CN104190930A - Laser additive manufacturing method for homogeneous functionally graded material and structure - Google Patents

Laser additive manufacturing method for homogeneous functionally graded material and structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104190930A
CN104190930A CN201410436443.5A CN201410436443A CN104190930A CN 104190930 A CN104190930 A CN 104190930A CN 201410436443 A CN201410436443 A CN 201410436443A CN 104190930 A CN104190930 A CN 104190930A
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laser
temperature
manufacture
homogeneity
different
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CN201410436443.5A
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CN104190930B (en
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范树迁
段宣明
王国玉
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中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention relates to a laser additive manufacturing method for a homogeneous functionally graded material and structure. The method includes the following steps that different functions are mapped into different temperatures which serve as boundary conditions to be exerted on different parts of a three-dimensional model; a three-dimensional finite element method is used for calculating a heat conduction equation of the model, inner temperature graded distribution, namely the temperature field of a model, is obtained, that is a temperature field of the model is obtained; an isothermal surface of the model is extracted, and a curved surface set with different temperature marks is obtained; slicing is conducted on the curved surface set, the intersection outline of each layer and the isothermal surface is obtained, in other words, plane isothermal lines are obtained; slices of each layer are processed, and a scanning route with laser parameters of the single layer in graded variation is obtained; the steps are repeatedly conducted until slicing is completed and a laser scanning route of the model is obtained; the generated laser scanning route is input into a laser 3D printing machine to control the additive manufacturing process, and the homogeneous functionally graded structure is obtained. According to the additive manufacturing method, the fact that the homogeneous functionally graded material and the homogeneous functionally graded structure can be manufactured in an additive mode is achieved, and the fact cannot be achieved through a current laser additive manufacturing method.

