CN104920006B - It is a kind of to adjust the method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets - Google Patents

It is a kind of to adjust the method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104920006B
CN104920006B CN201510255814.4A CN201510255814A CN104920006B CN 104920006 B CN104920006 B CN 104920006B CN 201510255814 A CN201510255814 A CN 201510255814A CN 104920006 B CN104920006 B CN 104920006B
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parent
fertilizer
kinds
alley
florescence
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CN104920006A (en
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陈智超
潘叶飞
冯丽莉
毛潭睿
王伟
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Zhenjiang Xin Yuanda Gardening Science And Technology Ltd
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Zhenjiang Xin Yuanda Gardening Science And Technology Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of method that regulation wild cabbage seed production florescence meets, and can carry out seeding and seedling raisings to two kinds of parents simultaneously, without sowing time of staggering, reduce process;P, K fertilizer are applied in the site preparation and fertilization stage parent alley slow to blooming, the parent alley early to blooming applies N, P, K fertilizer, and imposing according to the growing way of two kinds of parents selectively progress N fertilizer during the rich water quality management after field planting, the final parent's florescence for bloom early originally was by delayed 5 days or so, originally can bloom late parent florescence by 4 days or so in advance, so as to control the florescence gap of two kinds of parents within 3 days, seed production can double left and right, the purity of kind can reach more than 95%, substantially increase seed quality;The fertilizers regulation measure of Parent make it that two kinds of parent's heading stages are close simultaneously, and leaf-head growth is suitable, therefore the ball exercise of cutting that can be unified in bulb reason is subsequently cut to two kinds of parent's leaf-heads is made, and greatly reduces and cuts trouble unnecessary in bulb reason.

Description

It is a kind of to adjust the method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets
Technical field
The present invention relates to wild cabbage seeding technique field, more particularly to a kind of method that regulation wild cabbage seed production florescence meets.
Background technology
Wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is the annual or biennial herbaceous plant of Cruciferae Btassica, by In its adaptability and strong stress resistance, stable yields, and storage tolerance, as one of our important vegetables.Wild cabbage possesses a huge product Population, will realize supply listing in the whole year, with regard to needing early, middle and late cooked food inter-species to be arranged in pairs or groups.And this purpose is realized, different maturity The line cross production of hybrid seeds just turn into important breeding technique.
One of influence wild cabbage hybrid seed yield the biggest factor is Parent flowering asynchronism, and both florescences differ to be influenceed within 3 days Less, if both florescences differ more than 3 days, hybrid seed yield will be influenceed, number of days different is more, and hybrid seed yield is lower, if one Individual parent blooms end and another parent is not bloomed also and will cause that No kernels or seeds are gathered, as in a year of scarcity, using a kind of precocious ball head cabbage varieties of the production of hybrid seeds as Example, because male parent was than maternal slow 10 days or so, maternal full-bloom stage mistake when male parent just start to bloom, or maternal flower It has been withered that, or being pollinated by the pollen of other crop, the pollen of male parent only has a seldom part to award the post of female parent On head, the yield and purity of the kind are had a strong impact on.
In the prior art, encounter Parent flowering asynchronism, mainly take following three kinds of methods:One is, regulation Parent is broadcast Kind of time means, after the parent bloomed carry and a few days ago planting, the Parent florescence is adjusted with this, but for wild cabbage, this method is actual Florescence alternation number of days is limited, can only typically adjust 2-3 days, even if therefore using regulation Parent sowing time means, Parent Flowering asynchronism phenomenon is still difficult to avoid that;Two are, trim branch using to the parent first bloomed come delaying anthesis, this way Although the florescence of the parent can be postponed, after the branch that grows it is substantially sturdy not as first time, and plant nutrition disappears Consumption is big, and the quantity that causes to bloom is significantly reduced, and hybrid seed yield also declines therewith;Three are, the heading stage for the parent bloomed after is to it Ball is cut in progress, promotes parent's Blooming, such as Chinese patent CN102487743A regulation cabbage seed production florescence phase The method of chance, is prescinded in the whole leaf-head that normal year is fixed to slower parent of being bloomed in production of hybrid seeds combination after wild cabbage starts balling, Siphonal lobe 10-12 pieces are stayed, are cut after ball 10-15 days and/or when sprouting length reaches 2-3 centimetres, 3-4 sturdy axillary buds relatively, stripping are stayed Remove remaining small and weak axillary bud relatively, made by cutting ball exercise, can in advance, florescence alternation, Parent advance flowering period is met, increase The individual plant for cutting ball parent is bloomed sum, it is ensured that hybrid seed yield, although this way can in advance after bloom florescence of parent, Need to carry out Parent leaf-head when being and cutting bulb reason it is different cut ball, and common breeding cultivated area is larger, male parent quantity It is huge, and do not carry out flowering regulation in advance in advance, it is clear that the amount of labour that cut ball is huge, cumbersome, time and effort consuming, Er Qiehua The strength of adjustment that phase meets still is weak.
