CN106270812B - A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm - Google Patents

A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm Download PDF

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CN106270812B
CN106270812B CN201610785484.4A CN201610785484A CN106270812B CN 106270812 B CN106270812 B CN 106270812B CN 201610785484 A CN201610785484 A CN 201610785484A CN 106270812 B CN106270812 B CN 106270812B
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point
worm
lathe
radius
points
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CN106270812A (en
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董新会
段晓宾
王军强
顾景江
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Sinosteel Xian Machinery Co Ltd
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Sinosteel Xian Machinery Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23FMAKING GEARS OR TOOTHED RACKS
    • B23F13/00Making worms by methods essentially requiring the use of machines of the gear-cutting type

Abstract

The present invention relates to method for turning technical fields, more particularly to a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm, by worm screw clamping to be processed on numerically controlled lathe, plane where it is S, and n, n1 are respectively two instantaneous positions of the point when enveloping worm rotates corresponding to tooth socket variation on the tooth socket side of shaft section extended segment;Cutoff tool respective face point of a knife is moved to n points, executing bootstrap makes corresponding point of a knife to n1 points, again moving interpolation is carried out from n1 points by radius of clean-up of R+m, process the arc spiral line of a side, withdrawing is to initial n points, similarly cut another side arc spiral line, complete the cutting in worm spiral face, it needs to process starting point by executing bootstrap determination, so as to accurately determine processing initial point position, the dependence to specialized nc machine tool is broken away from, reduce the technology requirement of operator, reduce manufacturing cost, processing stand can disposably be found, processing efficiency greatly improved.

