends on used cereal or cereal mixt, and common 30 minutes to 2 hours just enough. Subsequently, mixture temperature is not to need too accurate speed to rise to gradually 90-95 ℃ and insulation 30 minutes to 1 hour under this temperature. Then, but mixture temperature is down to the saccharification allowed band, and normally 50 to 70 ℃, preferably 55-65 ℃ most preferably is 60 ℃. According to the concrete condition of employed Thermostability in the saccharifying, mixture temperature also can be down to a little higher than 70 ℃ scope. When temperature is down to optimum range, add carbohydrase such as Brewers Fermex (AMS) or Novamyl (restructuring beta amylase). The amount ranges of Brewers Fermex is generally 400 grams/ton to 1 kg/tonne. Glucoamylase also more often uses. Saccharification react carried out 30 minutes to 2 hours, subsequently temperature was risen to about 75-85 ℃ scope, and was incubated about 10 minutes with inactivator and unwanted microorganism under this temperature. This time is not very crucial.
The paddy slurry that makes thus utilizes well known equipment to filter. Use can effectively be finished filtration work with the funnel of Schleicher and Schuell filter paper. After the filtration, add suitable yeast in the paddy juice and ferment, the fermentation reaction condition depends on the final purpose of employed yeast strain and fermentation. Except beer brewing, the present invention also is used for the Alcohol Production as bio-fuel or alcoholic drink. Those skilled in the art know should use for which kind of yeast strains, selects which kind of reaction condition.
When preparing the paddy juice of using such as beer brewing, it is very useful adding exopeptidase in the liquefaction step of cereal crude product. Yet in saccharification step, than not adding exopeptidase, the adding of exopeptidase has above-mentioned advantage equally, such as FAN content, filterability and the output that can improve paddy juice.
The method according to this invention, the pH value of reacting phase and temperature condition should be able to guarantee the activity of Mycophyta exopeptidase.Suitable exopeptidase generally is the fungi endogenous enzyme, and the aspergillus tubigensis endogenous enzyme is then more effective.Have been found that some aspergillus tubigensis comprise that aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae and the endogenous aminopeptidase of beans aspergillar are very useful.
Above-mentioned narration clearlys show that liquefaction in paddy juice preparation process and/or saccharification step add the active enzyme of tool exopeptidase, can produce the paddy juice of the good filterability of tool, high yield and high FAN content.When beer brewing, produce alcoholic drink (drinks) and produce in the used cereal of alcohol (as biofuel) not that germinated ceral accounts for the overwhelming majority even when whole, this method is especially attractive.The country limited in the Fructus Hordei Germinatus import or expense is higher, adopting not, germinated ceral will be very favorable to wine brewing person.Particularly in Africa, beer brewing adopts the cereal crude product (miscellany) that contains a large amount of Chinese sorghums usually.
In addition, the beer that utilization uses the paddy juice of exopeptidase preparation to produce in liquefaction or saccharification step (or while two steps), its organoleptics property (mouthfeel and smell) all increases.When using germinated ceral such as traditional Fructus Hordei Germinatus beer brewing or carrying out dog's-nose when brewageing (germinateing and germination corniness miscellany not as utilizing), the use of exopeptidase also obviously has above-mentioned advantage.