Accordingly, it would be desirable to a kind of adjust the method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets, can not only more simple and effective ground florescence alternation phase Meet, and can reduce and cut unnecessary trouble during bulb is managed, raising seed production and variety.
The content of the invention
The method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets is adjusted it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of, can not only more simple and effectively Florescence alternation meets, and can reduce and cut unnecessary trouble in bulb reason, improves seed production and variety.
To achieve these goals, the present invention provides a kind of method that regulation wild cabbage seed production florescence meets, including:
Seeding and seedling raising:Two kinds of parents of wild cabbage are sowed simultaneously, cultivate parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves;
Site preparation and fertilization:Being bloomed according to a ridge, late parent immediately bloom the alternate mode of early parent by many ridges, and site preparation does ridge, And P, K fertilizer are applied for parent's alley for blooming slow, N, P, K fertilizer are applied for parent's alley for blooming early, to adjust the florescence of two kinds of parents;
Transplant seedlings field planting:Transplanting parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves is to field planting on alley, and early parent of blooming strengthens Seedling field planting is on the alley for applying N, P, K fertilizer, and the parent's strong sprout field planting for blooming late pours root water on the alley for applying P, K fertilizer;
Rich water quality management:In growth period before blooming, according to the growing way of two kinds of parents, selectivity carries out imposing for N fertilizer, enters one At the florescence of two kinds of parents of step section, finally make the flower synchronization of two kinds of parents.
Further, the width of every alley is 30cm~40cm, and there is 20cm~30cm gutter on every alley both sides; And/or, the parent alley slow to blooming is applied fertilizer with every mu of ground each 10KG of P, K fertilizer standard, and the parent alley early to blooming is with every Mu ground N, P, K composite fertilizer 50KG standard fertilising.
Further, the alternate mode is that a ridge blooms that late parent immediately bloom early parent by two ridges or three ridges.
Further, the spacing in the rows on every ridge transplanted seedlings when being colonized is 30cm~40cm.
Further, it is described selectivity carry out N fertilizer impose including:Parent progress 1~2 N early to blooming is fertile to be chased after Apply, impose carried out according to the standard of every mu of ground 10KGN fertilizer every time.
Further, methods described also includes cutting bulb reason:Wild cabbage starts after balling, and cabbage head is prescinded from top 60%~70%.
Further, it is described cut bulb reason when, also the leaf-head that bolting is bloomed all is prescinded.
Further, it is described cut bulb reason when, also rotten blade is all prescinded.
Further, the sowing time of nurturing staff is late September, and the time for field planting of transplanting seedlings is November, cuts bulb reason Time is early Febuary.
Further, the specific steps of seeding and seedling raising include:
Sowing:Hole tray is chosen, matrix is put into, per one seed of bunch planting, pours permeable;
Nursery:The moisture of hole tray is kept using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, while when running into 35 degree of high temperature above Sunshade is carried out to hole tray;
Reseed:Observe seed germination, to sowing 3 days after ablastous hole tray reseed.
Compared with prior art, the method that regulation wild cabbage seed production florescence of the invention meets, can be simultaneously to two kinds of parents Seeding and seedling raising is carried out, without sowing of staggering, process is reduced;The measure for taking fertilizers regulation growth is adjusted come more simple and effective During the flower synchronization, i.e. site preparation and fertilization of two kinds of parents, P, K fertilizer are only applied to slow parent to blooming, its nutrient growth is reduced, promoted Reproductive growth, to promote bud differentiation, and to applying N, P, K fertilizer with blooming early parent, postpones its florescence, while after field planting Rich water quality management during carry out selective N fertilizer and impose, promote the too fast parent of reproduction to carry out abundant nutrient growth, slow down reproduction The speed of growth, suitably to postpone its florescence, due to two kinds of parents are all taken with the measure of fertilizers regulation growth, originally meeting The parent's florescence for blooming early was by delayed 5 days or so, and branch is more, and flower is also more, the florescence for the late parent that can bloom originally By 4 days or so in advance, so as to control the florescence gap of two kinds of parents within 3 days, seed production can double left and right, product The purity planted can reach more than 95%, substantially increase seed quality;Simultaneously because fertilizers regulation, which grows, causes two kinds of parents This heading stage is close, and leaf-head growth is suitable, therefore two kinds of parent's leaf-heads progress unifications can be cut in bulb reason is subsequently cut Ball exercise is made, and greatly reduces and cuts trouble unnecessary in bulb reason.
