CN104094497A - 非接触供电系统、供电装置及非接触供电系统的控制方法 - Google Patents

非接触供电系统、供电装置及非接触供电系统的控制方法 Download PDF

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CN104094497A
CN104094497A CN201180076046.6A CN201180076046A CN104094497A CN 104094497 A CN104094497 A CN 104094497A CN 201180076046 A CN201180076046 A CN 201180076046A CN 104094497 A CN104094497 A CN 104094497A
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collecting device
power supply
current
electric
power
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CN104094497B (zh
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正冈慎也
三户胜彦
平野彰
大久保典浩
内藤正记
武内保宪
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Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/40Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices
    • H02J50/402Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices the two or more transmitting or the two or more receiving devices being integrated in the same unit, e.g. power mats with several coils or antennas with several sub-antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/00006Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by information or instructions transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated power network element or electrical equipment
    • H02J13/00022Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by information or instructions transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated power network element or electrical equipment using wireless data transmission
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • H02J50/12Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling of the resonant type
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/80Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the exchange of data, concerning supply or distribution of electric power, between transmitting devices and receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/90Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving detection or optimisation of position, e.g. alignment
    • H04B5/24
    • H04B5/79
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/12Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment
    • Y04S40/121Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment using the power network as support for the transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/12Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment
    • Y04S40/126Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment using wireless data transmission

Abstract

在非接触供电中,使得能够高效率且可靠地进行向受电装置的供电。供电装置(10)从位置标定装置(14)获取受电装置(20)所在的方向(α),使得供电元件(12)的指向方向朝向受电装置(20)的方向来开始供电,基于从位置标定装置(14)获取的受电装置(20)的位置获取从自身到受电装置(20)的距离,求出与获取的距离对应的传输效率的容许范围,接收从受电装置(20)发送来的、当前从供电装置(10)接受供给的电力值,基于接收到的电力值和当前的供电电力的电力值求出当前的传输效率,当前的传输效率脱离容许范围的情况下,从位置标定装置(14)再次获取受电装置(20)所在的方向(α),基于获取的方向(α)控制供电元件(12)的指向方向,使得供电元件(12)的指向方向朝向受电装置(20)的方向。

Description

非接触供电系统、供电装置及非接触供电系统的控制方法
技术领域
本发明涉及一种非接触供电系统、供电装置及非接触供电系统的控制方法,尤其涉及一种用于能够高效率且可靠地进行非接触供电的技术。
背景技术
在专利文献1中记载了一种无线供电系统,其具有对被供电的电力进行送电的送电设备、和从送电设备接收电力的受电设备,送电设备包含以磁场谐振关系送电的第1共振元件,受电设备包含以磁场谐振关系接收从送电设备送电的电力的第2共振元件,送电设备具备驱动部,其能够根据送电设备及受电设备中的至少一个的电力传输信息,调整第1共振元件的配置角度及配置位置中的至少一个。
现有技术文献
专利文献
专利文献1:日本特开2011-147280号公报
发明内容
发明所要解决的课题
目前,伴随便携电子设备和电动汽车等的普及,对非接触供电的需求逐渐增大,关于以电磁场谐振技术等为基础的远距离送电的实用化正在推进。这里,在实现远距离的非接触供电时,需要尽可能地确保从供电装置向受电装置的供电电力的传输效率,高效率且可靠地进行非接触供电。
本发明是鉴于这样的背景而提出的,其目的为提供一种非接触供电系统、供电装置及非接触供电系统的控制方法,其能够高效率且可靠地进行非接触供电。
用于解决课题的手段
为了达到上述目的,本发明的一种方式为一种非接触供电系统,包含:受电装置,其通过非接触供电接受供电;供电装置,其具备向所述受电装置发送供电电力的供电元件,控制所述供电元件的指向方向的控制机构;以及位置标定装置,其与所述供电装置以能够通信的方式连接,并通过互相邻接配置的多个天线接收作为从所述受电装置发送来的无线信号的位置标定信号,所述位置标定装置具备基于接收到的所述位置标定信号的相位差来计算从所述位置标定装置自身看过去所述受电装置所在的方向α以及所述受电装置的位置的位置标定功能,所述供电装置从所述位置标定装置获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述方向α控制所述控制机构使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向并开始供电,基于从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电装置的位置获取自身到所述受电装置之间的距离,求出与获取的所述距离对应的、向所述受电装置发送供电电力时的传输效率的容许范围,所述受电装置将当前从所述供电装置接受供给的电力值发送给所述供电装置,所述供电装置接收从所述受电装置发送来的所述电力值,基于接收到的所述电力值与当前从所述供电元件发送的供电电力的电力值,求出当前的传输效率,当所述当前的传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的方向α,控制所述供电元件的指向方向使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向。
根据本发明,供电装置基于由位置标定装置求出的、受电装置所在的方向α进行控制使得供电元件的指向方向朝向受电装置的方向并开始供电,求出与由位置标定装置求出的供电装置与受电装置的距离对应的、传输效率的容许范围,根据从受电装置接收的电力值与从供电元件输出的电力值求出当前的传输效率,在求出的传输效率脱离容许范围的情况下,再次获取方向α,基于再次获取的方向α来控制使得供电元件的指向方向朝向受电装置的方向,因此能够适当地控制供电元件的指向方向,高效率且可靠地进行从供电装置向受电装置的供电。