The experiment thermally-stabilised α-Dian Fenmei of A. (liquefaction reaction)
The method according to this invention, the α-Dian Fenmei of using in liquefaction step are a kind of enzymes that can cut α in the starch-1,4 Portugal glucoside bond.Usually select the α-Dian Fenmei of tool thermostability for use.Use Gist-Brocades company can obtain extraordinary effect from the commercial enzyme of the trade mark Brewers AmyliqThermo Stable (B.A.T.S) by name of Bacillus licheniformis.B. endo-protease (liquefaction reaction)
The method according to this invention, the endo-protease that in liquefaction step, uses normally can be under the pH and temperature condition at liquefaction step initial stage the enzyme of (pH5-6, temperature range 45-55 ℃) scinderin matter peptide bond.Select for use Gist-Brocades company can obtain extraordinary effect from the neutral protease commodity of trade mark Brewer ' the s Protease2000 by name of bacillus amyloliquefaciens.Also can use proteolytic ferment, as the commodity of Panstimase SARL company logo Panstimase400 by name from streptomyces fradiae.C. exopeptidase (liquefaction reaction and/or saccharification react)
The exopeptidase that uses in the liquefaction step of the inventive method more normally can cut the enzyme of polypeptide or the terminal key of proteinic N-.Use can obtain extraordinary effect from the goods of aspergillus bacterial classification.A kind of method for preparing aminopeptidase from aspergillus niger will be disclosed below.C.1 the mensuration of enzymic activity
Exopeptidase is active in leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) unit or the unit representation of phenylalanine aminopeptidase:
1 unit leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) (Leu-AP) be under pH7.2,20 ℃ of conditions with L-leucine p-Nitroaniline with 1 micromole/minute speed generate the required enzyme amount of p-Nitroaniline;
* phenylalanine aminopeptidase unit
1 unit phenylalanine aminopeptidase (Phe-AP) be under pH7.2,20 ℃ of conditions with L-phenylalanine p-Nitroaniline with 1 micromole/minute speed generate the required enzyme amount of p-Nitroaniline.C.1.1. phenylalanine aminopeptidase (Phe-AP)
The phenylalanine p-Nitroaniline is dissolved among the 7.5mM HCl with 0.9mM concentration.With above-mentioned solution of 1ml and 1.5ml 0.1M phosphoric acid buffer (pH7.2) mixing.In above-mentioned mixed solution, add the 0.5ml enzyme again, place under 20 ℃ of conditions and react, and the enzyme-added moment is decided to be zero constantly.React and add 1ml 1N HCl after 15 minutes.Blank then constantly adds 1N HCl zero.Measure blank and experimental group in the optical density value of 400 nanometers, use OD respectively Blank, OD Experimental groupExpression.Calculate enzymic activity by following formula: C.1.2. leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) (Leu-AP)
The leucine p-Nitroaniline is dissolved in water to final concentration 9mM.Get the above-mentioned solution of 1ml, add 1.5ml 0.1M phosphoric acid buffer (pH7.2), mixing constantly adds the 0.5ml enzyme zero again, places under 20 ℃ of conditions and reacts.Add 1ml 1N HCl after 15 minutes.Blank then constantly adds 1N HCl zero.Measure blank and experimental group in the optical density value of 400 nanometers, use OD respectively Blank, OD Experimental groupExpression.Calculate enzymic activity by following formula: C.1.3. endo-protease (PU)
The activity of PU is to utilize the hydrolysis degree of casein after handling 1 hour under pH6.0, the 40 ℃ of environment to measure.1 PU of unit is meant that residual protein is behind trichloroacetic acid precipitation, by 1 micromole/minute required enzyme amount of clock rate generation tyrosine.C.2 the screening of Aspergillus niger strain
200 Aspergillus niger strains that be separated to or that obtain from the culture collection center place substratum to cultivate from the difference source.Substratum consists of: mealy potato 15 grams per liters, bacto peptone 20 grams per liters, yeast extract 7 grams per liters, KH 2PO 44 grams per liters, MgSO 40.5 grams per liter, CaCl 20.5 grams per liter, ZnCl 20.5 grams per liter, pH4.8.Mould was cultivated 24 hours so that 240 rev/mins of rate oscillations are pre-in 30 ℃, cultivated 96 hours with 275 rev/mins of rate oscillations in 30 ℃ again, collect supernatant then, and measure leucine, phenylalanine and Xie Ansuan amino-peptidase activity by previously described method.As shown in table 1, some Aspergillus niger strains have high level production, and one of them plants the ability (each numerical value all is the mean value of 4 independent experiments in the table) of enzymic activity.
