CN105601406B - Humic loam and its production method and application - Google Patents

Humic loam and its production method and application Download PDF

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CN105601406B
CN105601406B CN201510780839.6A CN201510780839A CN105601406B CN 105601406 B CN105601406 B CN 105601406B CN 201510780839 A CN201510780839 A CN 201510780839A CN 105601406 B CN105601406 B CN 105601406B
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humic
loam
black
rice husk
powder
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CN105601406A (en
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黄海涛
黄东放
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

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  • Treatment Of Sludge (AREA)
  • Processing Of Solid Wastes (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of humic loam and its production method and applications, belong to the production field of humic loam.Humic loam of the present invention is prepared by following raw material: diafiltration sludge, dried leaf powder, copropel, black charcoal powder, pyroligneous liquor and HM microbial inoculum.The invention also discloses a kind of production methods of humic loam, comprising: (1) mixes diafiltration sludge, copropel and dried leaf powder, obtain mixture;(2) pyroligneous liquor dilutes, and mixes with HM microbial inoculum, black charcoal powder, obtains mixture;(3) gained mixture in step (1) and step (2) is mixed, prepares compost heap body;(4) aerobic fermentation, drying to get.The method of the present invention is using landfill leachate as primary raw material, realize landfill leachate resources utilization, humic loam produced can increase the soil organism, promote soil fertility, can be applied in gardening, agricultural or forestry soil improvement or prepare in microbial-bacterial fertilizer.

Description

Humic loam and its production method and application
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of humic loam more particularly to a kind of new refuse percolate production humic loam method, Belong to the production field of humic loam.
Background technique
Domestic waste is during transhipment, landfill, and through overcompaction, anaerobic fermentation, organic matter decomposed, rainwater shower, And after the physics chemical action of a series of complex such as surface water and groundwater immersion, it can be oozed out from rubbish heap bottom a certain amount of High concentrated organic wastewater, this organic wastewater are exactly landfill leachate, through house refuse generate, transhipment, processing it is complete Process.
Currently, certain qualitative understanding is based only on for percolate mechanism of production, and to deep layers such as its dynamic characteristics It is very weak in terms of the research of mechanism.Percolate processing aspect also lacks rational technology, applicable advanced technology.Although many infiltrations Filtrate processing method has their own advantages, but also has limitation.The two major features of ammonia nitrogen concentration height and the biodegradability difference of percolate And difficult point, it is problem urgently to be resolved.Processing technique with low investment, that effect is good how is found, is a very difficult task.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a kind of humic loam, which be percolated with new refuse Liquid is primary raw material, is produced using garden waste, rice husk, copropel as auxiliary material, and the soil organism can be increased, and promotes soil Earth fertility improves soil, promotes the growth of crop or vegetables.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
The present invention discloses a kind of humic loam first, is prepared by following each component: diafiltration sludge, dried leaf powder, Copropel, black charcoal powder, pyroligneous liquor and microbial inoculum.
According to mass parts, the dosage of each component is sludge 40-60 parts of diafiltration, 20-40 parts of dried leaf powder, 5-15 parts of copropel, Black charcoal powder 3-7 parts, 0.15-0.25 parts of pyroligneous liquor, 0.05-0.15 parts of microbial inoculum;Preferably, according to mass parts meter, each raw material Dosage is 55 parts of sludge of diafiltration, 30 parts of dried leaf powder, 10 parts of copropel, and 5 parts of black charcoal powder, 0.2 part and 0.1 part of microbial inoculum of pyroligneous liquor.
The preparation of diafiltration sludge of the present invention includes: that landfill leachate and ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk or rice husk black wood charcoal are wadded a quilt with cotton Solidifying agent mixes, and stands, and obtains limpid water body and diafiltration sludge;
Preferably, the preparation of the diafiltration sludge further include: the black charcoal powder of limpid water body is filtered, it is isolated Adsorb organic matter black charcoal powder to get.
Wherein, the dosage of the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant is the 1/100 of landfill leachate;It is described Landfill leachate is house refuse exudation organic wastewater;The preparation method of the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk includes: to carry out rice husk Pyrolysis, crush to get;Wherein, the pyrolysis temperature is 390-420 DEG C;The diameter 10-30 of the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk is micro- Rice;The preparation of the rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant includes: to mix the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk with zeolite powder, sodium carbonate, water to grind Mill to get.Wherein, the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk, zeolite powder, sodium carbonate, water mass ratio be 5:4:1:25.
The preparation of the dried leaf powder include: by dry fresh grass bits or fresh leaf, dry fallen leaves or flower lose in it is any one Kind or it is a variety of mixed according to arbitrary proportion, crush to get;Wherein, the flower loses for the petal that dries up;The dried leaf powder is as bone Frame material mainly plays loose permeation functions, hemicellulose therein in a short time can some be decomposed by the microorganisms utilization, And cellulose, the lignin of incomplete decomposing are then conducive to keep the fluffy degree of finished product, keep the permeability of product.