Description

The laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure
Technical field
The invention belongs to laser gain material manufacturing technology field, relate to the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure.
Background technology
Structure angle from material, FGM refers to selects two kinds of different materials of (or multiple) performance, by changing continuously the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes of these two kinds of (or multiple) materials, its interface is disappeared and cause the performance of material slowly to change along with the variation of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes of material.At present, more typical FGM consists of Ti and Al2O3 bi-material as Ti/Al2O3, the component of its structure is from simple metal Ti end continuous transition to pure ceramic Al2O3 end, make material both there is the premium properties of metal Ti, there is again good heat-resisting, heat insulation, the high-strength and high-temperature oxidation resistance of Al2O3 pottery.
At present, utilize laser solid forming technology (LENS) can increase material manufacturing function functionally gradient material (FGM) and structure, yet the document of current all reports or patent are all to utilize two kinds and above material to increase material manufacturing function functionally gradient material (FGM) or structure.
The metal of homogeneity or ceramic material require to show function and present graded in application, progressively there is slow variation according to the requirement of function (as hardness, intensity, rigidity, density etc.) in metallographic structure, grain size and the orientation etc. that are same material, forms function gradient structure.In fact, nearly all industry or natural structure all have this speciality, and as soft inside despite one's hard shell gear, the extremely hard flank of tooth is used for resisting flank of tooth contact impact stress, and softer gear core is for extenuating the vibration of gear; As bone, be distributed in bone surface high density compact bone substance and there is very strong anti-pressure anti-torsion song, be distributed in inner low-density cancellous bone storage marrow.Yet this class industrial structure could obtain by carrying out special thermal treatment, nitriding, carburizing etc. after machining (subtract material manufacture, dig mill etc. as turnning and milling) conventionally.This class natural structure is the product of long-term evolution.
At present, laser gain material manufacturing technology can only produce function-graded material and the structure of many material components, or can only produce structure homogeneity, that do not have performance gradual change.Because laser gain material manufacturing technology has clean shaping or near-net-shape, can manufacture how much and topological complicated structure, the laser gain material manufacture method of therefore finding a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure has great importance.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the object of the present invention is to provide the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure, the method can overcome the problem that existing laser gain material manufacturing technology cannot be manufactured homogeneity FGM and structure.
For achieving the above object, the invention provides following technical scheme:
The laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure, comprise the following steps: step 1: by different functional mappings, be different temperature, using different temperature as boundary condition, be applied to respectively the different parts of threedimensional model S0, utilize the equation of heat conduction of three dimension finite element method model S0, obtain inner temperature gradient distribution, i.e. the temperature field S1 of model S0; Step 2: the isothermal level of extraction model obtains the curved surface S set 2 with different temperatures mark; Step 3: curved surface S set 2 is cut into slices, obtain every layer of the intersection profile with isothermal level, i.e. plane thermoisopleth S3; Step 4: monolayer slices is processed, obtained the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient; Step 5: repeating step three and step 4, obtain the laser beam scan path S7 of model until cut into slices; Step 6: the laser beam scan path of generation is input to laser 3D printer and controls increasing material manufacture process, obtain homogeneity function gradient structure S8.
Further, in step 4, described processes specifically and comprises the following steps monolayer slices: 1) in plane thermoisopleth S3, extract adjacent thermoisopleth structure inner and outer ring, and the region surrounding at inner and outer ring becomes scanning pattern S4 how much; 2) the scanning pattern S4 region being surrounded by the identical thermoisopleth of temperature being generated gives identical laser technical parameters, obtains laser beam scan path S5; The scanning pattern S4 that the region being surrounded by the different thermoisopleths of temperature generates gives different laser technical parameterses, according to thermograde, changes adjustment laser technical parameters it is changed in gradient, and the function of its mapping is also changed in gradient; 3) repeating step 1) and 2), until individual layer plane thermoisopleth is disposed, obtain the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient.
Further, described material comprises metal and pottery, and wherein, metal comprises steel, aluminium alloy, titanium alloy and high temperature alloy etc., and pottery comprises aluminium oxide, zirconia, carborundum etc.
Further, described function comprises hardness, rigidity, intensity, toughness etc.
Further, described laser gain material manufacture method comprises selective laser sintering (SLS), laser constituency melting (SLM) and laser solid forming (LENS); Described laser parameter comprises: laser power, time for exposure, some distance, line-spacing, sweep speed and spot diameter.
Further, described laser power is 0.1mW~10kW, and the time for exposure is 0.001ms~30s, and point is apart from being 0.1um~200um, and line-spacing is 0.1um~400um.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: the method applied in the present invention can overcome the problem that existing laser gain material manufacturing technology cannot be manufactured homogeneity FGM and structure, can increase material and manufacture FGM and the structure of homogeneity, this is that current laser gain material manufacture method cannot be accomplished.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect clearer, the invention provides following accompanying drawing and describe:
Fig. 1 is the schematic flow sheet of the method for the invention.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail.
Fig. 1 is the schematic flow sheet of the method for the invention, as shown in the figure, laser gain material manufacture method of the present invention, comprise the following steps: step 1: by different functional mappings, be different temperature, using different temperature as boundary condition, be applied to respectively the different parts of threedimensional model S0, utilize the equation of heat conduction of three dimension finite element method model S0, obtain inner temperature gradient distribution, be i.e. the temperature field S1 of model S0; Step 2: the isothermal level of extraction model obtains the curved surface S set 2 with different temperatures mark; Step 3: curved surface S set 2 is cut into slices, obtain every layer of the intersection profile with isothermal level, i.e. plane thermoisopleth S3; Step 4: monolayer slices is processed, obtained the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient; Step 5: repeating step three and step 4, obtain the laser beam scan path S7 of model until cut into slices; Step 6: the laser beam scan path of generation is input to laser 3D printer and controls increasing material manufacture process, obtain homogeneity function gradient structure S8.
Wherein, in step 4, described processes specifically and comprises the following steps monolayer slices: 1) in plane thermoisopleth S3, extract adjacent thermoisopleth structure inner and outer ring, and the region surrounding at inner and outer ring becomes scanning pattern S4 how much; 2) the scanning pattern S4 region being surrounded by the identical thermoisopleth of temperature being generated gives identical laser technical parameters, obtains laser beam scan path S5; The scanning pattern S4 that the region being surrounded by the different thermoisopleths of temperature generates gives different laser technical parameterses, according to thermograde, changes adjustment laser technical parameters it is changed in gradient, and the function of its mapping is also changed in gradient; 3) repeating step 1) and 2), until individual layer plane thermoisopleth is disposed, obtain the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient.
In the present embodiment, described material comprises metal and pottery, and wherein, metal comprises steel, aluminium alloy, titanium alloy and high temperature alloy etc., and pottery comprises aluminium oxide, zirconia, carborundum etc.Described function comprises hardness, rigidity, intensity, toughness etc.Described laser gain material manufacture method comprises selective laser sintering (SLS), laser constituency melting (SLM) and laser solid forming (LENS); Described laser parameter comprises: laser power, time for exposure, some distance, line-spacing, sweep speed and spot diameter, wherein, laser power is 0.1mW~10kW, and the time for exposure is 0.001ms~30s, point is apart from being 0.1um~200um, and line-spacing is 0.1um~400um.
Finally explanation is, above preferred embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, although the present invention is described in detail by above preferred embodiment, but those skilled in the art are to be understood that, can to it, make various changes in the form and details, and not depart from the claims in the present invention book limited range.