Table 1
Bacterial strain number Amino-peptidase activity in the supernatant Endopeptidase
The Leu-AP/ liter The Phe-AP/ liter The Val-AP/ liter The PU/ milliliter
1053 25 170 32 <0.1
1085 23 135 48 0.1
1103 37 285 40 0.1
1108 60 435 29 0.1
1444 40 192 50 0.1
1497 25 105 75 0.1
1502 16 44 63 0.1
In the above-mentioned bacterial strains, No. 1108 and No. 1502 obtain from a culture collection center, and its preserving number is respectively NRRL3112 and CBS115.39.The NRRL3112 strain has been used for the production of amyloglucosidase, α-Dian Fenmei and glucoamylase.The CBS115.39 strain has been used for diastatic production technique.C.3 laboratory scale is produced exopeptidase
Some screening bacterial strains of describing among the embodiment 1 have been used for the fermentation of laboratory ferment jar (10 liters).This example provides the experimental result of 1502 bacterial strains.
Aspergillus niger strain No.1502 after 7-10 days, collects its spore in 30 ℃ of insulations in the PDA dish.In 24 hours it is inoculated in to be equipped with and contains the shaking in the bottle of 20 grams per liter glucose and 20 grams per liter cornmeal mush substratum.
Main fermenting process is by carrying out in batches.Used following nutrition: 100 grams per liter maltodextrins, 40 grams per liter soyflours, 40 grams per liter caseinhydrolysates, 5 grams per liter cornmeal mushes (corn steep), 2 grams per liter gelatin, 2 grams per liter potassium primary phosphates, 1.3 grams per liter SODIUMNITRATE, 1 grams per liter ammonium chloride, 0.01 grams per liter ferric sulfate and 0.5 grams per liter defoamer.
All the other nutrition compositions elder generation mixings except that maltodextrin, and regulate pH to 4.8 ± 0.1, then with fermentor tank in 125 ℃ of sterilizations 40 minutes, the independent sterilization of maltodextrin solution is added in the aseptic and chilled fermention medium again.
Add 6 in the laboratory ferment jar and go up and state substratum and be seeded in the inoculation bottle, ferment.Regulate stirring and aeration status to improve the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substratum as far as possible.Temperature maintenance at 30 ℃, after all nutrition run out of (being about 130 hours), is stopped fermentation.
Filtering fermentation liquor is to remove all microorganisms, and aminopeptidase and endopeptidase activity are in the mensuration filtrate:
0.15 Leu-AP/ milliliter
1.0 Phe-AP/ milliliter
<0.05 Val-AP/ milliliter
<0.1 PU/ milliliter carries out ultrafiltration and concentration subsequently making the ammonia liquor peptase, and adds glycerine (50%) and make enzyme stabilizers.Thus obtained solution is called Peptidase L2, and it has following activity:
0.5 Leu-AP/ milliliter
3.2 Phe-AP/ milliliter
<0.05 Val-AP/ milliliter
<0.1 PU/ milliliter
These results show, the aminopeptidase that the Aspergillus niger strain that we select produces under the condition that we select, and its endopeptidase activity is very low.C.4 the pH curve of enzymic activity
Leu-AP and Phe-AP activity all utilize Peptidase L2 (seeing embodiment 2) to measure, but use the pH value to be measured by 2.5 to 9.0 different damping fluids.
Fig. 1 is the pH curve that derives from the leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) of aspergillus niger.
Fig. 2 is the pH curve that derives from the phenylalanine aminopeptidase of aspergillus niger.
Diagram shows that the pH optimum range of leucine aminopeptidase(LAP) is pH5-8.5, and the phenylalanine aminopeptidase then has activity in the scope of pH5.5-9, similar with the aminopeptidase that derives from other aspergillus bacterial classification.C.5 the temperature curve of enzymic activity
Leu-AP and Phe-AP activity all utilize Peptidase L2 to measure, but use by the different holding temperature conditions in the 5-70 ℃ of scope.
