CN104475682A - Combined wax pattern-based method of achieving precision investment casting for heat-resistant cast steel thin-wall turbine shell - Google Patents

Combined wax pattern-based method of achieving precision investment casting for heat-resistant cast steel thin-wall turbine shell Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104475682A
CN104475682A CN201410788451.6A CN201410788451A CN104475682A CN 104475682 A CN104475682 A CN 104475682A CN 201410788451 A CN201410788451 A CN 201410788451A CN 104475682 A CN104475682 A CN 104475682A
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pattern
wax
shell
turbine case
cast steel
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CN201410788451.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104475682B (en
Inventor
杜发荣
姬芬竹
周煜
李亚静
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北京航空航天大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/02Sand moulds or like moulds for shaped castings
    • B22C9/04Use of lost patterns
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/22Moulds for peculiarly-shaped castings

Abstract

The invention discloses a combined wax pattern-based method of achieving precision investment casting for a heat-resistant cast steel thin-wall turbine shell, and belongs to the technical field of casting. In the method, the turbine shell is made of a heat-resistant cast steel material, a wax pattern of the turbine shell is three-dimensionally printed by adopting low-temperature wax, a riser wax pattern is poured by adopting medium-temperature wax through melt extrusion moulding, the combined wax pattern is formed by reliably bonding the wax pattern of the turbine shell with the riser wax pattern by bonding wax; an investment casting technical process based on the combined wax pattern comprises the following steps: preparing wax patterns, combining the wax patterns, producing a shell, carrying out investment wax removal, roasting a pattern shell, melting an alloy, pouring, compacting the shell, blasting shots, cleaning the shell, and the like. The method disclosed by the invention can be used for effectively increasing the wax pattern moulding efficiency of the turbine shell, reducing the cost, ensuring the casting accuracy of a runner of the turbine shell, improving the mould-filling capacity of heat-resistant cast steel, and achieving the thin-wall casting of the turbine shell; the wall thickness can be reduced to 3mm, and thus a light-weight purpose is achieved and the needs of an aircraft engine supercharger are met.

Description

A kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern

Technical field

The present invention relates to aviation piston engine turbocharging technology field, be specifically related to a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting technique based on combined type wax-pattern of turbocharger, be equally applicable to automobile turbocharger, especially car turbo-charger technical field.

Background technology

Turbocharger is arranged on waste pipe, turbine case is directly connected with blast pipe, be in the duty of high temperature, high pressure, especially on aviation piston engine and SI Engine engine, waste gas row Wen Gaoda 950 DEG C ~ 1050 DEG C, row temperature 850 DEG C higher than Diesel engine is high, conventional silicon-molybdenum ductile iron turbine case can not meet its performance requirement, and austenitic heat resistant cast steel has good heat resistance, fatigue durability, corrosion resistance, can fully adapt to turbine case high-temperature work environment; Meanwhile, the use of austenitic heat resistant cast steel increases product comprehensive mechanical property, and then can reduce part wall thickness, reaches the light-weighted requirement of aviation booster, is conducive to the object of automobile lightweight; In addition, in engine use procedure, also can improve the service life of booster, reduce the expense of maintenance and assembling.Therefore austenitic heat resistant cast steel has become the preferred material of producing high performance turbine shell.

But due to austenitic heat resistant cast steel poor fluidity, pouring temperature is higher, easy air-breathing oxidation and scab, and the factor such as turbine case structure Special complex, make austenitic heat resistant cast steel there is larger technology difficulty in the application of turbine case, the applicability of the Special Processes of Metal Castings methods such as permanent mold casting, compression casting and sand casting is poor, and the turbine volute wall of casting is too thick, general about 5mm, is difficult to meet the requirement that aviation gasoline engine quality is light and thermal inertia is low; Meanwhile, the not easily cast molding of thin wall complex structure part, easily produces defects such as owing casting, cold shut, misrun.

