CN104298295A  Multistep size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method  Google Patents
Multistep size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method Download PDFInfo
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 CN104298295A CN104298295A CN201410483044.4A CN201410483044A CN104298295A CN 104298295 A CN104298295 A CN 104298295A CN 201410483044 A CN201410483044 A CN 201410483044A CN 104298295 A CN104298295 A CN 104298295A
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 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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 Y02E10/50—Photovoltaic [PV] energy
 Y02E10/56—Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
Abstract
The invention discloses a multistep size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method. The multistep size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method comprises the steps of firstly setting an initial disturbance step size; utilizing a function M=V*abs (dP/dV) to conduct demarcation on a photovoltaic cell PV curve, taking step size d1 in a leftside region of a maximum power point when a value of a function dM/dV is greater than 0; taking step size d1*M/P when the value of the function dM/dV is smaller than 0; taking step size d2 in a rightside region of the maximum power point when a value of the function M is greater than power P; taking step size d2*M/P when the value of the function is smaller than the power P; The multistep size based photovoltaic power generation system maximum power tracking control method is simple and practical, and the proportional relation of an initial fixed step size can be determined by utilizing photovoltaic cell panel parameters provided by a manufacturer. The problem that steady accuracy and dynamic tracking speed cannot be simultaneously considered in most of maximum power tracking controls is solved by means of the method.
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to solar photovoltaic technology field, especially a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method long based on multistep.
Background technology
Solar energy resources rich reserves, be easy to obtain, cleanliness without any pollution, is a kind of important regenerative resource, is widely used in recent years.Photovoltaic generation, as the one of solar electrical energy generation mode, progressively becomes the principal mode of Solar use.Compared with traditional generation mode, photovoltaic generation has the advantages such as structure is simple, reliability is high, zeroemission, noiseless, volume is little, the lifespan is long.
The efficiency of photovoltaic generating system is one of most important index of photovoltaic system, the important channel of highpower point being followed the tracks of to the efficiency being raising photovoltaic system is carried out to photovoltaic system, domestic and international many scholars propose a variety of MPPT maximum power point tracking technology, conventional there are constantvoltage method, disturbance observation, conductance increment method, wherein constantvoltage method can only use in the scope that temperature inversion is less, be a kind of approximate MPPT maximum power point tracking technology, tracking accuracy is not high.Disturbance observation can trace into maximum power point, but its impact by disturbance steplength is comparatively large, can trace into maximum power point fast when disturbance steplength is larger, but larger in the vibration of maximum power point place; When disturbance steplength is less, although less in the vibration of maximum power point place, tracking time is longer, and tracking velocity is not high.
Find by prior art documents, Highperformance algorithms for drift avoidance and fast tracking in solar MPPT system (Pandey, A., N.DasgVpta and A.K.Mukerjee, Highperformance algorithms for drift avoidance and fast tracking in solar MPPT system.IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2008.23 (2): p.681689.) propose a kind of variable step disturbance observation, systematic steady state performance and dynamic property can be taken into account preferably.But restricted application, and variable step coefficient is determined cumbersome.A Variable Step Size INC MPPT Method for PV Systems (Fangrui, L., et al., A Variable Step Size INC MPPT Method for PV Systems.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2008.55 (7): p.26222628.) discuss a kind of variable step conductance increment method, give the stepsize formula of variable step, but the method tracking effect when external condition acute variation is not fine, variable step perform region is very little, system is operated in fixed step size state always, steady state power loss is larger, system is all operated in variable step state, and dynamic tracking velocity is comparatively slow, namely there is " dead band " problem.A Novel Improved Variable StepSize IncrementalResistance MPPT Method for PV Systems (Mei, Q., et al., A Novel Improved Variable StepSize IncrementalResistance MPPT Method for PV Systems.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2011.58 (6): p.24272434.) discuss a kind of novel variable step conductance increment method, propose a kind of steplength boundary method and steplength tuning formulae, but this steplength boundary method calculated amount comparatively large (needs carry out repeatedly derivative operation), steplength tuning formulae fails to make full use of a point bound function, add operand equally, certain difficulty is brought to the realization of the method.
For above deficiency, the present invention considers photovoltaic system dynamic property and steadystate behaviour, according on the left of the photovoltaic cell parameter determination maximum power point that photovoltaic cell manufacturer provides, the proportionate relationship of right side initial step length, and utilize the absolute value of voltage and power vs. voltage differential product to demarcate to photovoltaic property curve, adopt different steplengths in different border region.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to solve abovementioned the deficiencies in the prior art part, a kind of tracing maximum power of photovoltaic cell method long based on multistep is provided, the loss of photovoltaic system steady state power can be reduced simultaneously and improve dynamic tracking velocity, optimizing the design procedure of photovoltaic generating system maximal power tracing algorithm.
Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
Based on the photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method that multistep is long, it comprises the steps:
(1) the initial disturbance steplength d of maximal power tracing algorithm is set
_{1}and d
_{2}, d
_{1}, d
_{2}act on the left of maximum power point and right side respectively;
(2) sampling k moment photovoltaic cell output end voltage V (k), electric current I (k);
(3) obtain the output power from photovoltaic cells P (k) in k moment, calculate photovoltaic cell output voltage variation delta V (k)=V (k)V (k1), current change quantity Δ I (k)=I (k)I (k1) and power variation Δ P (k)=P (the k)P (k1) in k moment; Wherein V (k1), I (k1), P (k1) be the k1 moment photovoltaic cell output voltage, electric current and power;
(4) judge whether Δ V (k) is 0; If 0, then judge whether Δ I (k) is 0; If Δ I (k)=0, do not change the dutycycle D of control circuit switching tube trigger pulse, return and continue sampling; If Δ I (k) <0, illustrative system work at present is on the right side of maximum power point place, and choosing steplength is d
_{1}, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If Δ I (k) >0, illustrative system work at present is on the left of maximum power point place, and getting steplength is d
_{2}, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D;
If judge Δ V (k) ≠ 0, calculate G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k); If G (k)=0, do not change dutycycle D value, return and continue sampling; Wherein G (k) is conductance function; If G (k) is >0, illustrative system present operating point is on the left of maximum power point, and apply forward disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance steplength is d
_{2}; If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point is on the right side of maximum power point, and apply negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance steplength is d
_{1};
(5) gained dutyfactor value is compared the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the breakmake of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, realize the tracking to peak power, repeat step (2) ~ (4) until k+1 moment system works is at maximum power point.
Further, the initial step length d of maximum power point both sides is acted on
_{1}and d
_{2}, the two meets relational expression: d
_{1}/ d
_{2}=V
_{m}/ (V
_{oc}V
_{m}), wherein V
_{m}for standard conditions and intensity of illumination are 1000W/m
^{2}, photovoltaic cell plate temperature is maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage at 25 DEG C, V
_{oc}for photovoltaic cell opencircuit voltage under standard conditions, during external environmental condition change, the Ratio invariableness of this steplength is constant, is a constant.
Further, when system works point is positioned on the left of maximum power point, the disturbance steplength of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if Δ M (k)=M (k)M (k1), if judge, Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting steplength is d
_{1}; If Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, getting steplength is d
_{1}* M (k)/P (k), wherein abs () is ABS function.
Further, when system works point is positioned on the right side of maximum power point, the disturbance steplength of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}; If M (k) <P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}* M (k)/P (k).
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following effect: the invention provides a kind of method simply determining initial step length relation, utilize the thought that related function is demarcated to photovoltaic PV family curve, adopt two kinds of maximum power points determining variable step and two kinds of variable step tracking photovoltaic cells, improve speed and the lasting accuracy of MPPT maximum power point tracking, reduce system oscillation, the peak power output of photovoltaic cell can be followed the tracks of fast and stable, meet the requirement of system maximal power tracing.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximal power tracing algorithm flow chart long based on multistep;
Fig. 2 is traditional fixed step size conductance increment method and modified variable step conductance increment method simulated effect figure.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the present invention is further detailed explanation, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited thereto.If have not specified process or symbol below, be all that those skilled in the art can refer to existing techniques in realizing.
As Fig. 1, a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method long based on multistep, comprises the steps:
The first step, the photovoltaic cell parameter according to photovoltaic cell manufacturer provides: photovoltaic cell opencircuit voltage V under standard conditions
_{oc}, maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage V under standard conditions
_{m}, computing system is operated in the relation with initial step length during right side on the left of maximum power point, and the ratio of the two equals V
_{m}/ (V
_{oc}V
_{m}); With reference to result of calculation determination initial step length d
_{1}and d
_{2}.
Second step, photovoltaic battery panel voltage and current is gathered by voltage sensor, voltage sensor, by the voltage and current that collects through superpotential, current regulating circuit, deliver in digital signal processor (DSP), the power P of current time is calculated, two moment power deviation Δ P (k), front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k), front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ I (k) before and after calculating by V*I.Calculate the derivative of current time power vs. voltage.The wherein derivative of power vs. voltage, can adopt front and back two moment power deviation Δ P (k) to carry out the derivative of approximate solution power vs. voltage divided by front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k).
3rd step, judges whether front and back two moment voltage deviation Δ V (k) absolute value is less than setting accuracy ε
_{1}, the stability of setting accuracy ε 1 size decision systems maximal power tracing, setting accuracy ε
_{1}selecting too senior general to increase system to fluctuate at maximum power point, is generally the smaller the better.
4th step, if be less than setting accuracy ε
_{1}, judge whether front and back two moment current deviation Δ I (k) absolute value is less than setting accuracy ε
_{2}if, satisfied equally, then do not change the value of dutycycle D.If do not met, judge whether Δ I is greater than zero, if be greater than zero, illustrative system is operated on the left of maximum power point, then to set steplength d
_{1}forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; Otherwise illustrative system is operated on the right side of maximum power point, to set steplength d
_{2}negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D.
If voltage deviation Δ V absolute value is greater than setting accuracy ε
_{1}, the value of computing function G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k).If G (k) equals 0, then do not change the value of dutycycle D.
