CN104404189B - Utilize the method that chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing produces ferrochrome - Google Patents

Utilize the method that chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing produces ferrochrome Download PDF

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CN104404189B
CN104404189B CN201410678529.9A CN201410678529A CN104404189B CN 104404189 B CN104404189 B CN 104404189B CN 201410678529 A CN201410678529 A CN 201410678529A CN 104404189 B CN104404189 B CN 104404189B
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pelletizing
temperature
prereduction
ferrochrome
chromite powder
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CN201410678529.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104404189A (en
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王君
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中冶南方工程技术有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method utilizing chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing to produce ferrochrome, prepare including (1) raw material: chromite powder and coke powder mix after on disc balling machine pelletizing;(2) prereduction: be evenly distributed on drying grate by green pellets and carry out preheating and drying, thermal source used is rotary kiln waste gas;Preheated dry green pellets carries out prereduction in loading rotary kiln, uses the gas-fired heat supply that whole reduction section iron liquid furnace produces;(3) reduction eventually: the pre-reduced pellet of high temperature is added from iron liquid furnace top by discharge with endless screw device, hot charging enters iron liquid furnace and carries out molten point;Coal oxygen injection lance coal injection and oxygen, coal dust and oxygen in ferrum is bathed is utilized to burn in ferrum is bathed, the heat needed for providing for molten point;Melt after having divided, carry out slag sluicing system, tap a blast furnace and slag tap.The present invention can process chromite powder in large quantities, increases the utilization to fine ore, thus reduces the production cost of ferrochrome, it is simple to large-scale production.