本发明中的另一种方式为上述非接触供电系统,当所述传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,所述供电装置停止向所述受电装置的所述供电,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述受电装置所在的方向α来控制使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向受电装置的方向,之后,所述供电装置重新开始向所述受电装置的供电。
根据本发明,供电装置在传输效率脱离容许范围的情况下停止供电,因此能够防止进行低效率的供电。另外,供电装置在调整指向方向之后重新开始供电,因此能够高效率且可靠地进行从供电装置向受电装置的供电。
本发明中的另一种方式为上述非接触供电系统,所述供电装置向所述受电装置发送对所述受电装置请求发送所述位置标定信号的信息、即位置标定信号发送请求,所述位置标定装置根据所述位置标定信号发送请求,基于所述受电装置发送的所述位置标定信号进行所述受电装置的位置标定,所述供电装置在进行向所述受电装置的所述供电时发送所述位置标定信号发送请求,在发送所述位置标定信号发送请求后,所述位置标定装置在预定时间内没有从所述受电装置接收到所述位置标定信号时,停止向所述受电装置的供电。
根据本发明,供电装置在进行向受电装置的供电时发送位置标定信号发送请求,然后当位置标定装置在预定时间内没有从受电装置接收到位置标定信号时停止向受电装置的供电。这样在无法接收位置标定信号的情况下停止供电,因此能够防止进行损失大的供电。
本发明中的另一种方式为上述非接触供电系统,所述受电装置具备接收所述供电电力的受电元件和控制所述受电元件的指向方向的控制机构,所述供电装置向所述受电装置发送从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电元件所在的方向α以及所述受电装置所在的位置,所述受电装置接收所述方向α及所述位置,基于接收到的所述方向α以及所述位置来将所述受电元件的指向方向调整为所述供电装置的方向。
根据本发明,在受电装置侧也基于从供电装置发送来的位置标定的结果来将受电元件的指向方向调整为供电装置的方向,因此能够由此提高传输效率。
本发明中的另一种方式为上述非接触供电系统,所述供电装置通过非接触供电向所述受电装置供给所述受电装置的指向方向的所述调整所需要的电力。
根据本发明,受电元件的指向方向的调整所需要的电力通过非接触供电从供电装置向受电装置供给,因此在受电装置不具备蓄电能力这样的情况下,也能够进行受电元件的指向方向的调整。
另外,本说明书公开的课题及其解决方法通过具体实施方式一栏以及附图更为清楚。
发明效果
根据本发明,能够高效率且可靠地进行向受电装置的供电。
附图说明
图1是说明非接触供电系统1的结构的图。
图2是说明供电装置10的硬件结构的图。
图3是说明供电装置10具备的主要功能的图。
图4是说明受电装置20的硬件结构的图。
图5是说明受电装置20具备的主要功能的图。
图6是表示位置标定信号600的数据格式的图。
图7是说明供电装置10和受电装置20的位置关系(表示高度及距离的变量的取法)的图。
图8是说明构成天线群142的天线和受电装置20的位置关系的图。
图9是表示供电装置10和受电装置20的位置关系(表示高度、距离、角度的变量的取法)的图。
图10是说明供电处理S1000的流程图。
图11是说明供电处理S1000的流程图。
图12是说明供电装置10进行的、停止向受电装置20的供电的处理的一个例子的流程图。
图13是说明供电装置10进行的、停止向受电装置20的供电的处理的一个例子的流程图。
具体实施方式
以下,参照附图对本发明的实施方式进行说明。
[第1实施方式]
图1是对作为第1实施方式说明的非接触供电系统1的概要结构进行说明的图。如该图所示,非接触供电系统1的结构包含:具备位置标定装置14的供电装置10、以及通过非接触供电从供电装置10接受供电的受电装置20。受电装置20为例如移动电话机、移动信息终端、小型家电设备、电动汽车等。供电装置10设在例如存在受电装置20的环境、具有受电装置20的使用者进出的环境、非特定使用者能够进入的环境中。
图2中表示供电装置10的硬件结构。如该图所示,供电装置10具备:电源装置11、供电电力供给电路12、供电元件13、指向方向控制机构131、位置标定装置14、通信电路15、中央处理装置16、存储装置17、输入装置18以及显示装置19。还有,位置标定装置14可以与供电装置10一体性构成,也可以与供电装置10分开。
电源装置11为例如开关方式或线性方式的电源,供给用于驱动供电装置10的构成要素的电力。
供电电力供给电路12包含驱动电路(门驱动器、半桥驱动器等),基于从电源装置11供给的电力,生成向供电元件13供给的预定频率的驱动电流。