The copropel is human and animal excreta through being separated by solid-liquid separation obtained liquid dung, adds and accounts for the poly- of liquid dung total amount 0.1-0.3% Acrylamide, polyacrylamide absorb water in liquid dung formation floccule by liquid dung solid matter adsorb, in gravity The sludge object that lower precipitating is formed.Its carbon-nitrogen ratio is about 20:1, and organic phosphorous content is very low.
The microbial inoculum is the HM microbial inoculum of mass percent 0.5%, presses matter by amylase D6, lipase Z4, cellulase X4 Amount is than being that 1:1:1 is formed.
The preparation of the pyroligneous liquor, black charcoal powder includes:
(1) tree limb is processed into wood chip, is pyrolyzed, obtain black charcoal and thick pyroligneous liquor;
(2) thick pyroligneous liquor is stood, precipitation and separation, is distilled, the pyroligneous liquor refined;
(3) black charcoal is crushed, is sieved, obtains black charcoal powder.
Wherein, tree limb is mainly that urban afforestation beautification and suburb forestry are fostered, produced in pruning fruit tree operation process Raw waste, the main component lignin of these wastes;Fresh grass bits, fresh leaf, are in turf-mown, topiaries process Middle generation, main component includes cellulose, hemicellulose, colloid, protein, moisture etc.;Dry fallen leaves, flower lose, mainly The withered petal of the dry fallen leaves of trees and summer after The flowers bloom luxuriantly after one growth cycle of autumn, main component are cellulose, half Cellulose;The temperature of the pyrolysis is controlled at 390-420 DEG C;The precipitation and separation is wood after thick pyroligneous liquor stands a period of time Wood tar, pyroligneous acid can generate layering because of the difference of specific gravity in jealous woman liquid, and heavy wood tar can be deposited in the bottom of container Portion extracts intermediate crude pyroligneous acid;The weak yellow liquid condensed in distillation process is exactly to refine pyroligneous liquor, in distiller Remaining dark thick liquid is wood tar.
Preferably, the moisture content 30% of the dried leaf powder;The length of the wood chip is 3-8 centimetres, 1-2 centimetres of thickness wide; The diameter of the black charcoal powder is in 1mm or less.
The present invention further discloses a kind of methods for producing the humic loam, comprising the following steps: (1) will diafiltration dirt Mud, copropel and dried leaf powder mix, and obtain mixture;(2) pyroligneous liquor is diluted, mixes, is mixed with microbial inoculum, black charcoal powder Body;(3) gained mixture in step (1) and step (2) is mixed, prepares compost heap body;(4) aerobic fermentation, drying to get.
The present invention produces in the method for the humic loam, described to be diluted to 2000 times of dilution;The heap body is 1.5 meters high, 2-3 meters of width, length visual field size and excrement it is how many depending on, moisture control is in 60%-65%;After the drying, gained Humic fertilizer soil's water content is 35%.
Humic loam finished product physical property produced by the invention is stablized, and appearance is in granular form, and color is dark brown, organic matter Content is high, good permeability, the loose softness of quality, not viscous not weigh, and pH value is in subacidity, is free of soil, moisture content is about 35%, is Improve soil aggregate structure, increases the important materials of the soil organism.
The invention also discloses a kind of method of comprehensive utilization of afforestation waste, comprising the following steps: (1) by gardens Pyrolysis of waste obtains black charcoal, pyrolysis liquids and pyrolysis gas;(2) by pyrolysis liquids precipitated and separated, wood tar is obtained;(3) Pyrolysis gas is purified, wood gas is obtained.
Wherein, the garden waste is tree limb;The temperature of the pyrolysis is controlled at 390-420 DEG C.
Wood tar is that the liquid precipitation that garden waste is pyrolyzed is layered, it is that a kind of heavy oil can be used as the energy It uses;Water-gas is that the purification for gas that garden waste is pyrolyzed obtains, and can be used as the dry energy.
Humic loam of the present invention contain high-energy, high protein, high activity microbial flora, be alternatively arranged as production microorganism The raw material of bacterial manure.
Humic loam of the present invention can increase the soil organism, promote soil fertility, improve soil, promote crop or vegetables Growth.
The present invention is tested by experimental material of cucumber, the results showed that being grown in the cucumber yield mixed and apply humic loam has Apparent to increase, wherein single fruit weight improves 57.69%, and single plant yield improves 76.02%.
Technical solution of the present invention compared with prior art, has the advantages that
The present invention makes the higher level of new refuse percolate resource utilization, the ammonia generated during resource utilization The loss of nitrogen (N) element can be reduced with sharp fall, maintain the fertilizer efficiency ingredient in raw material as much as possible, can also incited somebody to action Garden waste, rice husk, carbon (C) element in copropel are fixed up, and bury in soil, reduce the discharge of greenhouse gases, So that four parts " rubbish " in city has been obtained resource utilization, realizes " treatment of wastes with processes of wastes against one another ", the purpose of " turning harm into good ".
