CN105050853B - 车辆车载电网 - Google Patents

车辆车载电网 Download PDF

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CN105050853B
CN105050853B CN201480017348.XA CN201480017348A CN105050853B CN 105050853 B CN105050853 B CN 105050853B CN 201480017348 A CN201480017348 A CN 201480017348A CN 105050853 B CN105050853 B CN 105050853B
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vehicle
accumulator
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CN105050853A (zh
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A·布伦纳
H·普罗布斯泰勒
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Bayerische Motoren Werke AG
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R16/00Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for
    • B60R16/02Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements
    • B60R16/03Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for supply of electrical power to vehicle subsystems or for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/28Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the electric energy storing means, e.g. batteries or capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L1/00Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/18Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries of two or more battery modules
    • B60L58/20Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries of two or more battery modules having different nominal voltages
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/24Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of energy storage means
    • B60W10/26Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of energy storage means for electrical energy, e.g. batteries or capacitors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J1/00Circuit arrangements for dc mains or dc distribution networks
    • H02J1/08Three-wire systems; Systems having more than three wires
    • H02J1/082Plural DC voltage, e.g. DC supply voltage with at least two different DC voltage levels
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J1/00Circuit arrangements for dc mains or dc distribution networks
    • H02J1/10Parallel operation of dc sources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/14Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from dynamo-electric generators driven at varying speed, e.g. on vehicle
    • H02J7/1423Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from dynamo-electric generators driven at varying speed, e.g. on vehicle with multiple batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/342The other DC source being a battery actively interacting with the first one, i.e. battery to battery charging
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/10Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2210/00Converter types
    • B60L2210/10DC to DC converters
    • B60L2210/12Buck converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2310/00The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load
    • H02J2310/40The network being an on-board power network, i.e. within a vehicle
    • H02J2310/46The network being an on-board power network, i.e. within a vehicle for ICE-powered road vehicles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2310/00The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load
    • H02J2310/40The network being an on-board power network, i.e. within a vehicle
    • H02J2310/48The network being an on-board power network, i.e. within a vehicle for electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/80Technologies aiming to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions common to all road transportation technologies
    • Y02T10/92Energy efficient charging or discharging systems for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors specially adapted for vehicles

Abstract

具有车载电网的车辆,所述车载电网包括具有第一额定电压电平的第一蓄能器的第一车载子电网、具有第二额定电压电平的第二蓄能器的第二车载子电网以及在所述两个车载子电网之间的直流‑直流调节器,从而所述第一蓄能器包括如下壳体,所述壳体具有至少一个用于第一额定电压电平的第一引出头,经由所述第一引出头能够给第一直流‑直流调节器馈电,所述壳体具有至少一个用于第二额定电压电平的第二引出头,经由所述第二引出头能够给第二蓄能器馈电,至少第一引出头和至少第二引出头是电流隔离的,所述壳体包含电压转换单元,并且通过所述电压转换单元能够将第一额定电压电平的电压转换至第二额定电压电平的电压。

Description

车辆车载电网
技术领域
本发明涉及一种具有车载电网的车辆,所述车载电网包括具有第一额定电压电平的第一蓄能器的第一车载子电网、具有第二额定电压电平的第二蓄能器的第二车载子电网以及在所述两个车载子电网之间的直流-直流调节器。
背景技术
特别是,具有电气化的传动系的车辆通常具有多个在不同的电压电平的车载子电网中的电蓄能器。直流-直流调节器建立在车载子电网之间的电气耦合。这例如由文献WO/2011/009673A1得知。
发明内容
本发明的任务在于,描述一种改善的具有车载电网的车辆,所述车载电网包括具有第一额定电压电平的第一蓄能器的第一车载子电网、具有第二额定电压电平的第二蓄能器的第二车载子电网以及在所述两个车载子电网之间的直流-直流调节器。
