CN104588649B - The technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts - Google Patents

The technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts Download PDF

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CN104588649B
CN104588649B CN201410747722.3A CN201410747722A CN104588649B CN 104588649 B CN104588649 B CN 104588649B CN 201410747722 A CN201410747722 A CN 201410747722A CN 104588649 B CN104588649 B CN 104588649B
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cantilever
powder
layer
metal
technique
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CN104588649A (en
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张安峰
李涤尘
师博飞
齐宝路
卢秉恒
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Xi an Jiaotong University
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Xi an Jiaotong University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The technique that the invention discloses a kind of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts, it is characterised in that when part model does not exists cantilever design, according to normal process cladding.When being shaped to cantilever layer, provide by one of following three kinds of methods and support: being 1. filled into around part by metal dust, and struck off by powder, be compacted, cladding layer current with part is concordant;2. metal fine-structure mesh is tiled on formed part;3. the thin slice that powder is pressed into is placed in the concordant place of current cladding layer.The corresponding different forming technology of support of one layer of different modes of cantilever: 1., reducing laser power and close powder feeder, the metal dust overhead after striking off, being compacted sweeps one layer;2., first scanning profile, metal fine-structure mesh is molten on formed part base solid, then reduces laser power, fill scanning one layer;3., directly shape according to normal process.Utilize the support that preceding layer provides, follow-up can shape according to normal process.