Summary of the invention

Technical problem to be solved by this invention is for aviation piston engine turbocharger, Truck Gasoline Engine by Turbocharging device provide a kind of casting technique of light-weighted heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case, adopt the investment pattern precision casting forming method of combined type wax-pattern, reach thinning wall thickness, avoid the object of casting flaw.

Heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern provided by the invention, comprises the following steps:

A, manufacture turbine case wax-pattern.Select low-temperature wax CP200 as turbine case expendable pattern material, leave standstill except water treatment, 3D printing shaping turbine case wax-pattern.

B, compacting cast rising head wax-pattern.Adopt softening point 76 DEG C, content of ashes≤0.03% (mass percentage), warm mould material in the A62 that fusing point is 85 DEG C, leave standstill except water treatment, melt extrude shaping cast rising head wax-pattern.

C, combination wax-pattern.Adopt bonding wax by the turbine case wax-pattern in step a and the bonding combination of cast rising head wax-pattern in step b.

D, Ludox bonding agent shell.Technical process for coating, stucco and drying.Powder and Ludox are mixed and made into coating by a certain percentage, comprise investment precoat, transition zone coating and backing layer coating.Surface layer adopts investment precoat, with molten metal contacts, should not react with molten metal, ensures shell inner surface quality, and adopts 70 order zircon sands as surface layer stucco; Two layers adopt transition zone coating, adopt 30 ~ 60 order gangue stuccos; Backing layer coating ensures the high and low temperature intensity of shell, and ensure the indeformable and dimensional accuracy of foundry goods, stucco is 16 ~ 24 order gangues; Finally complete slurry seal.

E, fusible pattern dewax.

F, roasting mold shell.

G, alloy melting and cast.Intermediate frequency vacuum induction melting austenitic heat resistant cast steel, and adopt vacuum casting process.

H, shake shell and the clear shell of ball blast.

In described steps d, the powder of investment precoat and transition zone coating is 325 order zirconium English powder, containing, for example the component of lower mass percentage: ZrO in described zirconium English powder 2content>=65%, Fe 2o 3content≤0.1%, TiO 2content≤0.5%, P 2o 5content≤0.1%, Al 2o 3content≤0.3%, SiO 2content <33%; Density is 4.6 ~ 4.78g/cm 3; Refractoriness >1500 DEG C; Hardness 7.5 Mohs' hardness; The coefficient of expansion: 4.6 × 10 -3(l/ DEG C).

In described steps d, the powder of investment precoat and Ludox mixed proportion are 3.7:1.

In described steps d, the powder of transition zone coating and Ludox mixed proportion are 2.0:1.

In described steps d, the powder of backing layer coating is 270 ~ 320 object colliery powders, and refractoriness is greater than 1450 DEG C.

In described steps d, the powder of backing layer coating and Ludox mixed proportion are 1.4:1.

In described steps d, Ludox component content is mainly SiO 2: 30 ~ 31% (mass percentage), Na 2o≤0.3% (mass percentage); Density (25 DEG C): 1.195 ~ 1.215g/cm 3; Viscosity (20 DEG C)≤7.0Pa.S × 10 -1; PH value 8.5 ~ 10.0; Average grain diameter 10 ~ 20nm; Outward appearance: milky is translucent; Stationary phase: 1 year.

In described step f, sintering temperature is 1100 DEG C, and temperature retention time is not less than 1h.

In described step g, smelting temperature 1590 ± 10 DEG C.

In described step g, cast vacuum is less than 100Pa, pouring temperature 1510 ± 10 DEG C.

The invention has the advantages that:

(1) 3D prints the application of advanced manufacturing technology, without the need to designing turbine case casted die mould, effectively raises turbine case shaping investment pattern efficiency, reduces manufacturing cost.

(2) combined type wax-pattern, adopts low-temperature wax 3D to print turbine case wax-pattern, ensures turbine case runner casting accuracy; Middle temperature wax melt extrudes shaping cast rising head wax-pattern, reduces manufacturing cost; Reliably combine bonding by bonding wax, there is good manufacturability.