当所述非接触供电以磁场方式(磁场耦合方式、磁谐振方式)进行时,供电元件13为线圈等感应元件;当所述非接触供电以电场方式(电场耦合方式、电场谐振方式)进行时,供电元件13为电容器等电容元件;当所述非接触供电以电磁波方式进行时,供电元件13为天线。
指向方向控制机构131的结构包含:将供电元件13以能够在3轴方向上转动的方式支持的支持部以及控制供电元件13的指向方向的伺服电动机等。
位置标定装置14具备切换开关141及天线群142,从受电装置20接收后述的与位置标定相关的无线信号(以下称为位置标定信号)。
通信电路15在与受电装置20之间进行通信(例如:无线LAN(LAN:LocalArea Network,局域网)、基于IEEE802.15.1标准的无线通信、基于IEEE802.15.4标准的无线通信)。供电装置10和受电装置20之间的通信也可以通过将供电信号调制(Modulation),即通过将要传递的信息包含在供电信号中来进行。
中央处理装置16使用CPU或MPU等构成。中央处理装置16进行供电装置10的综合控制。存储装置17使用RAM、ROM、NVRAM等来构成,存储程序或数据。输入装置18为触摸面板或数字键盘等。显示装置19为液晶面板等。
图3表示供电装置10具备的主要功能。如该图所示,供电装置10具备:指向方向控制部151、位置标定信号接收部152、方向获取部153、距离获取部154、供电控制部155、容许范围计算部156、受电电力接收部157以及传输效率计算部158。这些功能通过供电装置10的硬件、或者通过供电装置10的中央处理装置16读取存放在存储装置17中的程序并执行来实现。
指向方向控制部151通过指向方向控制机构131控制供电元件13的指向方向。
位置标定信号接收部152通过天线群142接收从受电装置20发送来的无线信号(位置标定信号)。
方向获取部153获取由位置标定装置14通过后述的位置标定功能计算的、从该供电装置10看过去的受电装置20所在的方向(以下称为方向α)。
距离获取部154获取由位置标定装置14通过后述的位置标定功能计算出的自身与受电装置20之间的距离。
供电控制部155控制从供电元件13发送的电力。
容许范围计算部156求出与通过距离获取部154获取的距离对应的、向受电装置20进行电力供给时的传输效率的容许范围。关于容许范围的计算方法的细节在后面叙述。
受电电力接收部157接收从受电装置20发送来的、受电装置20当前从供电装置10接收的电力的电力值。
传输效率计算部158从供电元件13获取从供电元件13当前输出的电力的电力值,基于获取的电力值和受电电力接收部157从受电装置20接收的电力值,计算关于从供电装置10向受电装置20的供电电力的发送的当前的传输效率。
图4中表示受电装置20的硬件结构。如该图所示,受电装置20具备:电动势发生电路21、蓄电装置22、位置标定信号发送装置23、通信电路25、中央处理装置26、存储装置27、输入装置28、显示装置29、负载30以及电力测量电路31。
电动势发生电路21使用受电侧线圈等受电元件211来构成。在电动势发生电路21中,通过从供电装置10发送来的电磁场的能量而发生电动势。
蓄电装置22包含:二次电池(锂离子电池、锂聚合物电池、镍氢电池、镍镉电池等)或电容元件(双电层电容器等)等蓄电池;以及用于将基于电动势发生电路21中发生的电动势的电流向蓄电池供给的整流电路、滤波电路、DC/AC转换器、DC/DC转换器等供电电路。还有,受电装置20并不一定具备蓄电装置22。例如受电装置20的结构也可以为将基于电动势发生电路21中发生的电动势的电流向负载30直接供给。
位置标定信号发送装置23包含后述的位置标定信号的发送电路和发送位置标定信号的天线231。
通信电路25在与供电装置10之间通过无线方式或者有线方式进行通信。
中央处理装置26使用CPU或MPU等来构成,进行受电装置20的综合控制。
存储装置27使用RAM、ROM、NVRAM等来构成,存储程序或数据。输入装置28为触摸面板或数字键盘等。显示装置29为液晶面板等。
例如,当受电装置20为移动电话机时,负载30为移动电话机所具备的电路(接收电路、发送电路等)。电力测量电路31测量当前从供电装置10接受供给的电力值。
图5表示受电装置20具备的主要功能。如该图所示,受电装置20具备:位置标定信号发送部251、受电电力发送部252以及电力控制部253。这些功能通过受电装置20的硬件、或者通过受电装置20的中央处理装置26读取存放在存储装置27中的程序并执行来实现。
位置标定信号发送部251控制位置标定信号发送装置23,从天线231发送位置标定信号。
受电电力发送部252向供电装置10发送由电力测量电路31测量的电力值、即受电装置20当前从供电装置10接受供电的电力值。
电力控制部253控制在电动势发生电路21中发生的电力向蓄电装置22或者负载30的供给。
<位置标定的机制>
以下对位置标定的机制进行说明。供电装置10将构成天线群142的多个天线周期性切换,同时接收从受电装置20的天线231发送来的、由被扩频的无线信号构成的位置标定信号600。