Description

A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm
Technical field
The present invention relates to method for turning, and in particular to a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm.
Background technology
The processing of traditional helical surface of enveloping worm is carried out on the special purpose machine tool of gear-hobbing machine or lathe improvement, then Grinding, the method belongs to the method for forming cutter processing enveloping worm tooth form, but will match when processing the worm screw of different size Corresponding cutterhead and lathe tool are set, the method process-cycle is long, and manufacturing cost is high, and setting for machine complexity is cumbersome, tool sharpening Profession requires height, very bothersome when to worker's technology requirement height, especially Single unit job lot production, existing《Industry and science and technology Forum》The 24th phase Li Song of volume 10 in 2011《The turning of enveloping worm is realized on numerically controlled lathe with macroprogram》Provide one Kind of technical method belongs to simulation tooth curve and processes enveloping worm tooth form with continuous linear taper thread to be fitted circular thread Method, when existing method uses lathe in machining enveloping worm tooth form, cutting worm tooth socket, it is necessary to assure main shaft gyration and knife The synchronous control (C axis X-axis Z axis) for having movement can only just can guarantee this same in digital control processing by the way of screw thread process Step relationship, general NC system only supports the processing of line thread, and the tool motion of enveloping worm is same with main shaft gyration The circular motion in XZ planes is done in the case of step, this, which is digital control system, to provide, in process, existing processing Method is fitted circular thread with continuous tapered tread, every a bit of tapered tread all need to find this section of starting point just start plus Work is to this section of helical terminal, and repeatedly segmentation causes plus man-hour requirement repeatedly confirms processing starting point, so as to cause machine tool system shape State switching is frequent, and the worm tooth processed is increased away from accumulated error, is especially become apparent in large modulus large pitch, process Middle Creeping of Machining Tools phenomenon is serious.The worm screw face that especially this method processes is that the continuous taper thread line of multistage fits the circular arc come Thread tooth is not the accurate circular thread flank of tooth.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of methods of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm, will using first guiding Cutter is adjusted to the X-coordinate Z coordinate position needed, while worm screw being made to be directly turned to the angle needed, then according to uniform rotation The motion mode put on worm screw shaft section tooth socket controls lathe tool using Circular Interpolation in Computerized Numerical Control order, can be directly according to circular arc spiral shell Line mode accurately processes enveloping worm tooth socket, safe to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm, by worm screw clamping to be processed on numerically controlled lathe, Place plane is S, and worm screw to be processed fillet radius in plane S is Rf1, tip circle of worm arc radius is Ra1, reference circle Radius is R, and cutoff tool main cutting edge width is L, and n, n1 are respectively a point on the tooth socket side of shaft section extended segment in anchor ring Tooth socket changes two corresponding instantaneous positions when worm screw rotates;Setting worm screw rotating speed perseverance is s, mobile cutoff tool respective face point of a knife To n points, executing bootstrap makes corresponding point of a knife to n1 points, then carries out moving interpolation from n1 points by radius of clean-up of R+m, processes The arc spiral line of one side, withdrawing to initial n points similarly cut another side arc spiral line, complete worm spiral face Cutting.
Further, main shaft perseverance rotating speed during turning helicoid.
Further, angular speed is identical when each circular interpolation cutting helicoid feed.
Further, operating angle, reference circle of wormwheel of the helical pitch by guiding starting point and ending point in screw thread boot segment program Radius, opposite cutting-in value, number of threads and the worm gear number of teeth determine jointly.
Further, the parted hair of worm screw is carried out by adjusting the initial angle number of degrees in screw thread bootstrap.
Further, wherein m is opposite cutting-in, the difference of the opposite reference circle of wormwheel radius r of certain point as on worm spiral face Value;In bootstrap, i.e., while point n has gone to point n1 on tooth form of axial direction after worm screw rotary motion, cutter is also from point n to point N1, at this time on worm tooth shape the C axis rotary angle position of point n1 and X-coordinate Z coordinate be exactly cutter need position.
Further, wherein cutter spacing point coordinates determines that formula is:
X=ao- (r+m) sin ψ ± mtg α cos ψ
Z=Zo+ (r+m) cos ψ ± mtg α sin ψs
In formula:Ao is worm and gear centre-to-centre spacing, and Zo is the axial coordinate value at worm gear center;R is the snail being meshed with worm screw The reference radius of wheel, ψ are operating angle, and α is reference circle profile angle.
Further, the specific formula of bootstrap is:
Helical pitch F=boot segments axial internal clearance/boot segment screw thread revolution;
From point n to point n1, screw thread axial internal clearance is (cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m);
From point n to point n1, corresponding worm gear revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 °,
Then corresponding worm screw revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1;
Therefore helical pitch F=[(cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m)]/[(ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1] i.e. [360 °/(ψ of F= n1-ψn)]·[Z1/Z2]·(cosψn-cosψn1)·(R+m)
Wherein Z1 is worm screw line number, and Z2 is the worm gear number of teeth.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has technique effect beneficial below:
A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm of the present invention, by shaft section extended segment tooth socket side On when arbitrarily taking the rotation of enveloping worm tooth socket change two corresponding instantaneous position points, pass through and execute bootstrap and determine The processing starting point needed, control cutter occupy processing initial point position, and the method for then using circular interpolation completes worm screw circular arc Screw chasing is disposably found processing stand in capable of cutting every time, is avoided to accurately process the arc spiral flank of tooth of worm screw Accumulated error a little is repeatedly looked for, Machine-Tool Control mode is simplified, digital control system is more stablized, and tooth accuracy is protected.The party Method has broken away from the dependence to special worm machine tool, reduces the technology requirement of operator, reduces manufacturing cost, greatly improve Processing efficiency.