Temperature curve as shown in Figure 3.The result shows that two kinds of enzymes have different optimum temperutures, and wherein the optimum temperuture of Leu-AP is 50 ℃, and Phe-AP then is 60 ℃.
Herein disclosed is a kind of method of from the aspergillus niger culture, producing aminopeptidase.The appropriate pH scope of these aminopeptidases is pH6-8, and the optimal temperature scope is 50-60 ℃.In addition, utilize the aminopeptidase of this method preparation, wherein endopeptidase content very low in addition detect less than.An advantage of the aminopeptidase that this method is produced is that its amino-peptidase activity preferably reaches more than 10 times than circumscribed protease activity height, most preferably is more than 30 times.D. maltogenic amylase (saccharification)
The amylase that saccharification step is used in the inventive method is that to cut in dextrin or the starch that α-1,4 Portugal glucoside bond produces with maltose and/or glucose be a kind of enzyme of primary product.Use trade mark that Gist-Brocades company derives from aspergillus oryzae all can obtain good effect as the commodity reorganization beta-amylase of Novamyl as the trade mark that commodity α-Dian Fenmei or the Novo company of Brewers ' Fermex derives from bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
Embodiment 1
Pulverize Chinese sorghum (FAFA FARA kind) and corn cob by the conventional need of producing beer, the ratio that adds 3 parts of water in every portion of cereal (containing 60% Chinese sorghum and 40% corn cob) is carried out the aquation processing.Add calcium chloride Ca to the substratum that liquefies 2+Concentration is 200ppm, uses Ca (OH) again 2Regulate pH to 6.5.Enzyme amount by 1.5 kilograms of cereal per ton adds B.A.T.S, adds other proteolytic ferment by table 2 dosage:
Table 2
Test No. Enzyme The enzyme dosage of cereal per ton
1 Do not have 0
2 Brewers Protease 2000 1.2kg
3 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 beans aspergillus source 1.2kg 73000 Leu-AP
4 Panstimase 400 10kg
5 The exopeptidase in Panstimase 400 beans aspergillus source 10kg 73000 Leu-AP
Mixture then is warming up to 95 ℃ (temperature rise rate is 1 ℃/minute) in 50 ℃ of insulations 1 hour, and is incubated 45 minutes down at 95 ℃.In 5 minutes, cool the temperature to 60 ℃ then, add Brewers Fermex by 600 gram/ton dosage again, and paddy is starched in 60 ℃ of saccharification 45 minutes.Temperature is risen to 76 ℃, and under this temperature, be incubated 10 minutes.The paddy slurry is poured in the funnel that Schleicher and Schuell filter paper are housed, measured filtration paddy juice volume and proportion to calculate extract content and productive rate.Make standard with glycine, measure wherein aminoacids content by ninhydrin reagent.The aminoacids content value that records is proofreaied and correct comparing with the paddy juice (12 ° of Plato) of same pol.
The result is as shown in table 3:
Table 3
Test No. Filter volume (milliliter) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 310 85.4 26.9
2 370 86.9 54.7
3 382 90.2 119.5
4 365 86.9 76.2
5 372 91.0 102.3
These results show: according to the present invention, mix aminoacids content, output and filterability that adding endo-protease and exopeptidase can improve paddy juice in method.
Embodiment 2
In experiment, use the brewage identical to carry out, make up but press the exopeptidase that table 4 adopts the neutral protease (cereal per ton uses 1.8 kilograms of Brewers Protease2000) from bacillus amyloliquefaciens to reach from different Aspergillus strains with embodiment 1:
Table 4
Test No. Employed exopeptidase
Biogenetic derivation The Leu-AP/ ton The Phe-AP/ ton
1 Do not have 0 0
2 Beans aspergillus 73000 49000
3 Aspergillus oryzae 73000 53000
4 Aspergillus niger 25000 100000
The result is as shown in table 5:
Table 5
Test No. Filter volume (milliliter) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 340 86.1 61.4
2 400 90.0 116.0
3 385 87.9 95.7
4 382 89.8 99.8
No matter which kind of biogenetic derivation used exopeptidase is, the endo-protease of all combinations is all better than independent use endo-protease effect with exopeptidase, and promptly aminoacids content, output and filterability all increase.