(3) vacuum casting process process overcomes the problem of heat resisting cast steel poor fluidity, improves the mold-filling capacity of heat resisting cast steel, realizes the casting thin-wall of turbine case, and wall thickness can be thinned to 3mm, realizes light-weighted object, meets aero-engine booster demand.Reduce the defect such as pore, slag inclusion simultaneously, the product yield of product can be significantly improved.

(4) investment pattern precision casting casting dimension accuracy is high, solve that turbine case local sculpt is complicated, die cavity is narrow and small and be difficult to the problem of casting, the austenitic heat resistant cast steel turbine case produced has good mechanical property, thermal fatigue property and antioxygenic property, meets 1050 DEG C of hot environment reliable operation sexual demands.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is process method flow chart of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is that embodiment 1 turbine case wax-pattern combines schematic diagram with cast rising head wax-pattern.

Fig. 3 is embodiment 2 turbine case contour structures schematic diagram.

In figure:

1-integral turbine shell wax-pattern; 2-pours into a mould rising head wax-pattern; 3-turbine case wax-pattern and cast rising head wax-pattern bonding plane; 4-turbine case upper half shell; 5-turbine case lower half shell; 6-seam.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment 1:

Of the present invention for heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case solid investment casting structure as shown in Figure 2, its process composition graphs 1, comprises the following steps:

A, select low-temperature wax CP200 as turbine case expendable pattern material, leave standstill except water treatment, adopt 3D printing technique molded integral turbine case wax-pattern 1.

B, employing softening point 76 DEG C, ash content mass percentage≤0.03%, warm mould material in the A62 that fusing point is 85 DEG C, leaves standstill except water treatment, melt extrudes shaping cast rising head wax-pattern 2.

C, combination wax-pattern: adopt bonding wax by the integral turbine shell wax-pattern 1 in step a with the cast rising head wax-pattern 2 in step b in the bonding combination in bonding plane 3 place, bonding wax temperature controls within the scope of 160 ± 10 DEG C.

D, Ludox bonding agent shell.Technical process for coating, stucco and drying, investment precoat is 325 order zirconium English powder, adopts 70 order zircon sands as surface layer stucco; Two layers still adopt investment precoat 325 order zirconium English powder, 30 ~ 60 order gangue stuccos; Backing layer coating 270 ~ 320 object colliery powder, 16 ~ 24 order gangue stuccos; Finally complete slurry seal.

E, electric heating dewaxing kettle carry out fusible pattern dewaxing.

F, roasting mold shell at 1100 DEG C, the time is not less than 1h, burning-off remaining wax material, moisture and volatile matter thereof.

G, intermediate frequency vaccum sensitive stove 1590 ± 10 DEG C of melting austenitic heat resistant cast steels, adopt the gravity-assist pouring under vacuum, vacuum is less than 100Pa, pouring temperature 1510 ± 10 DEG C.

H, shake shell and the clear shell of ball blast.

Embodiment 2:

As shown in Figure 3, its heat resisting cast steel thin-walled full form casting process method comprises the following steps turbine case profile for casting of the present invention:

A, select low-temperature wax CP200 as turbine case expendable pattern material, leave standstill except water treatment, adopt 3D printing technique shaping turbine case upper half shell 4 wax-pattern.

B, employing softening point 76 DEG C, ash content mass percentage≤0.03%, warm mould material in the A62 that fusing point is 85 DEG C, leaves standstill except water treatment, melt extrudes shaping cast rising head wax-pattern 2.

C, adopt bonding wax by turbine case upper half shell 4 wax-pattern in step a and the bonding combination of cast rising head wax-pattern in step b, bonding wax temperature controls within the scope of 160 ± 10 DEG C.

D, select low-temperature wax CP200 as turbine case expendable pattern material, leave standstill except water treatment, adopt 3D printing technique shaping turbine case lower half shell 5 wax-pattern.