Embodiment
To become apparent the purpose of the present invention, feature, it is further described with reference to specific embodiment, so And, the present invention can be realized with different forms, should not be to be confined to described embodiment.
The present embodiment is with a kind of system of the precocious ball wild cabbage at florescence slow 10 day or so more maternal than its at florescence of its male parent Exemplified by kind, due to slow 10 days or so the florescence that the florescence of the male parent of precocious ball wild cabbage is more maternal than its, what maternal full-bloom stage had been crossed When male parent just start to bloom, maternal flower either withered otherwise by other crop pollen pollinate, male parent Pollen only has a seldom part to award on the column cap of female parent, causes current precocious every mu of ground of ball wild cabbage at most can only the production of hybrid seeds 10KG or so, and purity only has 85% or so, has a strong impact on the yield and purity of the seed.The main object of the present invention is to make The florescence of its male parent shifts to an earlier date, and maternal florescence is delayed, makes Parent as far as possible while blooming.Specifically production of hybrid seeds process is as follows:
First, seeding and seedling raising:Start hole tray in late September and cultivate Parent strong sprout, take around the seedling raise period of 30 days, tool Body it is as follows:
1st, sow:Under open-air atmosphere, two wild cabbage parents of September No. 20 respectively broadcast 2 hole trays, often the cave of disk 128, have been put in hole tray Enter matrix, per 1 seed of bunch planting, pour permeable;
2nd, nursery:Hole tray is put into intelligent greenhouse to set, carries out noting the moisture for keeping hole tray in nursery, seedling raising process, Using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, such as water content 55%, if running into 35 degree of high temperature above, it is necessary to use Shading net covering cave Disk;
3rd, reseed:Note observe seed germination, if having sowing 3 days after ablastous hole tray reseed in time;
4th, seedling separation:When seedling length to 21 heart of leaf (about broadcast after 10 days or so), 1 seedling separation can be carried out, can at dusk or Cloudy seedling separation is conducive to surviving;
5th, insect prevention:Wild cabbage strong sprout strong stress resistance, but insect prevention, anti-grass work must be carried out simultaneously, in order to avoid embezzled by worm, grass Seedling, primary pest has aphid, diamondback moth, cabbage caterpillar, can be used alternatingly with ten thousand spirits and 1.8% AVM, because the time in seedling stage is short, Depending on insect situation, general medication 2 times;
6th, strong sprout:One time of nutrition liquid was added in the basin of cave every 2~3 days, promotes growth of seedling, until being grown to serve as carrying The strong sprout of 4~6 leaves.
2nd, site preparation and fertilization:It can carry out, can also be carried out before seeding and seedling raising during seeding and seedling raising, selection draining is filled Convenient soil is irrigate, the soil can be the beans that preceding stubble is non-Cruciferae or melon.Specifically, enter for the ground chosen Ridge is done in row arable land, alley south-north direction or it is east-west all can, row spacing 30cm, high 15cm are spaced 30cm between adjacent two ridge Do gutter, all alleys are arranged according to the alternate mode on a male parent ridge immediately two maternal ridges, and to slow male parent of blooming Alley only applies phosphorus potash fertilizer (P, K fertilizer), is carried out according to the standard for every mu applying each 10KG of P, K fertilizer, N fertilizer is not applied, and early to blooming Female parent, in order to postpone its blooming cycle, during site preparation and fertilization, N P and K (N, P, K) fertilizer will be applied, and be bloomed week with postponing it Phase, and carried out according to the standard for every mu applying N, P, K composite fertilizer 50KG.In other embodiments, row spacing 30cm~40cm, adjacent 20cm~30cm is spaced between two ridges and does gutter, alternate mode can also be:Immediately three ridge kinds are maternal for one ridge kind male parent.