该任务通过按照本发明的车辆得到解决:一种具有车载电网的车辆,所述车载电网包括具有第一额定电压电平的第一蓄能器的第一车载子电网、具有第二额定电压电平的第二蓄能器的第二车载子电网以及在所述两个车载子电网之间的直流-直流调节器,所述第一蓄能器包括壳体,所述壳体具有至少一个用于第一额定电压电平的第一引出头,经由所述第一引出头能够给第一直流-直流调节器馈电,所述壳体具有至少一个用于第二额定电压电平的第二引出头,经由所述第二引出头能够给第二蓄能器馈电,所述至少一个第一引出头和所述至少一个第二引出头是电流隔离的,所述壳体包含电压转换单元,并且通过所述电压转换单元能将第一额定电压电平的电压转换至第二额定电压电平的电压,其特征在于,所述壳体包含至少一个接触器触点,通过所述接触器触点能占据第一接触器位置并且能占据第二接触器位置,在所述第一接触器位置的情况下,所述至少一个第一引出头能切换为无电压,在所述第二接触器位置的情况下,经由所述至少一个第一引出头电压下降,通过所述电压转换单元在所述第一接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少一个第二引出头施加电压,并且通过所述电压转换单元在所述第二接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少一个第二引出头施加电压。
按照本发明,所述第一蓄能器包括如下壳体,所述壳体具有至少一个用于第一额定电压电平的第一引出头,经由所述第一引出头能够给第一直流-直流调节器馈电,并且所述壳体具有至少一个用于第二额定电压电平的第二引出头,经由所述第二引出头能够给第二蓄能器馈电,其中,至少第一引出头和至少第二引出头是电流隔离的,所述壳体包含电压转换单元,并且通过所述电压转换单元能将第一额定电压电平的电压基本上转换至第二额定电压电平的电压。
所述车辆例如具有高压蓄能器,所述作为第一蓄能器的高压蓄能器作为基本构件包括电化学高压蓄电池。所述高压蓄能器的特征在于具有至少两个从外部可接近的引出头的、向外密封所述高压蓄能器的壳体。
特别有利的是,所述壳体包含至少一个接触器触点,通过所述接触器触点能占据第一接触器位置并且能占据第二接触器位置,在所述第一接触器位置的情况下,所述至少第一引出头能切换为无电压,在所述第二接触器位置的情况下,经由所述至少第一引出头电压下降(abfallen),通过所述电压转换单元在所述第一接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少第二引出头施加电压,并且通过所述电压转换单元在所述第二接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少第二引出头施加电压。
这意味着,所述电压转换单元与接触器触点的切换位置无关地在高压蓄能器的壳体内具有与高压蓄电池的持久的电气连接。相反地,在所述高压蓄电池与第一引出头之间的电气连接能通过所述至少一个接触器触点接通。
根据本发明的一种优选实施形式,所述第二车载子电网包括第二额定电压电平的电消耗器,并且所述电消耗器能通过第二引出头馈电。
所述电压转换单元将高压蓄电池的电压电平的电功率转换至第二蓄能器的电压电平的电功率并且在第二引出头上提供所述电功率。所述第二蓄能器符合目的地实施为功率优化的蓄能器,亦即,所述第二蓄能器具有高的充电吸收能力。在此,除了二次蓄能器之外例如也考虑超级电容器单元,因此所述超级电容器单元可以经由第二引出头由高压蓄能器进行充电。为了充电可以由所述电压转换单元调整为超级电容器单元的电化学过电位,以便对该超级电容器单元进行充电。这意味着,所述经调节的电压以所述过电位超出第二额定电压电平。在所述范围内,所述电压转换单元将电压基本上调整至第二额定电压电平。
此外符合目的的是,所述第二引出头配设有比较器电路,通过所述比较器电路能将接通信号传输到电压转换单元上,并且通过所述比较器电路能将关断信号传输到电压转换单元上。
所述比较器电路配设有第一切换电压值和第二切换电压值,从而通过所述比较器电路能将经由第二引出头下降的电压与第一切换电压值以及与第二切换电压值进行比较。
通过所述比较器电路在经由第二引出头下降的电压低于第一切换电压值的情况下,能传输所述接通信号,并且在经由第二引出头下降的电压超过第二切换电压值的情况下,能传输所述关断信号。
通过所述比较器电路可以按照施加在第二引出头上的电压迟滞对所述电压转换单元进行接通和关断。
优选地,所述第一额定电压电平处于24V至600V的电压范围内,并且所述第二额定电压电平处于12V至60V的电压范围内。
此外符合目的的是,所述电压转换单元具有额定输出功率,并且所述额定输出功率基本上相当于第二车载子电网在车辆待机运行(Standbetrieb)中的典型功率需求。
车辆的待机运行与车辆的行驶运行和静止状态相区别。与待机运行相反,在车辆行驶运行时实施行驶动态的操作。这意味着,车辆的充电运行是待机运行的一个子集,在充电运行中所述高压蓄能器例如在充电站上电缆连接地充电。在行驶运行和待机运行中,所述车辆在运行技术上是激活的。与此相区别的是车辆的静止状态,在所述静止状态中车辆是不运行的。
本发明基于以下阐述的考虑:
存在如下车辆,所述车辆具有多个蓄能器,例如插电式混合动力车辆(PHEV)、混合动力车辆(HEV)、电动车辆(BEV)和具有发动机启停功能的车辆。所有这些车辆在没有运行的状态中具有静态电流需求,所述静态电流需求通常使蓄能器负载。
此外,在具有电气化传动系的车辆的情况下,通过高压蓄能器的充电产生提高的静态电流和待机电流需求。这通常需要通过中央DC/DC转换器在其低效的部分负载运行中对低压蓄电池进行稳定或周期性的再充电。
车辆的静态电流需求导致中央的12V铅蓄电池强烈的放电,所述铅蓄电池接近地(naheliegend)作为低压蓄电池使用并且由此在待机或静止阶段后进行部分放电并且因此提前老化。因此,应该按照所述提前老化设计铅蓄电池并且以高电容进行参数选择。
在电气化的车辆中,在待机或静止阶段中铅蓄电池的再充电通常通过DC/DC转换器实现,所述DC/DC转换器在该运行中要供应的电流在<<10A的范围内的情况下通常具有非常糟糕的功率(即<<75%)并且因此引起高的电损耗。这对充电效率产生负面影响并且因此也对能源和有害物的平衡产生负面影响。
建议通过额外安装的在高压蓄能器上的高效低压引出头来确保在低压蓄电池的车载电网中能量效率优化地提供静态和待机电流。这可以用于低压蓄电池的再充电以及用于提供车辆的控制仪的激活逻辑。
这导致,在车辆的静止状态中、在待机运行中以及在充电阶段期间,所述铅蓄电池不进行放电并且因此可以容量较弱地进行设计,亦即,可以如没有引出头的情况使用较小的铅蓄电池。
备选地可以使用锂电池或超级电容器。对于12V的铅蓄电池的再充电不需要所述DC/DC转换器并且避免损耗功率。因此由于重量节省以及改善的能量效率导致车辆提高的电效率以及改善的有害物平衡。此外,低电压蓄电池的故障概率被有效地降低。
所述低压引出头通过电压转换单元实现。所述电压转换单元的集成有利地在高压蓄能器的壳体内部实现,以便避免蓄能器外耗费的高压布线。所述高压蓄能器上的电压转换单元的输入侧的接口在电路技术上与一个或多个高压接触器的切换位置无关地处于高压蓄能器的高压蓄电池的电位上,亦即,所述接口处于高压蓄电池的电极内。所述高压接触器在待机运行中或静止状态中通常是打开的。
附图说明
以下将根据附图对本发明一种优选的实施例进行描述。由此得出本发明的其他细节、优选的实施形式以及进一步扩展方案。详细地示意性示出:
图1示出车载电网的示意性局部,
图2示出用于切换电压转换单元的比较器电路。
具体实施方式
图1示出车载电网的示意性局部。所述车载电网包括高压蓄能器(1),所述高压蓄能器具有向外密封所述高压蓄能器的壳体。第一引出头(5、U_h)和第二引出头(6、U_n)位于壳体上。在第一引出头上连接有直流-直流调节器(2),也称作DC/DC转换器。具有低压蓄能器(3)以及电消耗器(9)的车辆的低压车载电网位于DC/DC转换器的输出侧。
所述低压蓄能器是功率优化的电蓄能器并且按照该实施例示例性地实施为具有14V额定电压的超级电容单元。所述低压蓄能器与高压蓄能器的第二引出头电气连接。
高压蓄电池(4)、例如具有380V的额定电压的锂离子电池以及两个接触器触点(7a、7b)位于高压蓄能器的壳体内部。所述接触器触点可以占据两个接触器位置,“打开”和“关闭”。
在各接触器触点打开的情况下(如在图1中示出的那样),所述高压蓄电池的电极与第一引出头电气隔离,亦即,没有至高压蓄电池的电极的导通连接。在接触器触点闭合的情况下(和在图1中所示不同),所述高压蓄电池的电极与高压蓄能器的第一引出头电气连接。
电压转换单元(8)也位于壳体内部。所述电压转换单元持久地与高压蓄电池的电极电气连接并且由高压蓄电池进行馈电。除了电气输入端,所述电压转换单元还具有电气输出端,所述电气输出端持久地与第二引出头电气连接。
所述电压转换单元可以将电功率单向地从高压蓄电池的额定电压电平转换至如下的电压电平,所述电压电平导致低压蓄电池上的电化学过电位,以便可以给该低压蓄电池充电(例如14.4V)。所述充电电流标记为l_comp。
图2示出一种比较器电路,所述比较器电路按照电压迟滞对电压转换单元进行接通或关断。所述比较器电路具有输入端(10)和输出端(11)。所述输入端与引出头(6)电气并联,亦即,电位U_n位于输入端(10)与接地之间。
基本上通过运算发放大器(14)的输出端形成所述输出端(11)并且将所述输出端引导至电压转换单元的ASIC(特定用途集成电路)。如果在运算发放大器的输出端上施加电压信号,则所述ASIC激活电压转换单元。如果所述输出端(11)无电压,则所述ASIC使电压转换单元停用。所述运算放大器将输入端(10)上的电压与参考电压源(13)的电压进行比较,所述参考电压源可以通过具有阻抗的齐纳二极管形成。与齐纳二极管关联地对所述比较器电路的阻抗进行参数选择意味着,当输入端(10)上的电压低于第一电压阈值时激活电压转换单元,当输入端(10)上的电压高于第二电压阈值时使电压转换单元停用。在此,所述第一电压阈值选择为约13V并且所述第二电压阈值选择为约14.4V。
所述比较器电路和/或ASIC可以根据备选的实施形式通过配设于电压转换单元的微控制器进行替代。所述微控制器可以集成比较器电路的和ASIC的功能。