Specific embodiment
The invention will now be further described with reference to specific embodiments, the advantages and features of the present invention will be with description and It is apparent.It should be understood that described, examples are merely exemplary, does not constitute any restrictions to the scope of the present invention.This field Technical staff should be understood that without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention can details to technical solution of the present invention and Form is modified or is replaced, but these modifications or substitutions each fall within protection scope of the present invention.
1, microbial inoculum
HM microbial inoculum, by amylase D6 (Bacillus Cohn, 1872), lipase Z4 (Bacillus Cohn, 1872), fine It ties up plain enzyme X4 (Brevibacillus Shida, 1996) to form according to mass ratio 1:1:1, purchase is in the permanent grand state biology work in Henan Journey limited liability company.
1 new refuse percolate of embodiment produces humic loam
1. raw material selects
Primary raw material used in the present invention is new refuse percolate, and auxiliary material is garden waste, rice husk, excrement Mud, these four raw materials are all the wastes of city metabolism.
1.1 new refuse percolates
The difference of the conditions such as geographical location, geologic structure, meteorology and the rubbish composition of different geographical leads to percolate All there may be very big differences for quality and quantity.Refuse transfer station, garbage burning factory landfill leachate than comparatively fresh, ammonia nitrogen concentration Relatively low, biodegradability is relatively good;And refuse landfill, then on the contrary, ammonia nitrogen concentration is relatively high, biodegradability is poor.From From the point of view of the composition of house refuse, about half of house refuse is by organic principles such as dish leaf, pericarp, tealeaves root, romaine lettuce leftovers Composition, these organic matters are the main sources of landfill leachate.After largely " main road " dish is gone down town, it can be plucked in family kitchen Fall dish leaf, ream crust, cut out decayed portion, this rubbish from cooking for having one third generates.These landfill leachates compare Fresh, content of beary metal is seldom, and main component is starch, carbohydrate, protein etc., is usually no more than from generating to utilizing 5 days.
1.2 garden waste
Garden waste is primarily referred to as ornamental plant and withers and falls or manually trim naturally generated plant residue, mainly includes Urban afforestation beautification and suburb forestry fosters, generates in pruning fruit tree operation process tree limb, fallen leaves, grass cuttings, flower lose, fill The wooden beta pruning and other lops.
1.3 city copropels
The processing of city fecaluria mainly has two routes, first is that the toilet in urban family, the other is the public affairs in city Toilet altogether.The fecaluria of urban family enters urban drainage pipe network by sewer, is then handled in sewage treatment plant.City Most of city's public restroom has independent septic tank, and liquid dung is drawn into dedicated excrement transportation tank car and is sent to special excrement Consumption station is focused on.After liquid dung transports to consumption station, excrement storage pool is discharged by pipeline, is handled by solid-liquid separating machine Afterwards, the solid components such as sanitary napkin, which are separated, transports refuse landfill landfill to;Liquid dung after preliminary cleaning passes through flocculation process Processing, separates short grained excrement and becomes copropel, be then delivered to the organic fertilizer of the dung yard composting high quality in suburb;It is de- Except the liquid dung of the solid components such as excrement enters sewage treatment plant's processing by sewage network.The copropel generated in liquid dung processing accounts for excrement 3% or so of water inventory.
1.4 rice husk
Rice is one of most important cereal crops of China, and sown area accounts for about the 1/4 of the cereal crops gross area, and yield is about The 1/2 of national total output of grain is accounted for, close to 300,000,000 tons.Rice husk is one layer of shell outside paddy, about 24-30 microns of thickness.Rice Shell is rich in cellulose, lignin, silica, wherein fat, the content of protein are lower.The main component of rice husk includes: to contain Water 12% or so, carbon containing 36%, siliceous 15%, nitrogenous 0.48%, phosphorous 0.32%, contain potassium 0.27%.The carbon-nitrogen ratio of rice husk is high Up to 75.6%, it is difficult to one of the organic materials of fermentation, is fermented very difficult, general fermentation assistant is difficult its " uniform ". For the annual rice husk yield of China there are about 60,000,000 tons, how to efficiently use rice husk is also a key subjects.
2. garden waste is classified
The substance and form that garden waste is constituted according to it can be divided into three classes: the first kind is coarse limb, this is main It is afforestation industry generated waste during trim to trees, shrub.These wastes it is main at Divide lignin, cellulose, the time decomposed using conventional natural conditions is long, generally requires the time more than 3 years.Second class is Fresh grass bits, fresh leaf, are generated during turf-mown, topiaries, include cellulose, hemicellulose in main component Element, colloid, protein, moisture etc. are decomposed relatively easily, are generally also required to one month or more under the conditions of naturally.Third class It is that dry fallen leaves, flower lose, the withered petal of the dry fallen leaves of trees and summer after The flowers bloom luxuriantly mainly after one growth cycle of autumn, This kind of waste contained humidities are fewer, and nutriment is also few, and main component is cellulose, hemicellulose.Due to this three The season that class garden waste generates is different, therefore is easier to classify.