图6是从受电装置20发送的位置标定信号600的数据格式的一个例子。如该图所示,在位置标定信号600中包含控制信号611、测定信号612以及终端信息613等信号或信息。
在控制信号611中包含有调制波、各种控制信号。在测定信号612中包含有数毫秒程度的未调制波(例如,用于检测受电装置20相对于供电装置10所在的方向和受电装置20相对于供电装置10的相对距离的信号(例如2048码片的扩频码))。在终端信息613中包含有对每个受电装置20固有地赋予的识别符(以下称为受电装置ID)。
图7中表示供电装置10和受电装置20的位置关系(表示高度及距离的变量的取法)。在该例中,受电装置20存在于地上高h(m)的位置,供电装置10被固定于地上高H(m)的位置。从供电装置10的正下方到受电装置20为止的直线距离为L(m)。
图8是说明构成供电装置10的天线群142的多个天线和受电装置20的位置关系的图。如该图所示,在这个例子中,天线群142由以位置标定信号600的1个波长以下的间隔(例如位置标定信号600为2.4GHz频带的电波时,以1波长(12.5cm)以下的间隔)平面地按近正方形状等间隔邻接配置的4个圆偏振波指向性天线构成。
在该图中,若天线群142的高度位置上的水平方向与受电装置20相对于天线群142的方向所成的角为α,则为例如
α=arcTan(D(m)/L(m))=arcSin(ΔL(cm)/6(cm))
的关系。此外,ΔL(cm)是构成天线群142的天线中特定的2个天线与受电装置20之间的传播路径长度差。
这里,若通过构成天线群142的特定的2个天线接收的位置标定信号600的相位差为Δθ,则有
ΔL(cm)=Δθ/(2π/λ(cm))
的关系。另外,作为位置标定信号600,例如在使用2.4GHz频带的电波的情况下λ≈12(cm),因此有
α=arcSin(Δθ/π)
的关系。另外,在能够测定范围(-π/2<Δθ<π/2)内,α=Δθ(弧度),因此能够根据上式来确定供电装置10所在的方向。
图9中表示设置有供电装置10的环境中,供电装置10和受电装置20的位置关系(表示高度、距离、角度的变量的取法)。如该图所示,在设供电装置10的天线群142的地上高度为H(m)、受电装置20的地上高度为h(m)、供电装置10的正下方的地表面的位置为原点来设定直角坐标轴(X轴、Y轴)的情况下,若取从供电装置10到受电装置20的方向与X轴所成的角为ΔΦ(x)、取从供电装置10到受电装置20的方向与Y轴所成的角为ΔΦ(y),则受电装置20相对于原点的位置可以根据下式求出。
Δd(x)=(H-h)×Tan(ΔΦ(x))
Δd(y)=(H-h)×Tan(ΔΦ(y))
并且,如果取原点的位置为(X1,Y1),则受电装置20的当前位置(Xx,Yy)可以根据下式求出。
Xx=X1+Δd(x)
Yy=Y1+Δd(y)
关于以上说明的位置标定的方法,在例如日本特开2004-184078号公报、日本特开2005-351877号公报、日本特开2005-351878号公报、以及日本特开2006-23261号公报等中也有详细叙述。
还有,受电装置20的位置标定,可以从受电装置20发送位置标定信号600、在供电装置10中将其接收来进行受电装置20的位置标定,也可以从供电装置10发送位置标定信号600,受电装置20接收位置标定信号600并在受电装置20侧进行位置标定,将其结果发送给供电装置10。在本实施方式中取前者的方法。
<处理说明>
以下,对由以上结构构成的非接触供电系统1中进行非接触供电时、由供电装置10及受电装置20进行的处理(以下称为供电处理S1000),与图10及图11所示的流程图一起进行说明。
如图10所示,首先,受电装置20向供电装置10发送供电开始请求(S1011)。供电装置10从受电装置20接收到供电开始请求时(S1021),向受电装置20发送位置标定信号600的发送请求(S1022)。
受电装置20接收到位置标定信号发送请求时(S1012),发送位置标定信号600(S1013)。
此外,供电装置100在S1022中发送位置标定信号发送请求后,在预定时间期间等待位置标定信号600的接收(S1023),在预定时间内没能够接收到位置标定信号600的情况下(超时的情况下)则(S1023:是),在错误计数a上加1(S1051)。
另外,当上述错误计数a超过了容许次数(对于错误计数a预先设定的容许次数)时(S1052:否),供电装置10中止等待来自受电装置20的位置标定信号600,之后,供电处理S1000结束。此外,通过后述的S1035的处理对受电装置20进行供电的情况下,在停止该供电之后供电处理S1000结束。
此外,作为上述错误计数a超过容许次数的情况、即从受电装置20无法接收位置标定信号600的案例,有受电装置20中发生了某种故障的情况、受电装置20发送了供电开始请求(S1011)之后受电装置20移动到了远离供电装置10的地方的情况等。
