CN103878338B - A kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap - Google Patents

A kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103878338B
CN103878338B CN201410102676.1A CN201410102676A CN103878338B CN 103878338 B CN103878338 B CN 103878338B CN 201410102676 A CN201410102676 A CN 201410102676A CN 103878338 B CN103878338 B CN 103878338B
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cap
automobile engine
processing technology
coating
foundry goods
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CN103878338A (en
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陈光圆
杨文浩
张意斌
杨乾恩
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NINGBO DONGHAO DIE CASTING CO Ltd
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NINGBO DONGHAO DIE CASTING CO Ltd
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap, belong to technical field of alloy material.Described processing technology comprises the steps: S1, automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy smelting is become aluminium liquid, refinery by de-gassing after stirring; S2, by coating after compression mod preheating, insert core, then the aluminium liquid after refining is at a high speed filled to compression mod die cavity, and under high pressure shaping, die sinking, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain; S3, by the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting after burr; S4, successively turning, secondary operations, boring are carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.In the processing technology of automobile engine end cap of the present invention, stock utilization is high, and loss is little, and production cost is low, and processing technology is simple, atmosphere pollution and environmental hazard little, meet environmental requirement, the intensity of obtained automobile engine end cap, case hardness and dimensional accuracy are high, and surface roughness is low.