Description

The technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts
Technical field
The present invention relates to laser gain material manufacturing technology, particularly to Laser Direct Deposition utilizes powder, The thin slice that metal fine-structure mesh, powder are pressed into provides and supports, with the method shaping cantilever design part, main It is used for solving insurmountable cantilever design part forming in three axles (even five axles) laser system to ask Topic.
Background technology
Laser Direct Deposition be grow up early 1990s merged Rapid Prototyping technique and The advanced manufacturing technology of laser melting and coating technique.It is based on " discrete-to pile up " Forming Theory, first The three-dimensional CAD physical model of systematic function part the most in a computer;Then by the three-dimensional shaped of part Shape information slicing delamination, is converted to a series of two-dimensional silhouette information, and aspect geological information merges shaping Parameter generates scanning pattern numerical control code, under digital control system control, uses synchronous powder feeding system laser melting coating Method according to scanning track successively cladding pile up, ultimately form Three-dimensional Entity Components.As overturning biography Unite manufacturing new technique, it is possible to realize high-performance labyrinth metal parts without mould, quickly, Complete fine and close near-net-shape, is considered the third time industrial revolution, has worldwide started research and has answered Upsurge.It is particularly suited for special material or special shape metal parts that traditional method is difficult to manufacture, Widely should have in fields such as Aero-Space, auto industry, Mould design and manufacturing, biomedicines Use prospect.
Actual equipment for spraying type Laser Direct Deposition can not shape arbitrarily complicated metal parts. As a example by the former of three-shaft linkage, for overstepping the extreme limit angle of inclination and there is the zero of cantilever design Part, needs to add supporting and could shape, thus reduces forming efficiency, and part supports and removes difficulty Even cannot remove.The former of five-axle linkage can overcome the problem at bigger angle of inclination, but Cantilever design for some complexity still cannot shape (the such as one-tenth at aero engine turbine blades top Shape).Visible complicated cantilever design limits the extensive application of Laser Direct Deposition technology.
Summary of the invention
For existing Laser Direct Deposition technology cannot shape the problem of cantilever design metal parts, this The purpose of invention is to provide and a kind of uses fore-put powder, metal fine-structure mesh, the method for thin slice, for follow-up molten Cover shaping and support is provided, to shape the technique containing cantilever design metal parts.
For reaching object above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that and is achieved:
The technique of a kind of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts, it is characterised in that include following Step:
(1) when metal parts does not exists cantilever design, by the direct deposited metals of laser forming common process Powder;
(2), when cladding is to a layer of cantilever design, provides by one of following three kinds of methods and support:
1., metal dust is filled into around part, and powder is compacted, and work as front end with part Face is concordant;
2., metal fine-structure mesh is laid in part and works as front end face;
3., by prefabricated powder thin slice it is laid in part and works as front end face, chip shape and cantilever part Identical;
(3) cantilever layer is according to the support of step (2) different modes, corresponding following different shaping work Skill:
1., to step (2) support 1., reduce laser power and also close powder feeder, with Part is when pressing cantilever profile scan on the concordant metal dust of front end face;Make the fusing of powder part be formed to burn Knot layer;
2., to step (2) support 2., first press cantilever profile scan, metal fine-structure mesh is melted Front end face is worked as to part;Reduce laser power, refill scanning one layer;
3., to step (2) support 3., directly continue to shape according to common process;
(4) follow-up shaping only need to continue cladding by normal process, if running into cantilever design again, the most again It is back to step (2).
In above-mentioned technique, the described supporting form to step (2) preset metal dust 2., cantilever is tied After composition shape terminates, need the metal dust that clearing and retrieving is filled.
Forming metallic powder size is 40~60 μm.Can the selection of material be preferentially Ti-6Al-4V, also I.e. TC4 powder.
The present invention in Laser Direct Deposition, select sintering one layer of powder, the fine-structure mesh of same metal, The thin slice that powder is pressed into supports, and can complete the shaping of cantilever design, solves cantilever design gold The problem belonging to part Laser Direct Deposition difficulty.The present invention has used for reference selective laser sintering technology (SLM) In, the cantilever part of threedimensional model utilizes metal dust to support, and need not be model buildings entity again Support.Arbitrarily complicated entity component can be shaped in theory, and due to Laser Direct Deposition part Feature, its intensity is higher than selective laser sintering.Owing to there is not unnecessary solid support, can be Limits improves forming efficiency, saves powder.
The present invention can quickly manufacture and have under the laser metal forming appointed condition of three kinematic axiss The metal parts of cantilever design, it is adaptable to the shaping of the labyrinth such as blade of aviation engine, inner flow passage.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is Laser Direct Deposition system schematic.In figure: 1, laser beam;2, carrier gas powder;3 Atmosphere protection cover;4, numerical control table, NC table;5, powder-feeding nozzle;6, substrate.
Fig. 2 is an example of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever part of the present invention.Wherein: (a) metal zero The part part without cantilever design, direct forming on substrate;B () burns on preset metal dust Tie one layer;(c) final Prototyping Metal Parts.In figure: 6, substrate;7, there is no cantilever design part Part;8, preset metal dust;9, a layer sintered on fore-put powder;10, powder holds Device;11, the final metal parts shaped.
Fig. 3 is the pattern photo of another example of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever part of the present invention.Wherein: A () utilizes wire netting to support;B TC4 cantilever design part that () finally shapes.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is described in further detail.
Seeing Fig. 1, Laser Direct Deposition system of the present invention includes laser instrument, computer, three number of coordinates Control workbench 4, protection gas and powder feeder, powder-feeding nozzle 5, atmosphere protection cover 3 etc., laser instrument produces And conduct laser beam 1 to machining area, three coordinate numerical control table, NC tables realize laser beam with shape sample it Between relative motion, carrier gas powder 2 is transferred to four road powder-feeding nozzles by powder feeder, make powder stream with swash Light beam overlaps, and atmosphere protection cover 3 ensures that the oxygen content of working chamber reaches processing request.
Embodiment one
(1) Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts the selection of material: the metal powder used in experiment Conventional Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) powder in end, powder size is 40~60 μm, and the material of substrate 6 is TC4 substrate.
(2) front being placed in vacuum drying oven by powder of experiment is heated to 150 DEG C, is incubated 24h, to go Moisture removal also strengthens powder flowbility;After TC4 substrate surface is polished with fine sandpaper, go with acetone soln Except substrate surface oils and fats and spot, finally substrate surface ethanol solution is cleaned up.
(3), in forming process, normally shape on TC4 substrate when height is less than 3cm, main Technological parameter is laser power 200W, scanning speed 10mm/s, and powder sending quantity is 4g/min, and Z axis promotes Amount is 0.1mm, and overlapping spacing between twice is 0.30mm.
(4), when height is 3cm, parts profile is shaped as rectangular surfaces, and the mid portion of rectangular surfaces does not has There is support, it is impossible to direct forming [Fig. 2 (a)].Therefore upper metal dust 8, pressure will be filled around part Strike off after reality, make powder concordant with part upper surface, close powder feeder when shaping cantilever layer, prevent from sending The powder of compacting is dispelled by powder nozzle.Reduction laser power is to 150W, so that the fusing of powder part, Link together (on fore-put powder one layer 9 of sintering), provides for next layer and supports [Fig. 2 (b)].
(5), when height is more than 3mm, shape according to normal process parameter: open powder feeder, Improve laser power to 200W.Clearing and retrieving powder after shaping, final forming titanium alloy part As shown in Fig. 2 (c).
Embodiment two
(1), when forming height is less than 3cm, same process is used with example one;Being formed into height is Titanium net is used to replace powder to support [Fig. 3 (a)] during 3cm.
(2) when titanium shapes on the net, first according to normal power scanning profile, it is molten to become by titanium net On shape part base solid.Then reduction laser power is to 100W, opens powder feeder, fills scanning one Layer.
(3) in the support of formed a layer, can shape according to normal process, final formation of parts As shown in Fig. 3 (b).
This making an excessive case more excessive example utilize serve as with the metal fine-structure mesh of metal dust same element support can also be follow-up become Shape provides and supports.Compared with doing support with metal dust, during metal fine-structure mesh cladding, bottom cantilever layer, there is no volume Outer viscous powder, thus there is higher forming accuracy.
Embodiment three
With the metal fine-structure mesh in prefabricated powder thin slice alternate embodiment two, it is laid in part and works as front end face, thin Plate shape is same with cantilever portion split-phase, directly can shape according to normal process on thin slice.