Fresh grass bits, fresh leaf have the sundries such as plastic ties, polybag during collection, need to select away, sandstone, Metal sundries will also remove, and thus the comparison of ingredients of raw material can be made single, convenient for processing.By fresh leaf, fresh grass It dries in the place for being placed on broad ventilation.Drying leaf after air-drying, blade of grass are lost with dry fallen leaves, flower and are sent into pulverizer progress powder It is broken, it is processed into the drying blade of grass powder of 5-10mm, is waited to be used.The bulk density of cured leaf powder is between 0.35-0.40, moisture content 35% Left and right, total content of organic carbon 23% or so, total nitrogen content 0.4%, carbon-nitrogen ratio 90.
Coarse limb is the main limb of the side shoot of trees, shrub, and this kind of wastes are mainly made of lignin.It is wooden Element is the macromolecular form that growing process is formed, and hard solid, general microorganism is difficult to decompose.The decomposition of coarse limb Large energy is also required under artificial condition, it is therefore necessary to carry out severing, processing of chipping.Coarse limb is sent into dedicated timber In wood chipping equipment, it is processed into the uniform wood chip of 3-8 centimetres of length and width or so, 1-2 centimetres of thickness.Shrub branch is cut into 5 centimeter lengths, diameter 2-3 centimetres of segment.
3. carbonization
Pyrolysis is called destructive distillation, refers to the thermochemical process decomposed under anaerobic to organic matter using thermal energy.With Pyrolytic process chips to handle and can accelerate its decomposition rate to coarse limb, is converted to useful raw material.As important Water purification agent, rice husk is also required to become rice hull carbon by carbonization.
Coarse limb is chipped, and (rice husk is mounted in dedicated charcoal cage) feeding drawer type charring kiln (award by utility model patent Weigh notification number: CN 2451590Y) charcoal cage in, closing carbonization fire door.Lighting-up tuyere in two sides lights gardens with external energy and gives up Gurry is chipped, and air-introduced machine is opened.With part gardens chip burning generate thermal energy the temperature in furnace is gradually increased, work as part Ignition temperature of chipping reaches when can make in entire furnace persistently overheating, closes air inlet, continues air inducing, makes in furnace in continuing Anaerobic destructive distillation state.When outlet flue is almost smokeless, air-introduced machine is closed, closes outlet flue, retort is waited to drop naturally Temperature.The pyrolysis temperature of retort controls between 390-420 DEG C.
The product of garden waste pyrolysis has mainly and has solid, liquid, gas three classes, be respectively black charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and Wood tar, wood gas.
1. solid product is black charcoal, about 25% or so of raw material gross weight.Black charcoal is fossil fuel and biology The carbon-bearing particulate matter with height aromatization structure that matter imperfect combustion generates, element composition (account for 60% or more) based on C, It secondly is H, O, N, S.Black charcoal surface has inhomogeneities, and it is random row that most of carbon atom, which is formed by graphite-like crystallite, Column, for typical non-graphitized carbon structure.Black charcoal has porosity and high-specific surface area and surface functional group abundant, There is higher affinity to have very strong suction-operated organic compound, to pollutant in biological utilisation and natural system Migration have important influence.
It is pyroligneous liquor 2. product liquid accounts for about 10% of raw material gross weight or so.Pyroligneous liquor is called wood vinegar, and being will be wooden The bronzing liquid that material or biomass pyrolytic flue gas are condensed by condenser, specific gravity have timber burning between 1.03-1.05 Burnt smell.In pyroligneous liquor contain more than 280 kinds of organic principles, in acidity, containing organic acid, phenols, ketone, aldehydes, alcohols and The ingredient of the types such as heterocyclic, wherein accounting for 50-60% of organic principle or so using acetic acid as main component.In pyroligneous liquor in addition to Except the main components such as acetic acid, propionic acid, there are also 10% or so wood tar ingredients.Thick pyroligneous liquor is imported acid-resistant container In, precipitating is after one month, and pyroligneous liquor can be divided into three layers, and the liquid for the one layer of oily that topmost float is tar light oil, accounts for 1%;Under About 10% black liquor in face is wood tar;Intermediate bronzing transparency liquid is exactly pyroligneous liquor, accounts about 90%.
3. pyrolysis gas accounts for raw material gross weight 45%, mainly incondensible wood gas, wherein there is H2、CO、CH4Etc. can Ingredient is fired, is used as the dry energy in the present invention, there are also about 15% raw materials to be consumed during pyrolyzing.