If G (k) is >0, illustrative system work at present, on the left of maximum power point, calculates M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)); If judge
_{Δ}m (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting steplength is d
_{1}, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If
_{Δ}m (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, and getting steplength is d
_{1}* M (k)/P (k), applies forward disturbance to dutycycle D equally;
If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point, on the right side of maximum power point, calculates M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)); If judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If M (k) <P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}* M (k)/P (k), applies negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D equally;
5th step, compares gained dutyfactor value the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the breakmake of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, reach the object of maximal power tracing.
As Fig. 2, for same photovoltaic battery panel, photovoltaic panel parameter is opencircuit voltage 44.2V, shortcircuit current 5.2A, maximum power point voltage 35.7V, maximum power point electric current 4.95A, photovoltaic cell peak power output 177W, getting traditional fixed step algorithm step value is 0.001, gets variable step conductance increment method step value d
_{1}=0.001, d
_{2}=0.004.Simulation result confirms that the method is relative to traditional fixed step size (dotted line) and variable step conductance increment algorithm (solid line), can improve speed and the stability of MPPT maximum power point tracking.
Above the maximum power tracking method of a kind of photovoltaic generating system long based on multistep provided by the present invention is described in detail, apply specific case herein to set forth principle of the present invention and embodiment, the explanation of above embodiment just understands method of the present invention and core concept thereof for helping; Meanwhile, for one of ordinary skill in the art, according to thought of the present invention, all will change in specific embodiments and applications, in sum, this description should not be construed as limitation of the present invention.
Claims (4)
1., based on the photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking and controlling method that multistep is long, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) the initial disturbance steplength d of maximal power tracing algorithm is set
_{1}and d
_{2}, d
_{1}, d
_{2}act on the left of maximum power point and right side respectively;
(2) sampling k moment photovoltaic cell output end voltage V (k), electric current I (k);
(3) obtain the output power from photovoltaic cells P (k) in k moment, calculate photovoltaic cell output voltage variation delta V (k)=V (k)V (k1), current change quantity Δ I (k)=I (k)I (k1) and power variation Δ P (k)=P (the k)P (k1) in k moment; Wherein V (k1), I (k1), P (k1) be the k1 moment photovoltaic cell output voltage, electric current and power;
(4) judge whether Δ V (k) is 0; If 0, then judge whether Δ I (k) is 0; If Δ I (k)=0, do not change the dutycycle D of control circuit switching tube trigger pulse, return and continue sampling; If Δ I (k) <0, illustrative system work at present is on the right side of maximum power point place, and choosing steplength is d
_{1}, negative sense disturbance is applied to dutycycle D; If Δ I (k) >0, illustrative system work at present is on the left of maximum power point place, and getting steplength is d
_{2}, forward disturbance is applied to dutycycle D;
If judge Δ V (k) ≠ 0, calculate G (k)=Δ I (k)/Δ V (k)+I (k)/V (k); If G (k)=0, do not change dutycycle D value, return and continue sampling; Wherein G (k) is conductance function; If G (k) is >0, illustrative system present operating point is on the left of maximum power point, and apply forward disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance steplength is d
_{2}; If G (k) is <0, illustrative system present operating point is on the right side of maximum power point, and apply negative sense disturbance to dutycycle D, disturbance steplength is d
_{1};
(5) gained dutyfactor value is compared the pulse width modulating signal that output duty cycle is D with carrier signal, control the breakmake of booster circuit breaker in middle pipe, realize the tracking to peak power, repeat step (2) ~ (4) until k+1 moment system works is at maximum power point.
2. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the initial step length d acting on maximum power point both sides
_{1}and d
_{2}, the two meets relational expression: d
_{1}/ d
_{2}=V
_{m}/ (V
_{oc}V
_{m}), wherein V
_{m}for standard conditions and intensity of illumination are 1000W/m
^{2}, photovoltaic cell plate temperature is maximum power of photovoltaic cell point voltage at 25 DEG C, V
_{oc}for photovoltaic cell opencircuit voltage under standard conditions, during external environmental condition change, the Ratio invariableness of this steplength is constant, is a constant.
3. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that when system works point is positioned on the left of maximum power point, the disturbance steplength of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if Δ M (k)=M (k)M (k1), if judge, Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is greater than 0, then getting steplength is d
_{1}; If Δ M (k)/Δ V (k) is less than 0, getting steplength is d
_{1}* M (k)/P (k), wherein abs () is ABS function.
4. a kind of photovoltaic generating system maximum power tracking method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that when system works point is positioned on the right side of maximum power point, the disturbance steplength of dutycycle D is adjusted as follows: calculate M (k)=V (k) * abs (Δ P (k)/Δ V (k)), if judge M (k)>=P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}; If M (k) <P (k), then getting steplength is d
_{2}* M (k)/P (k).
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CN108491026A (en) *  20180504  20180904  武汉工程大学  The progressive variable step MPPT system and methods of ladder 
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CN109343649A (en) *  20181022  20190215  江苏大学  A kind of by stages is from optimizing MPPT solar power generation control method 
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