所述阈值电路同样作为迟滞电路起作用,因为所述电压转换单元在低压蓄电池上的电压降低为13V之下的情况下导致充电电流,亦即,低压蓄电池的再充电,在14.4V的电压的情况下,亦即,在所述低压蓄电池没有吸收电流并且所述电压转换单元在输出端侧维持14.4V的情况下,则停用再充电。因此所述低压蓄电池(3)可以在车辆的静止状态中周期性地进行再充电。以这种方式有效地对在车辆静止状态期间出现的静态电流进行补偿。在此前提是,低压蓄能器涉及具有高电流吸收的蓄能器,亦即,涉及功率优化的蓄能器。除了示例所述的超级电容单元,按照其他的实施形式例如也考虑锂离子电池。
除了在车辆的静止状态中对低压蓄电池的再充电,亦即,在所述车辆没有运行(例如停放在车库中)时,也可以在车辆充电或者处于待机运行期间(例如静止时在没有牵引要求的情况下收听广播)。通过电压转换单元给并联连接于低压蓄电池的消耗器(9)提供电功率。因此可以在高压蓄电池的充电运行期间在不激活直流-直流调节器的情况下而给蓄电池(3)的额定电压电平的消耗器如用于控制充电的控制仪、用于冷却的水泵进行供电。于是,所述充电电流l_comp用于给这些组件直接供电。
在待机运行中可以给蓄电池(3)的额定电压电平的消耗器如用于如报警闪光信号、停车灯或驻车灯的功能的灯模块或者娱乐组件如收音机或音乐播放器进行供电。
图1中所示的架构有利的是,可以如此设计电压转换单元,使得如果所述比较器电路激活电压转换单元,则所述电压转换单元在能量上优化的、亦即能量高效的运行状态中运行。
所述静态电流补偿以及所述示例所述的蓄能器(3)的额定电压电平的消耗器能实现电压转换单元最高约100W的参数选择。在现代车辆中的静态电流约为10-30毫安的情况下并且在消耗器功率约为80W的情况下(例如收听广播),在周期性的接通和关断的情况下这将导致电压转换单元优化地充分利用(Auslastung)。在此,可以达到大于90%的电效率。

Claims (8)

1.具有车载电网的车辆,所述车载电网包括具有第一额定电压电平的第一蓄能器的第一车载子电网、具有第二额定电压电平的第二蓄能器的第二车载子电网以及在所述两个车载子电网之间的直流-直流调节器,
-所述第一蓄能器包括壳体,
-所述壳体具有至少一个用于第一额定电压电平的第一引出头,经由所述第一引出头能够给第一直流-直流调节器馈电,
-所述壳体具有至少一个用于第二额定电压电平的第二引出头,经由所述第二引出头能够给第二蓄能器馈电,
-所述至少一个第一引出头和所述至少一个第二引出头是电流隔离的,
-所述壳体包含电压转换单元,并且
-通过所述电压转换单元能将第一额定电压电平的电压转换至第二额定电压电平的电压,
其特征在于,
-所述壳体包含至少一个接触器触点,通过所述接触器触点能占据第一接触器位置并且能占据第二接触器位置,
-在所述第一接触器位置的情况下,所述至少一个第一引出头能切换为无电压,
-在所述第二接触器位置的情况下,经由所述至少一个第一引出头电压下降,
-通过所述电压转换单元在所述第一接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少一个第二引出头施加电压,并且
-通过所述电压转换单元在所述第二接触器位置的情况下能经由所述至少一个第二引出头施加电压。
2.根据权利要求1所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述第二车载子电网包括第二额定电压电平的电消耗器,
-所述电消耗器能通过第二引出头馈电。
3.根据权利要求1或2所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述第二引出头配设有比较器电路,
-通过所述比较器电路能将接通信号传输到电压转换单元上,并且
-通过所述比较器电路能将关断信号传输到在电压转换单元上。
4.根据权利要求3所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述比较器电路配设有第一切换电压值,
-所述比较器电路配设有第二切换电压值,
-通过所述比较器电路能够将经由第二引出头下降的电压与第一切换电压值以及与第二切换电压值进行比较。
5.根据权利要求4所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-通过所述比较器电路在经由第二引出头下降的电压低于第一切换电压值的情况下,能传输所述接通信号,并且
-通过所述比较器电路在经由第二引出头下降的电压超过第二切换电压值的情况下,能传输所述关断信号。
6.根据权利要求1或2所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述第一额定电压电平处于24V至600V的电压范围内,并且
-所述第二额定电压电平处于12V至60V的电压范围内。
7.根据权利要求1或2所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述第二蓄能器实施为功率优化的蓄能器。
8.根据权利要求1或2所述的车辆,其特征在于,
-所述电压转换单元具有额定输出功率,并且
-所述额定输出功率基本上相当于在车辆待机运行中第二车载子电网的典型功率需求。
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