Further, the specific formula of bootstrap is:
Helical pitch F=boot segments axial internal clearance/boot segment screw thread revolution;
From point n to point n1, screw thread axial internal clearance is (cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m);
From point n to point n1, corresponding worm gear revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 °,
Then corresponding worm screw revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1;
Therefore helical pitch F=[(cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m)]/[(ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1] i.e. [360 °/(ψ of F= n1-ψn)]·[Z1/Z2]·(cosψn-cosψn1)·(R+m)
Wherein Z1 is worm screw line number, and Z2 is the worm gear number of teeth, makes after worm screw uniform speed rotation that point n is gone on tooth form of axial direction While point n1, cutter also from point n to point n1, at this time on worm tooth shape point n1 C axis rotary angle position and X-coordinate Z Coordinate be exactly cutter need position, that is cutter is accurately captured point n1;Then cutter can from point n1 to The movement that point n2 is put when simulating worm screw uniform rotation on tooth form of axial direction using circular interpolation accurately processes the flank of tooth.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is cutting principle figure of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is figure of the embodiment of the present invention.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm, worm screw clamping to be processed is existed On numerically controlled lathe, where plane be S, worm screw to be processed fillet radius in plane S is Rf1, tip circle of worm arc half Diameter is Ra1, reference radius R, and cutoff tool main cutting edge width is L, and n, n1 are respectively on the tooth socket side of shaft section extended segment A point when enveloping worm rotates tooth socket change two corresponding instantaneous positions;Setting worm screw rotating speed perseverance is s, and movement is cut For breaking respective face point of a knife to n points, executing bootstrap makes corresponding point of a knife to n1 points, then is carried out from n1 points by radius of clean-up of R+m Moving interpolation processes the arc spiral line of a side, and withdrawing to initial n points similarly cuts another side arc spiral line, Complete the cutting in worm spiral face.Wherein m is opposite cutting-in, the opposite reference circle of wormwheel radius r of certain point as on worm spiral face Difference;In bootstrap, i.e., while point n has gone to point n1 on tooth form of axial direction after worm screw uniform speed rotation, cutter From point n to point n1, at this time the C axis rotary angle position of point n1 and X-coordinate Z coordinate are exactly that cutter needs on worm tooth shape Position, that is cutter is accurately captured point n1;Then cutter can from point n1 to point n2 using circular interpolation come mould The movement put on tooth form of axial direction when quasi- worm screw uniform rotation accurately processes the flank of tooth.
Wherein cutter spacing point coordinates determines that formula is:
X=ao- (r+m) sin ψ ± mtg α cos ψ
Z=Zo+ (r+m) cos ψ ± mtg α sin ψs
In formula:Process left side when take+, processing right side be take-;Ao is worm and gear centre-to-centre spacing, and Zo is worm gear center Axial coordinate value;R is the reference radius for the worm gear being meshed with worm screw, ψ is operating angle, and α is reference circle profile angle;
The specific formula of bootstrap is:
Helical pitch F=boot segments axial internal clearance/boot segment screw thread revolution;
From point n to point n1, screw thread axial internal clearance is (cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m);
From point n to point n1, corresponding worm gear revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 °,
Then corresponding worm screw revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1;
Therefore helical pitch F=[(cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m)]/[(ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1] i.e. [360 °/(ψ of F= n1-ψn)]·[Z1/Z2]·(cosψn-cosψn1)·(R+m)
Wherein Z1 is worm screw line number, and Z2 is the worm gear number of teeth.
Main shaft perseverance rotating speed during turning helicoid;Angular speed phase when each circular interpolation cutting helicoid feed Together;Helical pitch is by the operating angle of guiding starting point and ending point, reference circle of wormwheel radius, opposite cutting-in in screw thread boot segment program Value, number of threads and the worm gear number of teeth determine jointly.In screw thread boot segment program worm screw is carried out by adjusting the initial angle number of degrees Separately.
It is described further below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings to structural principle of the invention and using step:
Embodiment 1:Worm screw is reference center distance 250, centre-to-centre spacing increasing amount 10.5, number of threads 2, root circle of worm arc half Diameter Rf1=219.8, tip circle of worm arc radius Ra1=208.6, worm screw working portion length 112, the pairing master worm wheel number of teeth 58, reference circle of wormwheel radius 203, base radius 80, reference circle of worm axial tooth thickness 10.38, the right side that processing grinding allowance is 0.3 For rotation planar double-enveloping worm.
Preparation:
[1] it is drawn and is measured by CAD, tooth socket bottom minimum widith 5.90, tooth socket depth capacity 11.50.Select major cutting edge wide Degree is 5, the hard alloy cutoff tool of maximum cutting-in 22.
[2] it is 7.866 ° of mean lead angle to choose cutter hub clamping face remodeling angle.
[3] it is m=Ra1-R-10.5=-4.9 with respect to cutting-in initial value when cutter processing, opposite cutting-in stop value is m= Rf1-R-10.5=6.3.
According to CAD drawing measurement results, arrange opposite cutting-in m in -4.9~1.0 range, a point left, center, right are cut three knives and cut Go out space width;Opposite cutting-in m is divided to left and right two knives of cutting to cut out space width in 1.0~6.3 range.
[4] according to CAD drawing measurement results, to avoid tipping when just cutting helicoid, by start-up phase to cutting-in m=-4.9 - 5.5 are adjusted to,
That is starting radius of clean-up reduces to R+m=R-5.5=208.