4. rice husk black wood charcoal: remaining rice husk black wood charcoal is generally the 45% of rice husk quality after rice husk thermal decomposition.The master of rice husk black wood charcoal Wanting ingredient is black wood charcoal and silica, and wherein dioxide-containing silica is up to 40%.The bulk density of rice hull ash is 400-450kg.m3, Relative density is 2.14.Rice hull ash has biggish specific surface area, usually 50-60m2/ g, sometimes up to 100m2/g。
4. wood gas elution purifying
It is pyrolyzed in the wood gas generated also containing some subtle charcoal powder and other impurity, needing to purify just can serve as The energy.The purifying of wood gas is eluted with centrifuge separation mode using clear water and is completed.Wood gas is imported in eluting column, tower top spray The clear water of lower mist absorbs fine impurity, is deposited in water mortise, and wood gas not soluble in water is then imported centrifugation again In machine, under the influence of centrifugal force, a small amount of impurity is also separated, and remaining wood gas is exactly clean wood gas, imports Pressurized canister storage, the final drying for pyroligneous liquor distillation purification and humic loam.
5. distillation purification pyroligneous liquor
Contain certain dissolved tar in the thick pyroligneous liquor that garden waste is extracted, needs to carry out purification processes.Purification There are two types of modes, is the precipitation method and the way of distillation respectively.The precipitation method are exactly that thick pyroligneous liquor is stood to a period of time in acid-resistant container, Wood tar, pyroligneous acid can generate layering because of the difference of specific gravity in pyroligneous liquor, and heavy wood tar can be deposited in container Bottom, intermediate crude pyroligneous acid extract can, remaining is exactly wood tar.The time that the precipitation method need is long, and one As need three months or more.The purposes of thick pyroligneous liquor is limited, it is also necessary to distillation purification.Thick pyroligneous liquor is imported in distiller and is carried out It distills, the weak yellow liquid condensed in distillation process is exactly to refine pyroligneous liquor.Remaining dark thick liquid is also in distiller Wood tar collects storage together with the wood tar that can be separated with precipitation process.
6. black charcoal crushes
The black charcoal produced after coarse limb pyrolysis, which also needs to be further processed, could be used for compost production.Charcoal piece is sent Enter pulverizer crushing, be then sieved mesh screen point, chooses 1mm specification black charcoal powder below, and excessive carbon powder particle will powder again It is broken, reach required standard.
7. rice husk black wood charcoal pulverizes
The rice hull carbon come out of the stove is sent into micronizer, is processed into ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk.Rice husk black stump chalk is due to containing 40% indefinite form silica, considerably beyond the specific gravity of water, be placed in water to sink specific gravity quickly.Meanwhile by Ultramicro-powder After broken, diameter only has 10--30 microns, and specific surface area increases to 500-800m2/ g becomes a kind of good adsorbent.
Rice husk black stump chalk and zeolite powder, sodium carbonate, water are added in ball mill according to mass ratio 5:4:1:25 and are ground again Mill becomes the thick slurry of black by grinding in 60 minutes, and this slurry is a kind of excellent inorganic flocculating agent, can be with It is widely used in sewage treatment, we are referred to as the black flocculent carbon of rice husk.
8. percolate is mixed
The new refuse percolate collected from refuse transfer station, garbage burning factory is imported into percolate processing pond.In blowdown One material storing box is set above the outlet of pump, and case is provided with ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk (or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant), discharge port Revolving vane is installed.Dredge pump is opened, new refuse percolate is discharged into processing pond, opens simultaneously the discharge port of material storing box, Start revolving vane, the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk fallen (or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant) is broken up, is seeped with the new refuse of discharge Filtrate is mixed.Landfill leachate is while falling into pond, due to the effect of water flow impact pressure, ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk (or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant) can be sufficiently stirred with landfill leachate and merge.Garbage filter with filling up for processing pond, in pond Liquid will be settled out gradually, be affected by gravity, and ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk (or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant) can be adsorbed Organic matter, heavy metal be deposited in processing pond bottom together, the dosage of ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk (or rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant) is rubbish The 1/100 of rubbish percolate weight.
9. precipitation and separation
Through standing after a period of time, originally muddy landfill leachate can gradually become limpid, precipitate at processing pond bottom The diafiltration sludge of one layer of black.These diafiltration mud are due to the difference of percolate concentration, and yield is also different, usually summer Concentration is lower than winter, spring, autumn.The yield of diafiltration sludge accounts about the 10%-15% of percolate treating capacity, well below its elsewhere The diafiltration sludge of reason mode 25%-30% generates ratio.The limpid water export on upper layer is sent to sewerage disposing process (10), it is remaining Product be exactly to be percolated sludge.
10. supernatant particle charcoal filters
By the limpid water body generated in (9) precipitation and separation, although being handled by flocculation adsorption, most organic matter, again Metal in conjunction with ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk, forms sludge, but can also need to remove containing some impurity inside water body. The black charcoal powder that (6) black charcoal pulverizing process generates is packed into the packaging bag made of permeable non-woven fabrics, is closely placed in net Change the bottom of filtering ponds, then limpid water is imported filtration, purification slot, limpid water body penetrates the gap of black charcoal powder, in sedimentation basin The water outlet of bottom is extracted out, and recycling middle water is just become.If also needing further purification filtering, ultrafiltration membrane can be used Further filtering.