3rd, transplant seedlings field planting:In or so November, water is first irrigated within 2~3 days before field planting to alley, enter in the morning of selection fine day Row field planting, 5cm~10cm deep kind plant hole or ditch are opened on ridge, by 30cm~40cm gauge length, 4 will be grown to during field planting The strong sprout of~6 leaves carries out field planting of transplanting seedlings, and to male parent alley (field planting of male parent (late parent of blooming) strong sprout is only applied into P, K The alley of fertilizer) on be colonized, will maternal (early parent of blooming) strong sprout field planting to determining on maternal alley (alley for applying N, P, K fertilizer) Plant, form a ridge male parent, the arrangement mode of many ridges female parent, real strong sprout surrounding soil is trained after field planting, transplant unsuitable too deep or excessively shallow, Make base portion just flat with earth's surface, pour after field planting and in time field planting water and determine root.Field planting process of transplanting seedlings need not topdress, and reduce each Parent's nutrient growth, promotes reproductive growth, to promote bud differentiation.
4th, rich water quality management:That is field management, about to November or so when due to field planting, at this moment almost without disease Insect pest, therefore need not spray insecticide, as long as water in good time.The growing way for looking into two kinds of parents, the parent too fast to reproduction are seen simultaneously Originally N fertilizer is imposed, it is generally the case that female parent needs to chase after 1-2 N fertilizer, each every mu of 10KG or so, promotes its abundant nutrient growth, Slow down the speed of its reproductive growth, to postpone its florescence.In other embodiments of the invention, if the flower of anticipation Parent Phase gap is not very big, within 5 days, only a parent too fast to reproduction can carry out N fertilizer and imposes, if the florescence differs greatly, Then need that both sides are adjusted, imposed for example, the parent too fast to reproduction carries out nitrogenous fertilizer, while entering to reproduction slow parent excessively Row P, K fertilizer is imposed, to promote the flower synchronization of Parent.
5th, bulb reason is cut:Measure is grown by the fertilizers regulation in site preparation and fertilization stage and rich water quality management stage, it is originally female This heading stage is delayed, and the male parent heading stage is shifted to an earlier date, so that two kinds of parent's heading stages are close, leaf-head growth is suitable.Due to sweet Blue characteristic, bolting, which is bloomed, needs the leaf-head of the stem bursting wild cabbage inside leaf-head just to release Growth and anthesis, but this mistake Journey generally requires longer time.To shorten the time when artificial seed, it is necessary to carry out cutting ball processing to wild cabbage.The present embodiment What two kinds of parent's leaf-heads can be unified cuts ball exercise work, greatly reduces and cuts trouble unnecessary in bulb reason, i.e., by 2 months In the first tenday period of a month, wait wild cabbage to start after balling to start to cut ball with instrument (such as knife), ball mode is cut according to identical to the leaf-head of Parent Cut ball, i.e., the 60%-70% tops segmentation of cabbage head gone, leave 30%-40% bottom, so internal Stem nematode with The obstruction of bud differentiation just without leaf-head, cut the wild cabbage that the wild cabbage after ball blooms compared to nature blastomere bolting can be advanced to it is not a half Bolting is bloomed within individual month, and also bolting is bloomed when cutting ball old leaf ball and rotten blade are all cleaned up in the lump, So that wild cabbage is fallen ill, rotten probability is greatly reduced.
6th, blooming period management:This stage needs to put honeybee pollination.Parent is due to all taking arranging for fertilizers regulation growth Apply, the maternal florescence can be delayed 5 days or so, and branch is more, and flower is also more, male parent advance flowering period 4 days or so, so that Parent Florescence gap within 3 days, it is ensured that the quality and efficiency of pollination.Although what Parent was opened after cutting bulb reason spends relative About 10% when natural maturity is few, but every colored pollen turgor will select supernatural ripe situation, be awarded by honeybee After powder, maternal Pod Bearing Percentage is greatly improved.It is preferred that, after the florescence, male parent can be removed, to provide more skies for female parent Between.
7th, ripe harvesting:Time about at the end of May at the beginning of 6 months, female parent bears pods maturation, and pod can start from green to yellow, and pod is Maternal all harvestings are dried when through turning yellow but completely not withered and yellow, plant is beaten, collects seed.
By above-mentioned cultivation management process, the hybrid seed yield of the wild cabbage has reached every mu of 20KG, is doubled.By planting Found after sub- Purity, obtained seed purity has reached more than 95%, substantially increased seed quality.