E, adopt softening point 76 DEG C, ash content mass percentage≤0.03%, fusing point 85 DEG C 162 in warm mould material, leave standstill except water treatment, melt extrude shaping cast rising head wax-pattern 2.

F, adopt bonding wax by turbine case lower half shell 5 wax-pattern in steps d and the bonding combination of cast rising head wax-pattern 2 in step e, bonding wax temperature controls within the scope of 160 ± 10 DEG C.

G, Ludox bonding agent carry out turbine case upper half shell 4 and turbine case lower half shell 5 shell processed respectively.Technical process for coating, stucco and drying, investment precoat is 325 order zirconium English powder, adopts 70 order zircon sands as surface layer stucco; Two layers still adopt investment precoat 325 order zirconium English powder, 30 ~ 60 order gangue stuccos; Backing layer coating 270 ~ 320 object colliery powder, 16 ~ 24 order gangue stuccos; Finally complete slurry seal.

H, electric heating dewaxing kettle is adopted to carry out fusible pattern dewaxing to the formwork of turbine case upper half shell 4 and turbine case lower half shell 5.

I, the formwork of roasting turbine case upper half shell 4 and turbine case lower half shell 5 at 1100 DEG C, the time is not less than 1h, burning-off remaining wax material, moisture and volatile matter thereof.

J, intermediate frequency vaccum sensitive stove 1590 ± 10 DEG C of melting austenitic heat resistant cast steels, adopt the gravity-assist pouring method under vacuum to pour into a mould turbine case upper half shell 4 and turbine case lower half shell 5 respectively, vacuum is less than 100Pa, pouring temperature 1510 ± 10 DEG C.

K, shake to the turbine case upper half shell 4 be poured and turbine case lower half shell 5 shell and the clear shell of ball blast.

L, adopt argon arc welding by turbine case upper half shell 4 and turbine case lower half shell 5 at seam 6 place soldering group concentrated vorticity roller box, it is firm to require, and butt welded seam carries out leak check.

Claims (8)

1., based on a heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method for combined type wax-pattern, it is characterized in that: said method comprising the steps of:
A, manufacture turbine case wax-pattern: select low-temperature wax CP200 as turbine case expendable pattern material, leave standstill except water treatment, shaping wax-pattern;
B, compacting cast rising head wax-pattern: adopt softening point 76 DEG C, ash content mass percentage≤0.03%, warm mould material in the A62 that fusing point is 85 DEG C, leave standstill except water treatment, melt extrude shaping cast rising head wax-pattern;
C, combination wax-pattern: adopt bonding wax by the turbine case wax-pattern in step a and the bonding combination of cast rising head wax-pattern in step b;
D, Ludox bonding agent shell: technical process for coating, stucco and drying.Powder and Ludox are mixed and made into coating in proportion, comprise investment precoat, transition zone coating and backing layer coating; Surface layer adopts investment precoat, with molten metal contacts, should not react with molten metal, and adopt 70 order zircon sands as surface layer stucco; Two layers adopt transition zone coating, adopt 30 ~ 60 order gangue stuccos; Backing layer coating ensures the high and low temperature intensity of shell, and stucco is 16 ~ 24 order gangues; Finally complete slurry seal;
E, fusible pattern dewax;
F, roasting mold shell;
G, alloy melting and cast: intermediate frequency vacuum induction melting austenitic heat resistant cast steel, and adopt vacuum casting process;
H, shake shell and the clear shell of ball blast.
2. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: turbine case wax-pattern adopts 3D to print advanced forming technique.
3. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described steps d, the powder of investment precoat and transition zone coating is 325 order zirconium English powder, containing, for example the component of lower mass percentage: ZrO in described zirconium English powder 2content>=65%, Fe 2o 3content≤0.1%, TiO 2content≤0.5%, P 2o 5content≤0.1%, Al 2o 3content≤0.3%, SiO 2content <33%; Density is 4.6 ~ 4.78g/cm 3; Refractoriness >1500 DEG C; Hardness 7.5 Mohs' hardness; The coefficient of expansion: 46 × 10 -3(l/ DEG C); The powder of investment precoat and Ludox mixed proportion are 3.7:1; The powder of transition zone coating and Ludox mixed proportion are 2.0:1.
4. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in described steps d, the powder of backing layer coating is 270 ~ 320 object colliery powders, and refractoriness is greater than 1450 DEG C; The powder of backing layer coating and Ludox mixed proportion are 1.4:1.
5. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in described steps d, the mass percentage of Ludox composition comprises SiO 2: 30 ~ 31%, Na 2o≤0.3%; Normal temperature density 1.195 ~ 1.215g/cm 3; Viscosity≤7.0Pa.S × 10 -1; PH value 8.5 ~ 10.0; Average grain diameter 10 ~ 20nm; Outward appearance: milky is translucent; Stationary phase: 1 year.
6. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step f, sintering temperature is 1100 DEG C, and temperature retention time is not less than 1h.
7. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in described step g, smelting temperature 1590 ± 10 DEG C.
8. a kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combined type wax-pattern as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in described step g, and cast vacuum is less than 100Pa, pouring temperature 1510 ± 10 DEG C.
CN201410788451.6A 2014-12-17 2014-12-17 A kind of heat resisting cast steel thin-walled turbine case investment pattern precision casting method based on combination type wax-pattern CN104475682B (en)