Embodiment 3
Method by embodiment 1 is brewageed Chinese sorghum and corn cob, to control the character of the paddy juice that is used for beer production that makes thus.Carry out another simultaneously and brewage, do not add enzyme in this method, but replace Chinese sorghum fully with Fructus Hordei Germinatus.As shown in table 6:
Table 6
Test No. Enzyme Dosage
1 Fructus Hordei Germinatus Replace Chinese sorghum
2 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 beans aspergillus source 1.8 kilogram/ton 42000 Leu-AP/ tons
3 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.8 kilogram/ton 40000 Leu-AP/ tons
4 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus nigers source 1.8 kilogram/ton 25000 Leu-AP/ tons
The result is as shown in table 7:
Table 7
Test No. Filter volume (milliliter) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 400 82.3 222.0
2 395 89.5 127.0
3 390 87.9 109.0
4 375 91.1 113.1
Each is brewageed group and all measures its amino acid whose composition in detail by the HPLC method.Uptake rate by the yeast kind is classified to amino acid:
A group: rapid absorption
The B group: middling speed absorbs
C group: slowly absorb
The result is as shown in table 8:
(because table 7 adopts glycine as standard, and the standard of HPLC method is different fully, so the total amino acid content that provides in NB value that provides with mg/litre in this table and the table 7 is inconsistent).
Table 8
Every group of paddy juice has all boiled 45 minutes, and distilled water is 12 ° of Plato to regulate pol through boiling also by aseptic method adding.In different aseptic Erlenmeyer flasks, add the paddy juice of 350ml after stdn respectively, add again and brewage with yeast (5 grams per liter).In 11 ℃ of fermentations 8 days.Ferment after 8 days by the apparent degree of decay (Apparent attenuation) of every group of fermentation of density measurement paddy juice.
The result is as shown in table 9:
Table 9
Test No. Apparent degree of decay (%) after 8 days
1 82.0
2 81.0
3 80.4
4 Undetermined
Compare with the paddy juice that produces by Fructus Hordei Germinatus, the method according to this invention makes up endo-protease and exopeptidase and is added to Chinese sorghum and can produces the paddy juice with good beer fermentation ability.Surprisingly, use from the endo-protease of bacillus amyloliquefaciens and from beans aspergillar exopeptidase combination can obviously raising A group and B group aminoacids content.
Embodiment 4
This example shows that the liquefaction step according to the present invention in method adds exopeptidase and have more superiority than adding in saccharification step.Method by embodiment 1 is brewageed Chinese sorghum and corn cob, and all brew groups all add Brewers Protease2000 (1.8 kilograms/ton) in liquefaction step.Derive from beans aspergillar exopeptidase and then add (40000Leu-AP/ ton) in liquefaction step (Test No. 1,2) or saccharification step (Test No. 3,4).The result is as shown in table 10:
Table 10
Test No. Filter volume (mg/litre) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 380 89.3 115.1
2 385 89.5 119.8
3 370 89.4 109.1
4 370 89.8 112.0
Measured the standard deviation that filters volume productivity and aminoacids content in every group of test by revision test, estimated value is respectively 10 milliliters, 0.5% and 0.9 mg/litre.
Generally speaking, The above results shows, adds exopeptidase and mainly can significantly improve amino acid output and filterability in liquefaction step.
Embodiment 5
This example has been described the influence of exopeptidase consumption to brewageing that improves the aspergillus oryzae source.
Method by embodiment 1 is brewageed Chinese sorghum and corn cob mixture.In liquefaction step, add Brewers Protease2000 and exopeptidase (table 11).