供电装置10接收到从受电装置20发送的位置标定信号600时(S1024),将错误计数a重置(S1025),基于接收到的位置标定信号600来标定受电装置20所在的方向α及受电装置20的当前位置(S1026)。
然后,供电装置10判断标定的方向α是否在容许范围内(S1027)。在标定的方向α在容许范围内的情况下(S1027:是)进入S1028,在容许范围外的情况下(S1027:否)处理结束或者返回S1022(受电装置20移动了的情况下,也可能在下次标定时方向α变为容许范围内)。
在S1028中,供电装置10求出与根据获取的受电装置20的当前位置求出的距离对应的传输效率的容许范围。该容许范围用例如下面的方式求出。
首先,基于供电装置10和受电装置20之间的耦合系数(k)和Q值的乘积S,利用下式求出最大传输效率(ηmax)。
ηmax=((1+S^2)^(1/2)×(S^2))/(((1+(1+S^2)^(1/2))×(S^2))+((1+(1+S^2)^(1/2))^2))
然后,在通过上式求出的最大传输效率ηmax上乘以预定的比率(例如,基于计算方向α时产生的误差、计算供电装置10和受电装置之间的距离时产生的误差、电力测量电路31的测定精度、气压或者气温等所确定的比率),将其结果作为传输效率的容许范围。
然后,供电装置10对受电装置20发送S1026中标定的受电装置20所在的方向α以及受电装置20的当前位置,同时发送指示调整该受电装置20的受电元件211的指向方向的请求(以下也称为指向方向调整请求)(S1029)。此外,受电装置20不具备蓄电能力等、受电装置20需要用于调整指向方向的电力的情况下,也可以通过非接触供电从供电装置10向受电装置20供给为了调整指向方向所需要的电力。
受电装置20接收到指向方向调整请求时(S1014),基于与该请求同时接收到的、受电装置20所在的方向α以及受电装置20的当前位置进行调整,使得受电元件211的方向朝向供电装置10的方向(S1015)。
另外,供电装置10基于S1026中标定的受电装置20所在的方向α以及受电装置20的当前位置,调整供电元件13的指向方向(S1030)。
然后,供电装置10如图11所示,开始向受电装置20发送供电电力(S1031)。开始发送供电电力后,供电装置10求出供电电力的传输效率,判断求出的传输效率是否脱离了S1028中求出的容许范围。
即,如该图所示,首先供电装置10向受电装置20发送:意思为发送从该供电装置10当前接收的电力(以下也称为受电电力)的电力值的请求(以下称为电力值发送请求)(S1032)。
受电装置20接收到电力值发送请求时(S1016),获取当前的受电电力的电力值,将获取的电力值发送给供电装置10(S1017)。
供电装置10从受电装置20接收到受电电力时(S1033),获取自身当前从供电元件13发送的供电电力的电力值,基于它和S1033中接收到的受电电力的电力值,求出当前的传输效率(S1034)。
然后,供电装置判断求出的当前的传输效率是否在S1028中求出的容许范围内(S1035)。如果求出的当前的传输效率在容许范围内(S1035:是),则继续向受电装置20的供电(S1036),将错误计数b重置(S1037)。之后重复从S1022开始的处理。
另一方面,如果当前的传输效率在容许范围外(S1035:否),则供电装置10停止向受电装置20的供电(S1071),在错误计数b上加1(S1072)。此外,在S1071中,也可以由供电装置10向受电装置20发送表示传输效率为容许范围外的意思的信息,促使使用者判断是否停止供电,根据来自使用者的要求来进行停止供电/继续供电的控制。
然后,供电装置10判断错误计数b是否超过了容许次数(对于错误计数b预先设定的容许次数)(S1073)。错误计数b没有超过容许次数的情况下(S1073:是),处理返回S1022,在重新调整供电元件13及受电元件211的指向方向后重新开始供电。
另一方便,错误计数b超过了容许次数的情况下(S1073:否),供电装置10停止向受电装置20的供电。之后,供电处理S1000结束。
此外,如图12所示,例如也可以在供电装置10接收到从受电装置20发送来的供电停止请求时(S1211、S1221)停止对该受电装置20的供电(S1222)。受电装置20例如在由使用者对受电装置20进行了预定的操作时发送上述供电停止请求。
另外,如图13所示,也可以在例如供电装置10经由输入装置18从使用者接收到受电装置20的停止供电的指示时(S1321)停止对受电装置20的供电(S1322)。另外,这种情况下也可以只停止对使用者指定的受电装置20的供电。
如以上所说明的,根据本实施方式的非接触供电系统1,供电装置10基于由位置标定装置14求出的受电装置20所在的方向α进行控制,使得供电元件13的指向方向朝向受电装置20的方向并开始供电,因此能够高效率地进行从供电装置10向受电装置20的供电。
另外,供电装置10在开始供电后,求出与位置标定装置14求出的自身与受电装置20的距离相对应的传输效率的容许范围,根据从受电装置20接收的电力值和从供电元件13输出的电力值求出当前的传输效率,当求出的传输效率脱离容许范围时重新获取方向α,基于重新获取的方向α控制供电元件13的指向方向使其朝向受电装置20的方向,因此能够适当地控制供电元件13的指向方向,高效率且可靠地进行从供电装置10向受电装置20的供电。
