CN104298295A - Multi-step size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method - Google Patents

Multi-step size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method Download PDF

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CN104298295A
CN104298295A CN201410483044.4A CN201410483044A CN104298295A CN 104298295 A CN104298295 A CN 104298295A CN 201410483044 A CN201410483044 A CN 201410483044A CN 104298295 A CN104298295 A CN 104298295A
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maximum power
length
disturbance
point
dutycycle
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CN201410483044.4A
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CN104298295B (en
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杨苹
许志荣
周东宝
李鹏
雷金勇
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华南理工大学
南方电网科学研究院有限责任公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers

Abstract

The invention discloses a multi-step size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method. The multi-step size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method comprises the steps of firstly setting an initial disturbance step size; utilizing a function M=V*abs (dP/dV) to conduct demarcation on a photovoltaic cell P-V curve, taking step size d1 in a left-side region of a maximum power point when a value of a function dM/dV is greater than 0; taking step size d1*M/P when the value of the function dM/dV is smaller than 0; taking step size d2 in a right-side region of the maximum power point when a value of the function M is greater than power P; taking step size d2*M/P when the value of the function is smaller than the power P; The multi-step size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method is simple and practical, and the proportional relation of an initial fixed step size can be determined by utilizing photovoltaic cell panel parameters provided by a manufacturer. The problem that steady accuracy and dynamic tracking speed cannot be simultaneously considered in most of maximum power tracking controls is solved by means of the method.