The adsorption filtration of black charcoal powder in filtration, purification slot has certain limit, and timing is needed to replace.It changes out Black wood charcoal powder also becomes diafiltration sludge due to having adsorbed a large amount of organic matter.The filter sludge that this process is generated and (9) are heavy The diafiltration sludge that shallow lake separation process generates stores together, and stores as raw material.
11. mixing quenched
Raw material used in the present invention is four kinds of new refuse percolate, garden waste, rice husk, copropel cities new old generation Thank to waste.By the pretreatment of previous technique link, garden waste becomes grass cuttings powder, wood gas, pyroligneous liquor, black charcoal Powder, rice husk become ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk (the black flocculent carbon of rice husk), and new refuse percolate becomes middle water, diafiltration sludge, Only copropel does not need to pre-process.Middle water and a part refine pyroligneous liquor as byproduct of the invention and will not participate in humic loam Subsequent production process.
To obtain best yeastiness, need mixed to raw materials such as grass cuttings powder, pyroligneous liquor, black charcoal powder, diafiltration sludge, copropels Close stirring.Also the parameters for influencing compost quality are optimized.Wherein moisture content to control 60%-65% it Between, this control will by high-moisture diafiltration sludge, the dried leaf powder of low water content, no moisture black charcoal powder mixing, The modes such as stirring, force ventilation regulate and control.Generally carried out using paddle mixer, spiral heap turning over device, mixing type Composter Ingredient stirring.
According to the generation ratio of raw materials various in above-mentioned empirical data and garden waste, we determined that maximum with accounting Being percolated sludge is that primary raw material carries out the design of product optimum formula, to reach to diafiltration sludge, garden waste, rice husk, excrement The utilization of the recycling of mud.
The composition of raw materials of new refuse percolate, garden waste manufacture humic loam in the present invention are as follows: be 1. percolated sludge (moisture content 80%): 55 parts;2. dried leaf powder (moisture content 30%): 30 parts;3. copropel (moisture content 80%): 10 parts;4. black wood Powdered carbon (moisture-free): 5 parts;5. 0.2 part of pyroligneous liquor;6. microbial inoculum: 0.1 part.
In four kinds of primary raw materials, the ratio for being percolated the carbon nitrogen phosphorus of sludge is usually C:N:P=100:5:1, wherein C:N= 100:5=20:1;The carbon-nitrogen ratio of copropel is about 20:1, and organic phosphorous content is very low;The carbon-nitrogen ratio of dried leaf powder is 80:1;Black charcoal Powder mainly consist of carbon, and wherein most carbon is that microorganism is difficult in the short time, has a small part carbon can be with It is utilized by microorganism.The formula is about 28:1 using carbon-nitrogen ratio, best in 25:1-35:1 this organic matter fermentation Carbon-nitrogen ratio range.Dried leaf powder mainly plays loose permeation functions as framework material, and hemicellulose therein in a short time can Some is decomposed by the microorganisms utilization, and the cellulose of incomplete decomposing, lignin are then conducive to keep the fluffy of finished product Looseness keeps the permeability of product.Although hardly phosphorous in copropel, it is percolated phosphorus rich in sludge, supplement Phosphorus.Ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk uses in percolate precipitation process, has adsorbed 5 times of own wt or so of dry matter. Pyroligneous liquor is microbial nutrition agent.Black charcoal powder is microbe survival, proliferation space, has also mixed loose, isolation in raw material and has made With.So this formula is optimal fermentation proportion, it is suitable for fermentation method and produces humic loam.
The natural composite bacteria agent of HM that fresh diafiltration sludge fermentation is selected, by Henan Heng Longtai bioengineering limited liability company Production, is mainly used in fowl and animal excrement and agricultural crop straw hybrid composting ferments, commercially available.This microbial inoculum is by amylase D6 (Bacillus Cohn, 1872), lipase Z4 (Bacillus Cohn, 1872), cellulase X4 (Brevibacillus Shida, 1996) it is modulated according to mass ratio 1:1:1, there is extremely strong aerobic fermentation, degradation, capacity of decomposition.
Pyroligneous liquor is the nutritional agents of composite flora;Black stump chalk is the existence of composite flora, proliferation space, is also mixed in raw material Play loose, buffer action.Pyroligneous liquor can be because of the temperature different-effect difference of compost object as deodorant.When compost pair As the temperature of object is more than 60 DEG C, pyroligneous liquor can generate neutralization and decomposition reaction, at this moment only need to can reach the mesh of deodorization on a small quantity , 1 part of pyroligneous liquor is added in 2000 parts of composting material can thorough deodorization.