另外,供电装置10在传输效率脱离容许范围的情况下停止供电,因此能够防止进行低效率的供电。另外,供电装置10在调整了供电元件13及受电元件211的指向方向之后重新开始供电,因此能够高效率且可靠地进行从供电装置10向受电装置20的供电。
另外,供电装置10在进行向受电装置20的供电时发送位置标定信号发送请求,之后在预定时间内位置标定装置14没有从受电装置20接收到位置标定信号600的情况下,停止向受电装置20的供电。这样在无法接收位置标定信号600的情况下停止供电,因此能够防止进行损失大的供电。
另外,供电装置10判断标定的方向α是否在容许范围内,只在标定的方向α在容许范围内的情况下开始向受电装置20的供电,因此能够防止例如虽然供电装置10和受电装置20不是对向而传输效率偶然落在容许范围内而继续供电的事态(使得供电装置10和受电装置20的各自的指向方向都在调整后的最优状态下进行供电)。
另外,在受电装置20侧,也基于从供电装置10发送来的位置标定的结果,将受电元件211的指向方向调整为供电装置10的方向,所以由此也能够提高传输效率。另外,在需要的情况下调整受电元件211的指向方向所需的电力通过非接触供电由供电装置10向受电装置20供给,因此在受电装置20不具备蓄电能力这样的情况下也能够进行受电元件211的指向方向的调整。
以上对本发明的实施方式进行了说明,但以上的说明是为了容易地理解本发明,而并不限定本发明。当然,本发明可以在不脱离其宗旨的情况下被变更、改良,并且本发明也包含其等价物。
符号说明
1 非接触供电系统
10 供电装置
13 供电元件
14 位置标定装置
20 受电装置
151 指向方向控制部
153 方向获取部
154 距离获取部
156 容许范围计算部
157 受电电力接收部
158 传输效率计算部
211 受电元件

Claims (9)

1.一种非接触供电系统,包含:
受电装置,其通过非接触供电接受供电;
供电装置,其具备向所述受电装置发送供电电力的供电元件、控制所述供电元件的指向方向的控制机构;以及
位置标定装置,其与所述供电装置以能够通信的方式连接,并通过互相邻接配置的多个天线接收作为从所述受电装置发送来的无线信号的位置标定信号,所述位置标定装置具备基于接收到的所述位置标定信号的相位差来计算从所述位置标定装置自身看过去所述受电装置所在的方向α以及所述受电装置的位置的位置标定功能,
所述非接触供电系统的特征在于,
所述供电装置从所述位置标定装置获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述方向α控制所述控制机构使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向并开始供电,
所述供电装置基于从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电装置的位置获取所述供电装置自身到所述受电装置之间的距离,求出与获取的所述距离对应的、向所述受电装置发送供电电力时的传输效率的容许范围,
所述受电装置将当前从所述供电装置接受供给的电力值发送给所述供电装置,
所述供电装置接收从所述受电装置发送来的所述电力值,
所述供电装置基于接收到的所述电力值与当前从所述供电元件发送的供电电力的电力值,求出当前的传输效率,
当所述当前的传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,所述供电装置从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的方向α控制所述供电元件的指向方向,使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向。
2.如权利要求1所述的非接触供电系统,其特征在于,
当所述传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,所述供电装置停止向所述受电装置的所述供电,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述受电装置所在的方向α进行控制使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向,之后,所述供电装置重新开始向所述受电装置的供电。
3.如权利要求1或2所述的非接触供电系统,其特征在于,
所述供电装置向所述受电装置发送对所述受电装置请求发送所述位置标定信号的信息,即位置标定信号发送请求,
所述位置标定装置根据所述位置标定信号发送请求,基于所述受电装置发送的所述位置标定信号进行所述受电装置的位置标定,
所述供电装置在进行向所述受电装置的所述供电时发送所述位置标定信号发送请求,在发送所述位置标定信号发送请求后,所述位置标定装置在预定时间内没有从所述受电装置接收到所述位置标定信号的情况下,停止向所述受电装置的供电。