Table 11
Test No. Enzyme Enzyme dosage
1 Do not have 0
2 Brewers Protease 2000 1.0 kilogram/ton
3 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.0 kilogram/ton 62000 Leu-AP/ tons
4 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.0 kilogram/ton 109000 Leu-AP/ tons
5 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.0 kilogram/ton 155000 Leu-AP/ tons
6 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.0 kilogram/ton 234000 Leu-AP/ tons
7 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus oryzaes source 1.0 kilogram/ton 313000 Leu-AP/ tons
The result is as shown in table 12:
Table 12
Test No. Filter volume (milliliter) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 188 88.4 39.1
2 275 88.9 59.8
3 280 89.1 81.5
4 280 89.6 90.5
5 280 89.7 95.3
6 280 90.4 101.0
7 280 89.5 114.0
Used exopeptidase is many more, and the content of productive rate and total free aminoacids is also high more.On the contrary, filterability has then just reached ideal value at very low exopeptidase consumption.
Embodiment 6
During being illustrated in and brewageing, this example improves the influence of the exopeptidase consumption generation in aspergillus niger source.
Method by embodiment 1 is brewageed Chinese sorghum and corn cob.In liquefaction step, add Brewers Protease2000 and exopeptidase.
Table 13
Test No. Enzyme Enzyme dosage
1 Do not have 0
2 Brewers Protease 2000 1.0 kilogram/ton
3 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus nigers source 1.0 kilogram/ton 51000 Phe-AP/ tons
4 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus nigers source 1.0 kilogram/ton 90000 Phe-AP/ tons
5 The exopeptidase in Brewers Protease 2000 aspergillus nigers source 1.0 kilogram/ton 127000 Phe-AP/ tons
The results are shown in table 14:
Table 14
Test No. Filter volume (milliliter) Productive rate (%) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato
1 188 88.4 39.1
2 240 88.6 60.1
3 246 89.7 63.7
4 258 89.5 64.2
5 232 89.7 65.7
The result shows that also the exopeptidase of use is many more, and its productive rate and total free aminoacids level are also high more.The result also shows, uses the exopeptidase in aspergillus oryzae source more a little better than the exopeptidase effect in aspergillus niger source.
Embodiment 7
Barley (PLAISANT kind) is ground into cake flour by suitable filtration pressure in the wine brewing room.Restrain flour with 300 milliliters of aqueous suspensions 57 that contain following substances, and be incubated 1 hour in 50 ℃:
9 milligrams of B.A.T.S
2 milligrams of Filtrase L3000 (+) (the Beta-Glycogen enzyme commodity that derive from bacillus amyloliquefaciens of Gist-brocades company)
4 milligrams of Brewers Protease2000
And the exopeptidase in the beans aspergillus of corresponding dosage source.Temperature rises to 63 ℃ (temperature rise rate is 1 ℃/minute) subsequently, and in 63 ℃ of insulations 30 minutes.Then again temperature is risen to 90 ℃ (temperature rise rate is 1 ℃/minute), and in 90 ℃ of insulations 20 minutes.Again brewing material is cooled to 25 ℃ and centrifugal 15 minutes with the speed of 7000g.At last the content of soluble proteins in the supernatant and total free aminoacids is analyzed.
The result is as shown in Table 15:
Table 15
Test No. Exopeptidase consumption (Leu-AP/ ton) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato Soluble protein (accounting for the per-cent of dry-matter)
1 0 77.9 4.21
2 25000 95.3 4.75
3 50000 118.4 4.99
4 100000 133.2 5.42
5 200000 203.6 6.63
6 400000 295.0 7.55
The result shows, adds the exopeptidase in beans aspergillus source in the liquefaction step that barley is brewageed, and can make free aminoacid content wherein reach the level of Fructus Hordei Germinatus in brewageing.