Description

A kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method long based on multistep
Technical field
The invention belongs to solar photovoltaic technology field, especially a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method long based on multistep.
Background technology
Solar energy resources rich reserves, be easy to obtain, cleanliness without any pollution, is a kind of important regenerative resource, is widely used in recent years.Photovoltaic generation, as the one of solar electrical energy generation mode, progressively becomes the principal mode of Solar use.Compared with traditional generation mode, photovoltaic generation has the advantages such as structure is simple, reliability is high, zero-emission, noiseless, volume is little, the life-span is long.
The efficiency of photovoltaic generating system is one of most important index of photovoltaic system, the important channel of high-power point being followed the tracks of to the efficiency being raising photovoltaic system is carried out to photovoltaic system, domestic and international many scholars propose a variety of MPPT maximum power point tracking technology, conventional there are constant-voltage method, disturbance observation, conductance increment method, wherein constant-voltage method can only use in the scope that temperature inversion is less, be a kind of approximate MPPT maximum power point tracking technology, tracking accuracy is not high.Disturbance observation can trace into maximum power point, but its impact by disturbance step-length is comparatively large, can trace into maximum power point fast when disturbance step-length is larger, but larger in the vibration of maximum power point place; When disturbance step-length is less, although less in the vibration of maximum power point place, tracking time is longer, and tracking velocity is not high.
Find by prior art documents, High-performance algorithms for drift avoidance and fast tracking in solar MPPT system (Pandey, A., N.DasgVpta and A.K.Mukerjee, High-performance algorithms for drift avoidance and fast tracking in solar MPPT system.IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2008.23 (2): p.681-689.) propose a kind of variable step disturbance observation, systematic steady state performance and dynamic property can be taken into account preferably.But restricted application, and variable step coefficient is determined cumbersome.A Variable Step Size INC MPPT Method for PV Systems (Fangrui, L., et al., A Variable Step Size INC MPPT Method for PV Systems.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2008.55 (7): p.2622-2628.) discuss a kind of variable step conductance increment method, give the stepsize formula of variable step, but the method tracking effect when external condition acute variation is not fine, variable step perform region is very little, system is operated in fixed step size state always, steady state power loss is larger, system is all operated in variable step state, and dynamic tracking velocity is comparatively slow, namely there is " dead band " problem.A Novel Improved Variable Step-Size Incremental-Resistance MPPT Method for PV Systems (Mei, Q., et al., A Novel Improved Variable Step-Size Incremental-Resistance MPPT Method for PV Systems.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2011.58 (6): p.2427-2434.) discuss a kind of novel variable step conductance increment method, propose a kind of step-length boundary method and step-length tuning formulae, but this step-length boundary method calculated amount comparatively large (needs carry out repeatedly derivative operation), step-length tuning formulae fails to make full use of a point bound function, add operand equally, certain difficulty is brought to the realization of the method.
For above deficiency, the present invention considers photovoltaic system dynamic property and steady-state behaviour, according on the left of the photovoltaic cell parameter determination maximum power point that photovoltaic cell manufacturer provides, the proportionate relationship of right side initial step length, and utilize the absolute value of voltage and power vs. voltage differential product to demarcate to photovoltaic property curve, adopt different step-lengths in different border region.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to solve above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art part, a kind of tracing maximum power of photovoltaic cell method long based on multistep is provided, the loss of photovoltaic system steady state power can be reduced simultaneously and improve dynamic tracking velocity, optimizing the design procedure of photovoltaic generating system maximal power tracing algorithm.
Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
Based on the photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method that multistep is long, it comprises the steps:
(1) the initial disturbance step-length d of maximal power tracing algorithm is set 1and d 2, d 1, d 2act on the left of maximum power point and right side respectively;
(2) sampling k moment photovoltaic cell output end voltage V (k), electric current I (k);
(3) obtain the output power from photovoltaic cells P (k) in k moment, calculate photovoltaic cell output voltage variation delta V (k)=V (k)-V (k-1), current change quantity Δ I (k)=I (k)-I (k-1) and power variation Δ P (k)=P (the k)-P (k-1) in k moment; Wherein V (k-1), I (k-1), P (k-1) be the k-1 moment photovoltaic cell output voltage, electric current and power;
(4) judge whether Δ V (k) is 0; If 0, then judge whether Δ I (k) is 0; If Δ I (k)=0, do not change the dutycycle D of control circuit switching tube trigger pulse, return and continue sampling; If Δ I (k) <0, illustrative system work at present is on the right side of maximum power point place, and choosing step-length is d 1, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If Δ I (k) >0, illustrative system work at present is on the left of maximum power point place, and getting step-length is d 2, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D;
If judge Δ V (k) ≠ 0, calculate G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k); If G (k)=0, do not change dutycycle D value, return and continue sampling; Wherein G (k) is conductance function; If G (k) is >0, illustrative system present operating point is on the left of maximum power point, and apply forward disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance step-length is d 2; If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point is on the right side of maximum power point, and apply negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance step-length is d 1;
(5) gained dutyfactor value is compared the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the break-make of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, realize the tracking to peak power, repeat step (2) ~ (4) until k+1 moment system works is at maximum power point.
Further, the initial step length d of maximum power point both sides is acted on 1and d 2, the two meets relational expression: d 1/ d 2=V m/ (V oc-V m), wherein V mfor standard conditions and intensity of illumination are 1000W/m 2, photovoltaic cell plate temperature is maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage at 25 DEG C, V ocfor photovoltaic cell open-circuit voltage under standard conditions, during external environmental condition change, the Ratio invariableness of this step-length is constant, is a constant.
Further, when system works point is positioned on the left of maximum power point, the disturbance step-length of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if Δ M (k)=M (k)-M (k-1), if judge, Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting step-length is d 1; If Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, getting step-length is d 1* M (k)/P (k), wherein abs () is ABS function.
Further, when system works point is positioned on the right side of maximum power point, the disturbance step-length of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting step-length is d 2; If M (k) <P (k), then getting step-length is d 2* M (k)/P (k).
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following effect: the invention provides a kind of method simply determining initial step length relation, utilize the thought that related function is demarcated to photovoltaic P-V family curve, adopt two kinds of maximum power points determining variable step and two kinds of variable step tracking photovoltaic cells, improve speed and the lasting accuracy of MPPT maximum power point tracking, reduce system oscillation, the peak power output of photovoltaic cell can be followed the tracks of fast and stable, meet the requirement of system maximal power tracing.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximal power tracing algorithm flow chart long based on multistep;
Fig. 2 is traditional fixed step size conductance increment method and modified variable step conductance increment method simulated effect figure.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the present invention is further detailed explanation, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited thereto.If have not specified process or symbol below, be all that those skilled in the art can refer to existing techniques in realizing.
As Fig. 1, a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method long based on multistep, comprises the steps:
The first step, the photovoltaic cell parameter according to photovoltaic cell manufacturer provides: photovoltaic cell open-circuit voltage V under standard conditions oc, maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage V under standard conditions m, computing system is operated in the relation with initial step length during right side on the left of maximum power point, and the ratio of the two equals V m/ (V oc-V m); With reference to result of calculation determination initial step length d 1and d 2.
Second step, photovoltaic battery panel voltage and current is gathered by voltage sensor, voltage sensor, by the voltage and current that collects through superpotential, current regulating circuit, deliver in digital signal processor (DSP), the power P of current time is calculated, two moment power deviation Δ P (k), front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k), front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ I (k) before and after calculating by V*I.Calculate the derivative of current time power vs. voltage.The wherein derivative of power vs. voltage, can adopt front and back two moment power deviation Δ P (k) to carry out the derivative of approximate solution power vs. voltage divided by front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k).
3rd step, judges whether front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k) absolute value is less than setting accuracy ε 1, the stability of setting accuracy ε 1 size decision systems maximal power tracing, setting accuracy ε 1selecting too senior general to increase system to fluctuate at maximum power point, is generally the smaller the better.
4th step, if be less than setting accuracy ε 1, judge whether front and back two moment current deviation Δ I (k) absolute value is less than setting accuracy ε 2if, satisfied equally, then do not change the value of dutycycle D.If do not met, judge whether Δ I is greater than zero, if be greater than zero, illustrative system is operated on the left of maximum power point, then to set step-length d 1forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; Otherwise illustrative system is operated on the right side of maximum power point, to set step-length d 2negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D.
If voltage deviation Δ V absolute value is greater than setting accuracy ε 1, the value of computing function G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k).If G (k) equals 0, then do not change the value of dutycycle D.
If G (k) is >0, illustrative system work at present, on the left of maximum power point, calculates M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)); If judge Δm (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting step-length is d 1, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If Δm (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, and getting step-length is d 1* M (k)/P (k), applies forward disturbance to dutycycle D equally;
If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point, on the right side of maximum power point, calculates M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)); If judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting step-length is d 2, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If M (k) <P (k), then getting step-length is d 2* M (k)/P (k), applies negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D equally;
5th step, compares gained dutyfactor value the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the break-make of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, reach the object of maximal power tracing.
As Fig. 2, for same photovoltaic battery panel, photovoltaic panel parameter is open-circuit voltage 44.2V, short-circuit current 5.2A, maximum power point voltage 35.7V, maximum power point electric current 4.95A, photovoltaic cell peak power output 177W, getting traditional fixed step algorithm step value is 0.001, gets variable step conductance increment method step value d 1=0.001, d 2=0.004.Simulation result confirms that the method is relative to traditional fixed step size (dotted line) and variable step conductance increment algorithm (solid line), can improve speed and the stability of MPPT maximum power point tracking.
Above the maximum power tracking method of a kind of photovoltaic generating system long based on multistep provided by the present invention is described in detail, apply specific case herein to set forth principle of the present invention and embodiment, the explanation of above embodiment just understands method of the present invention and core concept thereof for helping; Meanwhile, for one of ordinary skill in the art, according to thought of the present invention, all will change in specific embodiments and applications, in sum, this description should not be construed as limitation of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1., based on the photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method that multistep is long, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) the initial disturbance step-length d of maximal power tracing algorithm is set 1and d 2, d 1, d 2act on the left of maximum power point and right side respectively;
(2) sampling k moment photovoltaic cell output end voltage V (k), electric current I (k);
(3) obtain the output power from photovoltaic cells P (k) in k moment, calculate photovoltaic cell output voltage variation delta V (k)=V (k)-V (k-1), current change quantity Δ I (k)=I (k)-I (k-1) and power variation Δ P (k)=P (the k)-P (k-1) in k moment; Wherein V (k-1), I (k-1), P (k-1) be the k-1 moment photovoltaic cell output voltage, electric current and power;
(4) judge whether Δ V (k) is 0; If 0, then judge whether Δ I (k) is 0; If Δ I (k)=0, do not change the dutycycle D of control circuit switching tube trigger pulse, return and continue sampling; If Δ I (k) <0, illustrative system work at present is on the right side of maximum power point place, and choosing step-length is d 1, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If Δ I (k) >0, illustrative system work at present is on the left of maximum power point place, and getting step-length is d 2, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D;
If judge Δ V (k) ≠ 0, calculate G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k); If G (k)=0, do not change dutycycle D value, return and continue sampling; Wherein G (k) is conductance function; If G (k) is >0, illustrative system present operating point is on the left of maximum power point, and apply forward disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance step-length is d 2; If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point is on the right side of maximum power point, and apply negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance step-length is d 1;
(5) gained dutyfactor value is compared the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the break-make of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, realize the tracking to peak power, repeat step (2) ~ (4) until k+1 moment system works is at maximum power point.
2. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the initial step length d acting on maximum power point both sides 1and d 2, the two meets relational expression: d 1/ d 2=V m/ (V oc-V m), wherein V mfor standard conditions and intensity of illumination are 1000W/m 2, photovoltaic cell plate temperature is maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage at 25 DEG C, V ocfor photovoltaic cell open-circuit voltage under standard conditions, during external environmental condition change, the Ratio invariableness of this step-length is constant, is a constant.
3. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that when system works point is positioned on the left of maximum power point, the disturbance step-length of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if Δ M (k)=M (k)-M (k-1), if judge, Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting step-length is d 1; If Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, getting step-length is d 1* M (k)/P (k), wherein abs () is ABS function.
4. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that when system works point is positioned on the right side of maximum power point, the disturbance step-length of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting step-length is d 2; If M (k) <P (k), then getting step-length is d 2* M (k)/P (k).
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CN108268083A (en) * 2017-12-31 2018-07-10 华南师范大学 A kind of adaptive increment conductance MPPT algorithm
CN108304027A (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-07-20 吴丹 A kind of solar power generation variable step MPPT control systems and method
CN108491026A (en) * 2018-05-04 2018-09-04 武汉工程大学 The progressive variable step MPPT system and methods of ladder
CN108874017A (en) * 2018-08-22 2018-11-23 海南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of maximum power point tracing method of photovoltaic generating system
CN109343649A (en) * 2018-10-22 2019-02-15 江苏大学 A kind of by stages is from optimizing MPPT solar power generation control method
CN110262619A (en) * 2019-07-02 2019-09-20 河北科技大学 A kind of modified conductance increment and fuzzy control double mode MPPT control method

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