4.如权利要求1或2所述的非接触供电系统,其特征在于,
所述受电装置具备接收所述供电电力的受电元件和控制所述受电元件的指向方向的控制机构,
所述供电装置向所述受电装置发送从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电元件所在的方向α以及所述受电装置所在的位置,
所述受电装置接收所述方向α及所述位置,基于接收到的所述方向α以及所述位置来将所述受电元件的指向方向调整为所述供电装置的方向。
5.如权利要求4所述的非接触供电系统,其特征在于,
所述供电装置通过非接触供电向所述受电装置供给所述受电装置的指向方向的所述调整所需要的电力。
6.一种供电装置,用于权利要求1至3中任一项所述的非接触供电系统,所述供电装置的特征在于,
具备向所述受电装置发送供电电力的供电元件,具备控制所述供电元件的指向方向的控制机构,
从所述位置标定装置获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述方向α控制所述控制机构使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向并开始供电,
基于从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电装置的位置获取自身到所述受电装置之间的所述距离,求出与获取的所述距离对应的、向所述受电装置发送供电电力时传输效率的容许范围,
接收从所述受电装置发送来的所述电力值,
基于接收到的所述电力值与当前从所述供电元件发送的供电电力的电力值,求出当前的传输效率,
当所述当前的传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的方向α控制所述供电元件的指向方向使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向。
7.如权利要求6所述的供电装置,其特征在于,
当所述传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,停止向所述受电装置的所述供电,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述受电装置所在的方向α进行控制使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向,之后,重新开始向所述受电装置的供电。
8.一种非接触供电系统的控制方法,所述非接触供电系统包含:
受电装置,其通过非接触供电接受供电;
供电装置,其具备向所述受电装置发送供电电力的供电元件、控制所述供电元件的指向方向的控制机构;以及
位置标定装置,其与所述供电装置以能够通信的方式连接,并通过互相邻接配置的多个天线接收作为从所述受电装置发送来的无线信号的位置标定信号,所述位置标定装置具备基于接收到的所述位置标定信号的相位差来计算从所述位置标定装置自身看过去所述受电装置所在的方向α以及所述受电装置的位置的位置标定功能,
所述非接触供电系统的控制方法的特征在于,
所述供电装置从所述位置标定装置获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述方向α控制所述控制机构使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向并开始供电,
所述供电装置基于从所述位置标定装置获取的所述受电装置的位置获取所述供电装置自身到所述受电装置之间的所述距离,求出与获取的所述距离对应的、向所述受电装置发送供电电力时的传输效率的容许范围,
所述受电装置将当前从所述供电装置接受供给的电力值发送给所述供电装置,
所述供电装置接收从所述受电装置发送来的所述电力值,
所述供电装置基于接收到的所述电力值与当前从所述供电元件发送的供电电力的电力值,求出当前的传输效率,
当所述当前的传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,所述供电装置从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的方向α控制所述供电元件的指向方向使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向。
9.如权利要求8所述的非接触供电系统的控制方法,其特征在于,
当所述传输效率脱离所述容许范围时,所述供电装置停止向所述受电装置的所述供电,从所述位置标定装置再次获取所述受电装置所在的方向α,基于获取的所述受电装置所在的方向α进行控制使得所述供电元件的指向方向朝向所述受电装置的方向,之后,所述供电装置重新开始向所述受电装置的供电。
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