[5] sizes other in addition to worm spiral face are first cut in place before processing.
[6] main shaft is set as permanent rotating speed 60, each incision amount 0.08.
Start left cut, tooth socket left side is cut.Selected numerically-controlled machine tool is FANUC systems, and program segment is as follows:
X#8 Z#9;The left point of a knife of mobile cutting knife is coordinate value to point n, parameter #8 #9, and each cutting will calculate new coordinate deeply Value.
G32 X#11 Z#12 F#13 Q#1
;This section of program is screw thread boot segment, and worm spiral starting point n1 is captured from point n to point n1.
;Wherein parameter #11, #12 is the coordinate of point n1, and each incision changes calculated value.
;Relative coordinate differences and number of threads and the worm gear number of teeth of the wherein helical pitch value parameter #13 depending on calculating point n to point n1 (transmission ratio).
;Wherein parameter #1 determines worm screw separately.
G02 X#15 Z#16 F#17 R[#18+#2]
;This section of program is circular interpolation, is cut from point n1 to point n2 by enveloping worm drive rule steady circular.
;Coordinate value is recalculated in the coordinate that wherein parameter #15, #16 is a little 3, each incision.
;Parameter #17, #18 contains transmission ratio and increases centre-to-centre spacing numerical value, every time cutting variation calculated value, carries out corresponding Mill amount homogenizing.
Withdrawing returns to point n4 to point n3 after program has executed.Execute following procedure:
It is cut in beginning, carrying out surplus to tooth socket middle part cuts.Program segment is as follows:
X#8 Z#9;Mobile cutting knife sword midpoint is to tooth socket intermediate point, new calculating point n again.
G32 X#11 Z#12 F#13 Q#1;Screw thread guides, and the new starting point n1 of worm spiral is captured from point n to point n1.
G02 X#15 Z#16 F#17 R[#18+#2];Circular interpolation, from new point n1 to new point n2 steady circulars cutting.
Withdrawing is to point n3 is calculated after program has executed, back to calculating point n4.
Start right cut, tooth socket right side is cut.Program segment is as follows:
X#8 Z#9
G32 X#11 Z#12 F#13 Q#1
G02 X#15 Z#16 F#17 R[#18+#2]
Withdrawing is to point n3 is calculated after program has executed, back to calculating point n4.
When being an incision amount 0.08 above, three knife of left, center, right is carried out to first helix of worm screw and cuts out space width Degree.
Adjusting parameter #1 values separately, cut lower helix of worm screw after the completion.Continuous adjusting parameter #1 is all until cutting Head number.
Then #2 values are adjusted, increase radius of clean-up, again incision 0.08, successively each head helix of vehicle worm screw, left, center, right Three knives cut out tooth socket.
So cycle, constantly calculates new coordinate points and helical pitch, and control is cut separately.
When cutting-in reaches #18+1=223.5, two knives can cut out space width, that is, cut only two knives of left and right in omitting and cut out Tooth socket.
With deepening continuously to #18+6.3=219.8 for radius of clean-up, above program execute 377 cuttings altogether can be complete At the processing of the entire helicoid of worm screw.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm, which is characterized in that by worm screw clamping to be processed in numerical control On lathe, place plane is S, and worm screw to be processed fillet radius in plane S is Rf1, tip circle of worm arc radius is Ra1, reference radius R, cutoff tool main cutting edge width are L, and n, n1 are respectively one on the tooth socket side of shaft section extended segment A point tooth socket when enveloping worm rotates changes two corresponding instantaneous positions;Setting worm screw rotating speed perseverance is s, mobile cutoff tool For respective face point of a knife to n points, executing bootstrap makes corresponding point of a knife to n1 points, then carries out interpolation from n1 points by radius of clean-up of R+m Movement processes the arc spiral line of a side, and withdrawing to initial n points similarly cuts another side arc spiral line, completes The cutting in worm spiral face;Wherein m is opposite cutting-in, the difference of the opposite reference circle of wormwheel radius r of certain point as on worm spiral face Value;In bootstrap, i.e., while point n has gone to point n1 on tooth form of axial direction after worm screw rotary motion, cutter is also from point n to point N1, at this time on worm tooth shape the C axis rotary angle position of point n1 and X-coordinate Z coordinate be exactly cutter need position, draw The specific formula of helical pitch sequence is:
Helical pitch F=boot segments axial internal clearance/boot segment screw thread revolution;
From point n to point n1, screw thread axial internal clearance is (cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m);
From point n to point n1, corresponding worm gear revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 °,
Then corresponding worm screw revolution is (ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1;
Therefore helical pitch F=[(cos ψ n-cos ψ n1) (R+m)]/[360 °/(ψ n1- ψ of [(ψ n1- ψ n)/360 ° of Z2/Z1] i.e. F= n)]·[Z1/Z2]·(cosψn-cosψn1)·(R+m)
Wherein Z1 is worm screw line number, and Z2 is the worm gear number of teeth.
2. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in vehicle Cut main shaft perseverance rotating speed during helicoid.
3. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm according to claim 1, which is characterized in that every time Angular speed is identical when circular interpolation cuts helicoid feed.
4. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm according to claim 1, which is characterized in that screw thread Helical pitch is by the operating angle of guiding starting point and ending point, reference circle of wormwheel radius, opposite cutting-in value, worm screw head in boot segment program Number and the worm gear number of teeth determine jointly.
5. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in spiral shell The parted hair of worm screw is carried out in line bootstrap by adjusting the initial angle number of degrees.
6. a kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm according to claim 1, which is characterized in that wherein Cutter spacing point coordinates determines that formula is:
X=ao- (r+m) sin ψ ± mtg α cos ψ
Z=Zo+ (r+m) cos ψ ± mtg α sin ψs
In formula:Ao is worm and gear centre-to-centre spacing, and Zo is the axial coordinate value at worm gear center;R is the worm gear being meshed with worm screw Reference radius, ψ are operating angle, and α is reference circle profile angle.
CN201610785484.4A 2016-08-30 2016-08-30 A kind of method of lathe in machining helical surface of enveloping worm Active CN106270812B (en)

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