Claims (4)

1. the technique of a Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts, it is characterised in that under including State step:
(1) when metal parts does not exists cantilever design, by the direct deposited metals of laser forming common process Powder;
(2), when cladding is to a layer of cantilever design, support is provided by the following method: filled out by metal dust It is charged to around part, and powder is compacted, and concordant when front end face with part;
(3) support to step (2), reduces laser power and also closes powder feeder, with part When pressing cantilever profile scan on the metal dust that front end face is concordant;The fusing of powder part is made to form sinter layer;
(4) follow-up shaping only need to continue cladding by normal process, if running into cantilever design again, the most again It is back to step (2).
2. the technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying and be, the supporting form of the described preset metal dust to step (2), cantilever design shapes and terminates After, need the metal dust that clearing and retrieving is filled.
3. the technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying and be, forming metallic powder size is 40~60 μm.
4. the technique of Laser Direct Deposition cantilever design metal parts as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying and be, forming metallic powder the selection of material is Ti-6Al-4V, namely TC4 powder.
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CN106541133B (en) * 2015-09-22 2018-08-21 首都航天机械公司 A kind of method of in-situ preparation auxiliary support structure
CN105108144B (en) * 2015-09-28 2017-03-29 苏州大学 One kind is without matrix without support metal parts laser melting coating free forming method
CN105252145B (en) * 2015-10-19 2017-10-20 华南理工大学 A kind of method and apparatus of sheet metal superposition manufacture complicated shape part
CN105170974A (en) * 2015-10-19 2015-12-23 无锡清杨机械制造有限公司 Quick forming method
CN105397086B (en) * 2015-10-28 2018-01-23 西安铂力特增材技术股份有限公司 A kind of titanium alloy hollow blade laser accurate manufacturing process
CN105252003B (en) * 2015-11-09 2017-05-10 华中科技大学 Additive manufacturing method for aircraft wing spar components
CN106041075B (en) * 2016-06-22 2018-03-02 西北工业大学 A kind of high energy beam increasing material manufacturing method of metal parts hanging structure
CN106392071A (en) * 2016-09-18 2017-02-15 四川大学 Method used for improving manufacturing efficiency and precision of additive formed through powder bed fusion
CN107282924B (en) * 2017-07-10 2019-01-04 香港生产力促进局 A kind of 3D printing device and method
CN109676123B (en) * 2018-12-20 2021-03-02 西安铂力特增材技术股份有限公司 Scanning method for photocuring formed metal, alloy and ceramic parts
CN110238395B (en) * 2019-06-27 2020-04-24 南京工业大学 Method for additive manufacturing of printed metal parts by means of prefabricated sand moulds
CN111069777A (en) * 2019-08-23 2020-04-28 上海微电子装备(集团)股份有限公司 Additive manufacturing method and additive manufacturing equipment

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US7540996B2 (en) * 2003-11-21 2009-06-02 The Boeing Company Laser sintered titanium alloy and direct metal fabrication method of making the same
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DE102010041461B4 (en) * 2010-09-27 2016-03-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Test method for an additive manufacturing process
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