In summary, two kinds of parents can be broadcast by the method that regulation wild cabbage seed production florescence of the invention meets simultaneously Nursery is planted, without sowing of staggering, process is reduced;The measure for taking fertilizers regulation growth adjusts two kinds of parents come more simple and effective During this flower synchronization, i.e. site preparation and fertilization, P, K fertilizer are only applied to slow parent to blooming, its nutrient growth is reduced, promote reproduction life It is long, to promote bud differentiation, and to applying N, P, K fertilizer with blooming early parent, its florescence is postponed, while the rich water after field planting Selective N fertilizer is carried out during management to impose, and is promoted the too fast parent of reproduction to carry out abundant nutrient growth, is slowed down reproductive growth Speed, suitably to postpone its florescence, due to two kinds of parents are all taken with the measure of fertilizers regulation growth, can bloom morning originally Parent's florescence by delayed 5 days or so, and branch is more, and flower is also more, and the florescence for the late parent that can bloom originally is by advance 4 It or so, so as to control the florescence gap of two kinds of parents within 3 days, seed production can double left and right, kind it is pure Degree can reach more than 95%, substantially increase seed quality;Simultaneously because fertilizers regulation, which grows, causes two kinds of parent's ballings Phase is close, and leaf-head growth is suitable, therefore the ball exercise of cutting that can be unified in bulb reason is subsequently cut to two kinds of parent's leaf-heads is made, Greatly reduce and cut trouble unnecessary in bulb reason.
Obviously, those skilled in the art can carry out the spirit of various changes and modification without departing from the present invention to invention And scope.So, if these modifications and variations of the present invention belong to the claims in the present invention and its equivalent technologies scope it Interior, then the present invention is also intended to comprising including these changes and modification.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of adjust the method that wild cabbage seed production florescence meets, it is characterised in that including:
Seeding and seedling raising:Two kinds of parents of wild cabbage are sowed simultaneously, cultivate parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves;
Site preparation and fertilization:Being bloomed according to a ridge, late parent immediately bloom the alternate mode of early parent by many ridges, and site preparation does ridge, described Alternate mode is that a ridge blooms that late parent immediately bloom early parent by two ridges or three ridges, the width of every alley for 30cm~ There is 20cm~30cm gutter on 40cm, every alley both sides, and apply P, K fertilizer for the parent's alley for blooming slow, early to bloom Parent's alley applies N, P, K fertilizer, to adjust the florescence of two kinds of parents, and the parent alley slow to blooming is with every mu of ground each 10KG of P, K fertilizer Standard fertilising, the parent alley early to blooming apply fertilizer with every mu of ground N, P, K composite fertilizer 50KG standard;
Transplant seedlings field planting:Transplanting parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves is to field planting on alley, and the parent's strong sprout for blooming early is fixed It is implanted on the alley for applying N, P, K fertilizer, the parent's strong sprout field planting for blooming late pours root water on the alley for applying P, K fertilizer;
Rich water quality management:In growth period before blooming, according to the growing way of two kinds of parents, selectivity carries out imposing for N fertilizer, further adjusts Save the florescence of two kinds of parents, finally make the flower synchronization of two kinds of parents, the selectivity carry out N fertilizer impose including:To blooming Imposing for early 1~2 N fertilizer of parent's progress, imposes carried out according to the standard of every mu of ground 10KG N fertilizer every time.
2. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that transplant seedlings field planting when every ridge on spacing in the rows for 30cm~ 40cm。
3. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that methods described also includes cutting bulb reason:Wild cabbage starts after balling, The 60%~70% of cabbage head is prescinded from top.
4. method as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that described when cutting bulb reason, the leaf-head that also bolting is bloomed All prescind.
It is also that rotten blade is whole 5. method as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that described when cutting bulb reason Prescind.
6. method as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that the sowing time of nurturing staff is late September, field planting of transplanting seedlings Time is November, and the time for cutting bulb reason is early Febuary.
7. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that include the step of seeding and seedling raising:
Sowing:Hole tray is chosen, matrix is put into, per one seed of bunch planting, pours permeable;
Nursery:The moisture of hole tray is kept using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, while when running into 35 degree of high temperature above to cave Disk carries out sunshade;
Reseed:Observe seed germination, to sowing 3 days after ablastous hole tray reseed.
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CN105613279A (en) * 2016-03-15 2016-06-01 盐城市新洋农业试验站 Method for florescence prediction in hybrid rice seed production
CN106332647A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-18 铜陵翔宇商贸有限公司 High-yield planting method of nutrient kohlrabi

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CN102487743A (en) * 2011-10-28 2012-06-13 镇江瑞繁农艺有限公司 Method of adjusting flowering synchronization for cabbage seed production
UA81115U (en) * 2012-12-05 2013-06-25 Владимир Николаевич Чередниченко Method for growing chinese cabbage while treating the seed with ozone
CN104206150B (en) * 2014-08-25 2016-05-11 镇江瑞繁农艺有限公司 A kind of method that improves cabbage sterile lines seed making output

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