The surface area of black charcoal powder is 250m2/ g, that is to say, that hole all in the black charcoal of 1g is all unfolded, area Up to 250m2.Charcoal is porous, has the high-quality performances such as adsorptivity, heat insulating ability, seepage of water and gas permeability.Black charcoal powder absorbs fertilizer Moisture and nutrition in heap, nutritional ingredient are absorbed into the aperture of black charcoal, are responsible for decomposing the actinomyces of compost also with big Amount enter charcoal hole, then charcoal hole at actinomyces residence.
Raw material combination process is following (number used below is mass parts): 1. by 55 parts of diafiltration sludge, 10 parts of copropels and 30 parts of dried leaf powder are mixed, and uniformity coefficient is reached.2. 0.2 part of pyroligneous liquor is diluted the 5% of 2000 times and 0.1 part (wt%) it after HM natural composite bacteria agent mixing, then is mixed evenly with 5 parts of black charcoal powders, for cultivating strain.3. again will 1. waiting compost with being 2. mixed evenly.
12. turning aerobic fermentation
1. the raw material mixed is piled strip on cement court, 1.5 meters high, at 2-3 meters, length is regarded for width control Depending on place size and excrement are how many.Fertile heap will keep loose ventilative, so that air enters in fermentation heap body, promote good support again Combined bacteria group proliferation.
2. fertile heap temperature reaches 55-65 DEG C of high temperature after banking up 3 days, main harmful bacteria can be destroyed substantially.Continue It banks up 15 days or so, fertile heap temperature declines naturally, is down to 40 DEG C to 30 days or so temperature, this shows degradable organic of Fei Duili Object is substantially degraded and is finished.
3. humic loam is after fermentation, natural light, thermal evaporation moisture are utilized, general every turning in 2 hours is stirred 1 time, 4 times a day, after continuous 7 days, moisture is down to 50% or so.
13. mechanical drying
Fermentation is once completed to enter drying stage.If it is in outdoor sports compost, to reinforce turning, promote air stream Logical, moisture evaporation.If fermented using compost production line indoors, mechanical drying mode can be used.Product drying uses The wood gas that (4. elution) generates makees the energy, these wood gas have been leached purifying from garden waste pyrolytic process, It can directly use.If drying course selects individual dryer, drying time is set according to equipment situation.After drying, Humic fertilizer soil's water content is about 35%.
14. humic loam finished product screen point
Humic loam after processing is completed, can carry out screening packaging to product according to the requirement in user or market.It will dry Humic loam afterwards is sent into rotary screen and is sieved, and will screen out the bulk materials come and crushes again, until particle is uniform, reaches Unified specification.The chemical property to product, pathogenic phytotoxicity and nutritional ingredient etc. is also needed to detect after processing is completed. Testing result will be printed on Product labelling, and user can be very clear to product composition, and selects product according to their own needs. It is also printed on the ingredient of raw material on label, quality, capacity, suggests application method, reasonable employment proportion, using limitation warning, life Produce producer address and title etc..
The humic loam finished product physical property processed is stablized, and appearance is in granular form, and color is dark brown, the content of organic matter Height, good permeability, the loose softness of quality is not viscous not weigh, and pH value is in subacidity, is free of soil, and moisture content is about 35%, is to improve Soil aggregate structure increases the important materials of the soil organism.Due in product containing high-energy, high protein, high activity it is micro- Biological flora is alternatively arranged as the raw material of production microbial-bacterial fertilizer.The technology realizes " the innoxious, money of new refuse percolate Source " utilizes.
2 new refuse percolate of embodiment produces humic loam
Humic loam is produced according to 1 method of embodiment, difference is to manufacture the composition of raw materials of humic loam are as follows: 1. diafiltration is dirty Mud (moisture content 80%): 40 parts;2. dried leaf powder (moisture content 30%): 20 parts;3. copropel (moisture content 80%): 5 parts;4. black wood Powdered carbon (moisture-free): 3 parts;5. 0.15 part of pyroligneous liquor;6. HM microbial inoculum: 0.05 part.
The activated sludge of embodiment 3 and afforestation waste produce water purification raw material of wood-charcoal
Humic loam is produced according to 1 method of embodiment, difference is to manufacture the composition of raw materials of humic loam are as follows: 1. diafiltration is dirty Mud (moisture content 80%): 60 parts;2. dried leaf powder (moisture content 30%): 40 parts;3. copropel (moisture content 80%): 15 parts;4. black Charcoal powder (moisture-free): 7 parts;5. 0.25 part of pyroligneous liquor;6. HM microbial inoculum: 0.15 part.
Application of the 1 humic loam of experimental example in green cucumber
1, experimental method
1.1 green cucumber
This research carries out in greenhouse.It loosens the soil plot is tested in greenhouse, is divided into four cells, each cell 20m2, one With no treatment (control group), the other three cell is mixed applies embodiment 1-3 humic loam 350g/m to a cell2(experimental group 1-3), And it is uniformly mixed soil and humic loam as far as possible, no longer top dressing thereafter, other are according to normal field management.Each cell kind Plant 60 plants of cucumber.