Description

Utilize the method that chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing produces ferrochrome
Technical field
The present invention relates to the production method of a kind of alloy, be specifically related to a kind of method utilizing chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing to produce ferrochrome, belong to non-blast furnace ironmaking field.
Background technology
Ferrochrome is to produce the requisite raw material of rustless steel, and substantial amounts of ferrochrome is used for stainless production, and therefore ferrochrome industry is the biggest on the impact of stainless steel industry.Electric furnace is the main production equipments of current ferrochrome, smelts and needs to consume substantial amounts of electric energy and coke.China's chromium ore resource is poor, major part chromite import to be relied on.At present, in the chrome ore of annual exploitation in the world, fine ore accounts for 80%.Fine ore grade is higher, relative low price, but fine ore too much can make the working of a furnace deteriorate in smelting process, increase melting electric consumption, and reduces the response rate of chromium, has a strong impact on every technical-economic index.Therefore, explore the ferrochrome reduction process that the joint that economizes on electricity is burnt, strengthen the utilization of chromite powder, be to reduce ferrochrome energy consumption, the important measures of the raising market competitiveness.
DRC method is a kind of technique producing ferrochrome of international metal recovery company of Canada exploitation.This method uses rotary hearth furnace reduction pelletizing.This method with addition of carbon element reducing agent, uses disc balling machine to produce diameter about 10mm pelletizing, loads in rotary hearth furnace continuously in pelletizing, and the pelletizing thickness on siege is about 35mm.In siege rotary course, pelletizing is by the pre-thermal reduction of furnace high-temperature air-flow.Stove inwall is provided with oil spout or the burner of Coal powder spray (being brought into by oxygen), and ignition temperature can reach 1400 DEG C.High temperature gas flow and pelletizing reverse movement, pelletizing is discharged with the high temperature of 1200 DEG C after rotating a circle on siege.Hot-bulb group adds flux and melts out ferrochrome in electric furnace.Cr2O3Reduction degree up to more than 80%, Fe2O3Reduction degree up to more than 90%, melting electric consumption is 2000kWh/tHM, and comprehensive energy consumption is 1548kgce/tHM.
DRC method uses rotary hearth furnace as prereduction reactor, it is possible to achieve the high temperature fast restore of about 1300 DEG C, less demanding to pellet strength.But rotary hearth furnace suffers from the drawback that and technological difficulties: thermal current is not by the bed of material, and mainly by radiant heat transfer, the thermal efficiency is low;The bed of material is only the thickness of 2 to 3 balls, will reach certain production capacity, and occupation area of equipment wants big, and therefore production capacity and equipment size are difficult to mate with iron bath end reducing reactor.The method uses electric furnace as the whole reduction reactor of melting ferrochrome, and power consumption is higher, is not suitable for or that cost high area popularization nervous at electric energy.
Summary of the invention
The key issue that the invention solves the problems that is: propose, for prior art, a kind of method that new two-step method melting and reducing processes chromite powder, it is achieved the efficient utilization of chromite powder.The method prereduction section uses grate kiln to use iron liquid furnace as the reactor of melting ferrochrome as preheating and the reactor of pre-reduced pellet, whole reduction section.This technique belongs to a kind of non-blast furnace ironmaking technique.
For achieving the above object, the technical scheme is that
Use chromite powder and coke powder mixture manufacturing carbon containing ferrochrome pelletizing, first carbon containing ferrochrome pelletizing is dried in drying grate, preheats, then under the hot environment of rotary kiln, it is reduced into the metallized pellet with certain degree of metalization, finally metallized pellet hot charging is entered iron liquid furnace and produces the ferrochrome of liquid.Iron liquid furnace is reached a high temperature and reducing atmosphere by coal powder injection and oxygen blast, and the coal gas of generation is sent in rotary kiln and reached the high temperature needed for ferrochrome oxide direct reduction reactor with superfluous air mixed combustion.Rotary kiln coal gas fully enters in drying grate for being dried and preheat carbon containing ferrochrome green pellets.
For further details of explanation technical scheme, below the concrete steps of the present invention are described:
(1) prepared by raw material: chromite powder and coke powder mix after on disc balling machine pelletizing, a diameter of 10 to the 30mm of pelletizing, most preferably 20mm;Other raw materials used by pelletizing also include that bentonite and water, green-ball carbon-to-oxygen ratio are 1.0 to 1.5;
(2) prereduction: be evenly distributed on drying grate by green pellets and carry out preheating and drying, thermal source used is rotary kiln waste gas;Preheated dry green pellets carries out prereduction in loading rotary kiln;The prereduction of carbonaceous pelletizing is based on autoreduction;The high temperature high heat value gas produced from whole reduction section introduces in rotary kiln, and combustion air mixed combustion, it is provided that the high temperature needed for prereduction;
(3) reduction eventually: the pre-reduced pellet of high temperature is added from iron liquid furnace top by discharge with endless screw device, hot charging enters iron liquid furnace and carries out molten point;Coal oxygen injection lance coal injection and oxygen, coal dust and oxygen in ferrum is bathed is utilized to burn in ferrum is bathed, the heat needed for providing for molten point;Melt after having divided, carry out slag sluicing system, tap a blast furnace and slag tap.
In the present invention, join carbon ratio and refer to carbon-to-oxygen ratio, be the ratio of the carbon amount with the material of the oxygen in ferrochrome oxide.