Embodiment 8
Press the method brewing barley among the embodiment 7, but this sentences the exopeptidase that aspergillus niger source exopeptidase replaces beans aspergillus source among the embodiment 7.The result is shown in table 16:
Table 16
Test No. Exopeptidase consumption (Leu-AP/ ton) Aminoacids content (mg/litre) during 12 ° of Plato Soluble protein (accounting for the per-cent of dry-matter)
1 0 68.2 4.37
2 10000 69.8 4.20
3 50000 75.2 4.25
4 200000 78.0 4.16
5 500000 89.1 4.50
6 1000000 101.0 4.18
As if although the exopeptidase in aspergillus niger source is more less better than the effect in beans aspergillus source, the aminoacids content in the barley juice when it also can make 12 ° of Plato reaches 100 mg/litre, this is very satisfactory in beer fermentation.
Microbial preservation
Produce the used bacterial strain of exopeptidase and be stored in Dutch fungi strain preservation center (CentraalBureau Voor Schimmelcutures, Oosterstraat 1, Baarn), preserve and number to be respectively CBS115.39 (open preservation center), CBS209.96 (beans aspergillus (DS8351); On February 12nd, 1996) and CBS210.96 (aspergillus oryzae (DS23617) preservation date:; Preservation date: on February 12nd, 1996).

Claims (12)

1. method of producing fermentable wort may further comprise the steps:
(a) under α-Dian Fenmei and/or endo-protease active function, cereal liquefaction is produced liquefaction paddy slurry; With
(b) under the α-Dian Fenmei effect, make said liquefaction paddy slurry carry out saccharification;
(c) will liquefy and the paddy of saccharification slurry filters, obtain fermentable wort;
Wherein the above-mentioned steps (a) and (b) at least the first carry out in the presence of the active enzyme of exopeptidase having.
2. in accordance with the method for claim 1, wherein used cereal contains 20% not germinated ceral at least.
3. in accordance with the method for claim 2, wherein used cereal contains 20% not germination Chinese sorghum at least.
4. in accordance with the method for claim 3, wherein used cereal contains 50% not germination Chinese sorghum at least.
5. according to each described method among the claim 1-4, the liquefaction step of cereal has been used exopeptidase therein.
6. according to each described method among the claim 1-5, wherein employed exopeptidase is the Mycophyta exopeptidase.
7. in accordance with the method for claim 6, wherein said fungi is an aspergillus tubigensis.
8. in accordance with the method for claim 7, wherein said fungi is a beans aspergillus.
9. in accordance with the method for claim 6, wherein said exopeptidase is a kind of aminopeptidase.
10. in accordance with the method for claim 8, wherein said endo-protease can obtain from bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
11. the method for a beer brewing comprises according to each described method among the claim 1-10 and produces paddy juice and said paddy juice is carried out steps such as fermentative production beer.
12. a method of producing alcohol or alcoholic drinks comprises the step that the paddy juice that makes in accordance with the method for claim 1 ferments in the presence of the yeast that can produce alcohol.
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EP1657300A1 (en) 2004-11-10 2006-05-17 N-Zyme BioTec GmbH Beverages having reduced prolamine content and their preparation method
JP4627296B2 (en) * 2006-10-27 2011-02-09 キリンホールディングス株式会社 Method for producing wort for producing fermented malt beverage
WO2012088303A2 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-28 Novozymes North America, Inc. Processes for producing fermentation products
US20150118355A1 (en) * 2012-05-11 2015-04-30 Novozymes A/S Brewing Method
CN103767018B (en) * 2012-10-22 2015-08-12 内蒙古伊利实业集团股份有限公司 A kind of cereal beverage and preparation method thereof
US10093882B2 (en) 2013-06-24 2018-10-09 Novozymes A/S Processes for recovering oil from fermentation product processes and processes for producing fermentation products
US20170306360A1 (en) * 2014-10-24 2017-10-26 Danisco Us Inc. Method for producing alcohol by use of a tripeptidyl peptidase
WO2016193420A1 (en) * 2015-06-04 2016-12-08 Novozymes A/S Use of m4 metalloprotease in wort production
JP6869681B2 (en) * 2016-09-30 2021-05-12 サッポロビール株式会社 A method for producing a beer-taste beverage and a method for imparting a good aftertaste quality to a beer-taste beverage.

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