The measurement of 1.2 cucumber economical characters
Each cell randomly chooses 10 plants of cucumber plants, periodically slightly measures to the plant height of plant and diameter.Plant height (base portion To the length of growing point) and stem thickness (rugosity of basal part of stem third section) measured respectively with tape measure and vernier caliper.
The yield of each cell is measured, field is directly weighed after harvesting, Several harvests, and each picking fruit is equal It records fruit number and single fruit weight respectively by single plant, calculates single plant yield;And cell fruit number, quality are counted, accumulation meter produces.
2, experimental result
Experimental result is as shown in table 1, from table 1 it follows that on the whole, humic loam can improve the agriculture of cucumber well Skill characteristic, especially yield.The best single fruit weight of the effect of increasing production of experimental group 1 improves 57.69%, and single plant yield improves 76.02%.
The investigation of 1 cucumber agronomic characteristics of table

Claims (11)

1. a kind of humic loam, which is characterized in that prepared by following raw material: diafiltration sludge, dried leaf powder, copropel, black charcoal powder, Pyroligneous liquor and microbial inoculum;The preparation of the diafiltration sludge includes: that landfill leachate and ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk or rice husk black wood charcoal are wadded a quilt with cotton Solidifying agent mixes, and stands, and obtains limpid water body and diafiltration sludge;The preparation method of the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk includes: by rice husk Be pyrolyzed, crush to get;The preparation of the rice husk black wood charcoal flocculant include: by the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk and zeolite powder, Sodium carbonate, water mixed grinding to get;
Preparation method includes:
(1) diafiltration sludge, copropel and dried leaf powder are mixed, obtains mixture;
(2) pyroligneous liquor is diluted, is mixed with microbial inoculum and black charcoal powder, obtains mixture;
(3) gained mixture in step (1) and step (2) is mixed, prepares compost heap body;
(4) aerobic fermentation, drying to get.
2. humic loam described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: according to mass parts meter, the dosage of each raw material is to be percolated 40-60 parts of sludge, 20-40 parts of dried leaf powder, 5-15 parts of copropel, black charcoal powder 3-7 parts, 0.15-0.25 parts of pyroligneous liquor, microbial inoculum 0.05-0.15 parts.
3. humic loam according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: the dosage of each raw material is to be percolated 55 parts of sludge, does tree 30 parts of leaf powder, 10 parts of copropel, 5 parts of black charcoal powder, 0.2 part and 0.1 part of microbial inoculum of pyroligneous liquor.
4. humic loam described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: the preparation of the diafiltration sludge further include: will be described Limpid water body is filtered with black charcoal powder, the black charcoal powder of isolated absorption organic matter.
5. humic loam described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk or the flocculation of rice husk black wood charcoal The dosage of agent is the 1/100 of landfill leachate weight;
The landfill leachate is the organic wastewater that house refuse is oozed out during transhipment, landfill;
Wherein, the pyrolysis temperature is 390-420 DEG C;10-30 microns of diameter of the ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk;
The ultra-fine rice husk black stump chalk, zeolite powder, sodium carbonate, water mass ratio be 5:4:1:25.
6. humic loam described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: the preparation of the dried leaf powder includes: will be dry Fresh grass bits or fresh leaf, dry fallen leaves or flower lose in any one or more mixed according to arbitrary proportion, crush to get;Wherein, The flower loses for the petal that dries up;
The preparation of the pyroligneous liquor, black charcoal powder includes: that tree limb is processed into wood chip by (1), is pyrolyzed, obtains black charcoal With thick pyroligneous liquor;(2) thick pyroligneous liquor is stood, precipitation and separation, is distilled, the pyroligneous liquor refined;(3) black charcoal is crushed, Sieving, obtains black charcoal powder;
The copropel, which is human and animal excreta, obtains liquid dung through being separated by solid-liquid separation, and adds the polypropylene for accounting for liquid dung gross mass 0.1-0.3% Amide precipitates the sludge object of formation;
The microbial inoculum is the HM microbial inoculum of mass percent 0.5%, in mass ratio by amylase D6, lipase Z4, cellulase X4 For 1:1:1 composition;The temperature of the pyrolysis is controlled at 390-420 DEG C.
7. humic loam according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: the moisture content 30% of the dried leaf powder;The wood The length or width of piece are 3-8 centimetres, its thickness is 1-2 centimetres;The diameter of the black charcoal powder is in 1mm or less.
8. humic loam described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: step (2) is described to be diluted to 2000 times of dilution;Step (3) the heap body is 1.5 meters high, and 2-3 meters of width, moisture control is in 60%-65%;After step (4) drying, gained humic loam Moisture content be 35%.
9. application of any one of the claim 1-8 humic loam in the improvement of gardening, agricultural or forestry soil.
10. application of any one of the claim 1-8 humic loam in crop, vegetable cultivation.
11. any one of the claim 1-8 humic loam is preparing the application in microbial-bacterial fertilizer.
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