The principle of the present invention is: (1) carbonaceous pelletizing autoreduction technology: carbonaceous pelletizing heats under without extraneous reducing atmosphere condition, and the juvenescence self occurred is referred to as autoreduction.The autoreduction of carbonaceous pelletizing has the chemical reaction of series of complex, is the combined process including the gasification of carbon, direct-reduction, indirect reduction, heat transfer, mass transfer etc..In an inert atmosphere, when temperature is more than 900 DEG C, autoreduction can be occurred inside carbonaceous pelletizing to react, and have anti-CO2The ability of oxidation.Due to iron mine and reducing agent mixing balling-up, in carbonaceous pelletizing, the reduction rate of iron oxides is apparently higher than other pelletizing and Ore.Under conditions of not having solid carbon, many oxides can not be reduced by CO, such as Cr2O3And Fe2SiO4, but when there being C to participate in reaction, reduction can be carried out, and therefore carbonaceous pelletizing degree of metalization can reach 100% in theory.(2) in chromite, the main component of stone-like pulse is magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide, the most a small amount of calcium oxide.Through the research to various slag system diagrams, determine rational CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag forms, it is ensured that being normally carried out of reduction reaction, makes slag, ferrum have good mobility, it is ensured that slag sluicing system is good.
The coal gas that whole reduction section produces sends into prereduction section combustion heat supplying, provides reduction institute calorific requirement for furnace charge, and in reduction furnace, reducing atmosphere is controlled, simultaneously facilitates control in-furnace temperature.
The invention have the advantage that the mode of production that (1) innovates: the end of prereduction and molten condition that reduction process is decomposed into solid state by this technique reduces two stages, and carries out the most respectively.Pre-reduction stage completes in rotary kiln, and the high temperature reductive gas utilizing iron liquid furnace to produce does fuel, carbon containing ferrochrome pelletizing reverts to certain degree of metalization, then is completed fusing, final reduction by whole reduction phase and produce the task of ferrochrome.(2) iron liquid furnace need not coke and electric energy, can use low-grade fine coal, and by coal oxygen combustion heat supplying, response strength is big, and response speed is fast, and volumetric efficiency is high.(3) using carbonaceous pelletizing autoreduction technology, use chromite powder and coke powder as pelletizing mixed carbon raw material, pelletizing good mechanical properties, reacting dynamics condition is superior, and response speed is fast, and degree of metalization is higher.(4) process equipment is compact, and the material conveying between prereduction section and whole reduction section uses hot-loading and hot-conveying technology.The high-temperature metal pellet that rotary kiln produces enters iron liquid furnace by discharge with endless screw device hot charging, and the high temperature reductive gas that iron liquid furnace melting produces is passed through rotary kiln and is fully used as fuel of heat supply, heat.(5) a large amount of use chromite powders and cheap coal resource, production cost is low.
In general, this technique is two-step method smelting reduction process, it is possible to process chromite powder in large quantities, increases the utilization to fine ore, thus reduces the production cost of ferrochrome;Use coal dust as reducing agent and thermal source, broken away from the dependence of STRENGTH ON COKE and electric energy, save the energy;Pre-reduced pellet hot charging enters end reducing furnace, decreases energy loss;End reducing furnace is reducing atmosphere, it is to avoid the secondary oxidation of reduzate, and recovery rate of iron is high;With short production cycle, disposal ability is strong, it is simple to large-scale production.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
The present invention is described further below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, it is to be understood that specific embodiment is only that the present invention is described further, but is not construed as limiting the invention.
(1) raw material prepare: by chromite powder, coke powder, bentonite, water mixing after on pelletizer pelletizing, wherein: the addition of coke powder is that 1:1 determines by green-ball carbon-to-oxygen ratio, bentonite addition is the 3% of chromite powder quality, the addition of water is the 5% of chromite powder quality, a diameter of 20mm of pelletizing.
(2) preheating and drying: by green-ball uniformly dispersing on the grate plate of slow running, green-ball is dried and preheats by the thermal current utilizing rotary kiln to discharge, under the effect of drying grate driving means, carbon containing green pellets sequentially passes through blasting drying period, down-draft drying zone and preheating section in grate, drying dehydration, preheating, sent in rotary kiln by feed chute after tentatively consolidating and obtain some strength.Drying grate entrance gas temperature 850 DEG C, temperature of exit gas 120 DEG C.
(3) prereduction: revolution kiln body is rotated by certain rotating speed, and ferrochrome pelletizing is continuously added to from kiln tail feeding section.Furnace charge interface temperature drop from drying grate to rotary kiln is 20 DEG C.Along with the rotation of kiln body, solid material constantly rolls, and moves to kiln hood exhaust end.The high temperature reduction coal gas after hot cyclone dust extractor dedusting produced by iron liquid furnace, by introducing rotary kiln end burner combustion after being blended into cooling coal gas cooling, it is provided that the heat needed for prereduction.In pelletizing moving process, being heated by reverse high temperature gas flow, ferrochrome oxide is reduced by the carbon in pelletizing, forms the metallized pellet with certain degree of metalization.In the metallized pellet that prereduction obtains, the degree of metalization of ferrum is 90%, and the degree of metalization of chromium is 65%.The drop temperature of rotary kiln is 1100 DEG C, and gas injection temperature is 800 DEG C, and kiln tail coal temperature is 850 DEG C, and combustion air coefficient of excess is 1.05.
(4) reduction eventually: the high-temperature metal pellet through prereduction adds iron liquid furnace by discharge with endless screw device in rotary kiln, and furnace charge interface temperature drop from rotary kiln to iron liquid furnace is 50 DEG C.Oxygen and coal dust join vigorous reaction in slag blanket and slag Jiao's cohesive zone by spray gun, it is provided that heat and reducing agent.Pre-reduced pellet has certain carbon residue, can originate as the partial heat of iron liquid furnace and reducing agent.Iron liquid furnace furnace top gas temperature is 1350 DEG C, and coal gas oxidizability is 0.15.Coal gas first passes around hot cyclone dust extractor dedusting after drawing, and efficiency of dust collection is 80%, and the stove dirt collected returns and blows in iron liquid furnace.The fusing point of slag is controlled by regulation limestone, dolomite, the addition of Silicon stone.Slag temperature is 1650 DEG C, and dual alkalinity is 0.3, SiO in slag2Content is 0.4, MgO/Al2O3It is 0.75, it is ensured that the fusion temperature of this slag is between 1500 to 1550 DEG C.The ferrochrome temperature that melting obtains is 1600 DEG C.
(5) slag iron: iron liquid furnace is smelted after terminating, and slag and ferrochrome are discharged respectively.