Claims (6)

1. a laser gain material manufacture method for homogeneity FGM and structure, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
Step 1: be different temperature by different functional mappings, using different temperature as boundary condition, be applied to respectively the different parts of threedimensional model S0, utilize the equation of heat conduction of three dimension finite element method model S0, obtain inner temperature gradient distribution, be i.e. the temperature field S1 of model S0;
Step 2: the isothermal level of extraction model obtains the curved surface S set 2 with different temperatures mark;
Step 3: curved surface S set 2 is cut into slices, obtain every layer of the intersection profile with isothermal level, i.e. plane thermoisopleth S3;
Step 4: monolayer slices is processed, obtained the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient;
Step 5: repeating step three and step 4, obtain the laser beam scan path S7 of model until cut into slices;
Step 6: the laser beam scan path of generation is input to laser 3D printer and controls increasing material manufacture process, obtain homogeneity function gradient structure S8.
2. the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM according to claim 1 and structure, is characterized in that: in step 4, described processes specifically and comprise the following steps monolayer slices:
1) in plane thermoisopleth S3, extract adjacent thermoisopleth structure inner and outer ring, and the region surrounding at inner and outer ring becomes scanning pattern S4 how much;
2) the scanning pattern S4 region being surrounded by the identical thermoisopleth of temperature being generated gives identical laser technical parameters, obtains laser beam scan path S5; The scanning pattern S4 that the region being surrounded by the different thermoisopleths of temperature generates gives different laser technical parameterses, according to thermograde, changes adjustment laser technical parameters it is changed in gradient, and the function of its mapping is also changed in gradient;
3) repeating step 1) and 2), until individual layer plane thermoisopleth is disposed, obtain the scanning pattern S6 that individual layer laser parameter changes in gradient.
3. the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM according to claim 1 and structure, is characterized in that: described material comprises metal and pottery.
4. the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM according to claim 1 and structure, is characterized in that: described function comprises hardness, rigidity, intensity, toughness.
5. the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM according to claim 1 and structure, is characterized in that: described laser gain material manufacture method comprises selective laser sintering, the melting of laser constituency and laser solid forming; Described laser parameter comprises: laser power, time for exposure, some distance, line-spacing, sweep speed and spot diameter.
6. the laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM according to claim 5 and structure, it is characterized in that: described laser power is 0.1mW~10kW, time for exposure is 0.001ms~30s, and point is apart from being 0.1um~200um, and line-spacing is 0.1um~400um.
CN201410436443.5A 2014-08-29 2014-08-29 The laser gain material manufacture method of a kind of homogeneity FGM and structure CN104190930B (en)

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CN104959598A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-10-07 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 Rapid manufacturing method for laser sintering blocks decomposed and filled based on stress characteristics
CN104959604A (en) * 2015-07-23 2015-10-07 华中科技大学 High energy beam area-selecting fusing method and device capable of controlling temperature gradient in shaping area
CN105177273A (en) * 2015-09-30 2015-12-23 江苏大学 Laser shock enchantment method for improving fatigue strength of key and important member
CN105618755A (en) * 2016-03-23 2016-06-01 韶关学院 Powder supplying and spreading method and device for multi-material part 3D printing
CN105728722A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-07-06 广州有色金属研究院 3D printing method of ceramic titanium alloy composite biological implanting product
CN105945280A (en) * 2016-05-05 2016-09-21 清华大学 Additive manufacturing method for multi-material heterogeneous part
CN106021795A (en) * 2016-06-03 2016-10-12 南昌航空大学 Solidification temperature gradient controllable method for 3D printing of metal material
CN106584832A (en) * 2015-10-12 2017-04-26 黎世彬 Light source adjusting method of 3D laser printer
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CN106682299A (en) * 2016-12-22 2017-05-17 西安交通大学 Design and manufacturing method used for selective laser sintering sand mould regional strength change
CN106825574A (en) * 2017-04-18 2017-06-13 广东工业大学 A kind of metal gradient material laser impact forges compound increasing material manufacturing method and device
WO2017141697A1 (en) * 2016-02-18 2017-08-24 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Ceramic component and three-dimensional production method for ceramic component
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CN110465657A (en) * 2018-05-09 2019-11-19 中国科学院金属研究所 A kind of control shape deposition method of laser gain material manufacture steel alloy
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