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CN105436406A (en) * 2015-12-01 2016-03-30 华中科技大学无锡研究院 Precision lost wax casting technology based on selective laser powder sintering 3D printing
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CN105689643A (en) * 2016-01-27 2016-06-22 北京科技大学 Fast casting preparation method for steel-based abrasion-resistant and corrosion-resistant coating based on 3D printing
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CN107035412B (en) * 2017-03-28 2019-11-15 北京航空航天大学 A kind of ceramic-metal composite turbine shaft of low inertia, quick response
CN107035412A (en) * 2017-03-28 2017-08-11 北京航空航天大学 A kind of ceramic-metal composite turbine shaft of low inertia, quick response
CN107138679A (en) * 2017-05-05 2017-09-08 山东齐林电力设备股份有限公司 Micro-vacuum precision casting process
CN107685133A (en) * 2017-09-12 2018-02-13 东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司 A kind of hot investment casting ceramic shell preparation method
CN107598095A (en) * 2017-09-19 2018-01-19 安徽恒利增材制造科技有限公司 A kind of casting method of 3D printing shaping large-scale complex thin-wall high-temperature metal component
CN107983914A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-05-04 中国科学院金属研究所 A kind of manufacture method of shell backing layer for the big module casting of high temperature alloy and application
CN108213394A (en) * 2017-12-28 2018-06-29 中核北方核燃料元件有限公司 A kind of fuel element tube socket casting method
CN108436028A (en) * 2018-01-29 2018-08-24 安徽霍山科皖特种铸造有限责任公司 A kind of new type silica sol, water glass composite shell and preparation method thereof
CN110090916A (en) * 2018-01-31 2019-08-06 中国科学院金属研究所 The control method of surface defect during one seed nucleus main pump shell cast
CN108672653A (en) * 2018-06-08 2018-10-19 泰州市博世特精密铸造有限公司 Casting method applied to automobile engine cylinder head
CN109175232A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-01-11 安徽应流铸业有限公司 A kind of thin-walled pressure-bearing casting lost wax casting technique
CN109894575A (en) * 2019-03-27 2019-06-18 上海良基博方汽车发动机零部件制造股份有限公司 A kind of investment casting cores production technology of Worm gear pressurizing unit scroll and pumps component
CN110523921A (en) * 2019-09-27 2019-12-03 广船国际有限公司 A kind of casting method
CN111421109A (en) * 2020-06-12 2020-07-17 广东峰华卓立科技股份有限公司 Casting method for preparing sand mold shell based on 3D printing

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