Claims (3)

1. utilize the method that chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing produces ferrochrome, it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
(1) prepared by raw material: chromite powder and coke powder mix after on disc balling machine pelletizing, a diameter of 10 to the 30mm of pelletizing;Other raw materials used by pelletizing also include that bentonite and water, green-ball carbon-to-oxygen ratio are 1.0 to 1.5;
(2) prereduction: be evenly distributed on drying grate by green pellets and carry out preheating and drying, thermal source used is rotary kiln waste gas;Preheated dry green pellets carries out prereduction in loading rotary kiln;The prereduction of carbonaceous pelletizing is based on autoreduction;The high temperature high heat value gas produced from whole reduction section introduces in rotary kiln, and combustion air mixed combustion, it is provided that the high temperature needed for prereduction;
(3) reduction eventually: the pre-reduced pellet of high temperature is added from iron liquid furnace top by discharge with endless screw device, hot charging enters iron liquid furnace and carries out molten point;Utilizing coal oxygen injection lance coal injection and oxygen in ferrum is bathed, coal dust and oxygen burn in iron liquid furnace, the heat needed for providing for molten point;Melt after having divided, carry out slag sluicing system, tap a blast furnace and slag tap;
In the metallized pellet that prereduction obtains, the degree of metalization of ferrum is 90%, and the degree of metalization of chromium is 65%;The drop temperature of rotary kiln is 1100 DEG C, and gas injection temperature is 800 DEG C, and kiln tail coal temperature is 850 DEG C, and combustion air coefficient of excess is 1.05.
The method utilizing chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing to produce ferrochrome the most according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: prepared by described raw material, be by chromite powder, coke powder, bentonite, water mixing after on pelletizer pelletizing, wherein: the addition of coke powder is that 1:1 determines by green-ball carbon-to-oxygen ratio, bentonite addition is the 3% of chromite powder quality, and the addition of water is the 5% of chromite powder quality.
The method utilizing chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing to produce ferrochrome the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: a diameter of 20mm of described pelletizing.
CN201410678529.9A 2014-11-24 2014-11-24 Utilize the method that chromite powder two-step method melting and reducing produces ferrochrome CN104404189B (en)

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CN106086402A (en) * 2016-07-20 2016-11-09 江苏省冶金设计院有限公司 A kind of production method of ferrochrome
CN107385205A (en) * 2017-08-09 2017-11-24 江苏省冶金设计院有限公司 A kind of method and system for producing silicochromium
CN107760809A (en) * 2017-09-21 2018-03-06 江苏省冶金设计院有限公司 A kind of ore smelting device and its smelting process
CN108300851A (en) * 2018-01-31 2018-07-20 山东墨龙石油机械股份有限公司 A kind of HIsmelt iron-bearing materials preheating pre-reduction treatment technique
CN108754056A (en) * 2018-06-11 2018-11-06 安徽工业大学 A kind of high density total oxygen short flow high efficiency cleaning iron-smelting process
CN110029220B (en) * 2019-04-25 2020-02-04 北京科技大学 Method for preparing metal chromium powder by reducing chromium oxide through two-step method

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CN1089115C (en) * 1999-10-27 2002-08-14 冶金工业部钢铁研究总院 Pre-reduction method and apparatus for fused reduction
CN101260448B (en) * 2008-04-24 2010-09-29 钢铁研究总院 Fusion reduction iron-smelting method for directly using concentrate powder
CN203782199U (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-08-20 丰镇市新太新材料科技有限公司 Submerged arc furnace pre-reduction chrome ore pellet direct supply system
CN103937968A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-07-23 甘肃酒钢集团宏兴钢铁股份有限公司 Magnetization roasting treatment process for chromite pelletizing

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