Description

A kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap, belong to technical field of alloy material.
Background technology
Engine as the heart of automobile, for the traveling of automobile provides power.Briefly engine is exactly an energy transfer mechanism, and its general principle is by the heat energy of gasoline (diesel oil), by when sealing cylinder combustion gas expansion, promotes piston acting, changes mechanical energy into.Engine have been passed by the history of more than 100 year along with automobile, all improve a lot in design, manufacture, technique or performance and control, but its general principle is still constant, in scientific and technological development, up-to-date science and technology and engine constantly combine together by design engineer, engine is become electromechanical integrated product, constantly improves the performance of engine.
Automobile engine end cap is the important parts that a load is serious and structure is very complicated, and be the important composition parts of engine, its performance has important impact to engine.End cover of engine needs to possess good intensity, the performance such as heat-resisting, also should have good casting process and good rigidity.Aluminium alloy automobile engine end cap ubiquity intensity general in prior art is low, the problems such as case hardness is low, and dimensional accuracy is low.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the problems referred to above of prior art, provide that a kind of cost is lower, technique simple automobile engine end cap processing technology, make the automobile engine end cap intensity, case hardness and the dimensional accuracy that obtain high, surface roughness is low.
Above-mentioned purpose of the present invention realizes by following technical scheme: a kind of processing technology of automobile engine end cap, described processing technology comprises the steps:
S1, automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy smelting is become aluminium liquid, refinery by de-gassing after stirring;
S2, by coating after compression mod preheating, insert core, then the aluminium liquid after refining is at a high speed filled to compression mod die cavity, and under high pressure shaping, die sinking, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain;
S3, by the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting after burr;
S4, successively turning, secondary operations, boring are carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.
The aluminium alloy smelting of automobile engine end cap is first become aluminium liquid by the present invention, and the impurity removed in aluminium liquid by refinery by de-gassing reduces the adhesion loss of aluminium liquid; Again the aluminium hydraulic pressure after process is cast foundry goods, die casting mode decreases a large amount of machining operation and equipment, has saved production cost, and improves the quality of foundry goods.Then Shot Blasting is carried out by after casting cleaning removing material handle, burr, impeller blasting can not only remove attachment, featheredge, joint flash, the spot of cast(ing) surface, eliminate cut, the spraying adhesive force of cast(ing) surface can also be improved, be conducive to the carrying out of next step electrophoretic painting, the hardness of paint film of electrophoretic painting, adhesive force, corrosion resistant, impact property, permeance property are better than other coating process; Finally fine finishining is carried out to foundry goods, improve the precision of foundry goods to greatest extent, effectively improve service life and the quality of foundry goods.The present invention, by the combination of above-mentioned technique, obtains that a kind of cost is lower, technique is simple, the automobile engine end cap processing technology of environmental protection, and the automobile engine end cap quality making processing obtained is good, and good mechanical property, anticorrosive property is strong.
Wherein, described automobile engine end cap generally selects the aluminum alloy materials that heat-insulating sound-insulating, sole mass are light, rigidity is strong, can select 7A04,7075,7005 aluminium alloys, composition as 7075 aluminium alloys is: chromium (Cr)≤0.04, zirconium (Zr) 0.08 ~ 0.15, zinc (Zn) 5.7 ~ 6.7, silicon (Si)≤0.12, iron (Fe) 0.000 ~ 0.150, manganese (Mn)≤0.10, magnesium (Mg) 1.9 ~ 2.6, surplus is aluminium.
In the processing technology of above-mentioned automobile engine end cap, the smelting temperature described in step S1 is 700-730 DEG C, and smelting time is 60-80min.The smelting temperature of automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy is unsuitable too high, at short notice should more than 750 DEG C, too high temperature can aggravate the oxidizing process of aluminium alloy, and too low aluminium liquid is then in atherosclerotic, slag and impurity can be caused not easily separated, and to shorten as far as possible the time of melting.Aluminium liquid is made up of little crystal grain one by one, and these coarse grains are random, poor fluidity.Therefore need the impurity removed by refinery by de-gassing in aluminium liquid after melting, reduce aluminium alloy adhesion loss, thus reduce production cost.In this processing technology, the oxide in the method for refining removing aluminium liquid that blinster flotation method of the prior art, solvent method etc. can be selected conventional and hydrogen.Need standing 10-20min after refining, then skim.
Often it is bad that the coating used at pack alloy foundry goods in prior art has suspension, the easy peeling of coating, air spots, and working life is short and the effect of conciliation die casting cooling velocity is poor, perishable inefficacy, the shortcomings such as strength of coating is not high, greasy property difference.For meeting production requirement, in the processing technology of automobile engine end cap of the present invention, coating described in step S2 is whiting, the flake asbestos of 5-8%, the graphite powder of 20-35%, the titanium dioxide of 6-12%, the zinc oxide of 6-12%, the waterglass of 12-18% of 8-12% by mass percent, and surplus is that water mixes.Whiting and flake asbestos play insulation effect; The main lubricate of graphite powder; Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide not only have insulation effect, more have bright and clean effect, make the die casting any surface finish of acquisition; Binding agent made by waterglass, when its effect is with carbon dioxide effect in air, and precipitated silicic acid gel; Water makees diluent, plays diluting effect.The coating selected in processing technology of the present invention, its greasy property and the intensity coating all than common is high.
In the processing technology of above-mentioned automobile engine end cap, the filling velocity described in step S2 is 30-50m/s, and loading time is 0.01-0.15s.Filling aluminum liquid carries out die casting with this understanding, can reduce the impact of pore, improves the tensile strength of foundry goods, also contributes to the mobility improving aluminium liquid, improves the surface quality of foundry goods.
In the processing technology of above-mentioned automobile engine end cap, the pressure of high-pressure molding described in step S2 is 60-70MPa, and the dwell time is 8-11s, and described forming temperature is 700-720 DEG C, and the temperature of described compression mod is 300-350 DEG C.If forming temperature is too low, foundry goods can be caused to produce the defects such as pore, cold shut, misrun and shrinkage cavity.If pouring temperature is too high, foundry goods can be made again to cool slowly, and cast structure is thick, mechanical properties decrease.Therefore, described in the processing technology of this automobile engine end cap, forming temperature is 700-720 DEG C.In press casting procedure, pressure, speed, temperature and time all need to obtain for this automobile engine end cap unified, these technological factors influence each other, mutual restriction is also complemented each other, the present invention had both improve using rate of metal by die casting mode casting and had additionally reduced a large amount of machining operation and equipment, save production cost, also improve the dimensional accuracy of foundry goods, intensity, hardness and surface smoothness, make the production efficiency of die casting high, operation is simple, surface roughness are good, and mechanical strength is large.
In the processing technology of above-mentioned automobile engine end cap, in the Shot Blasting described in step S3, the impelling amount of impeller head is 110-260kg/min, and the ejection velocity that bullet throws to foundry goods is 50-75m/s.By casting cleaning removing material handle, the attachment, featheredge, joint flash, spot etc. of being removed surface after burr by Shot Blasting, cut can be eliminated, cleaning, hyperchromic, light decorations are played to automobile engine end cover surface and eliminates the concentrated effect of surface stress.After Shot Blasting, roughness can reach Ra1.6-6.3 μm, and surface area increases greatly, eliminates surface contaminants simultaneously, and therefore when next step electrophoretic painting, its adhesive force strengthens greatly.The production efficiency of Shot Blasting is high, in minutes just can complete the cleaning to foundry goods.Shot Blasting is simultaneously equipped with dust pelletizing system, therefore can proceed to next procedure after Shot Blasting, eliminates the installation cost rinsed needed for drying.
In the processing technology of above-mentioned automobile engine end cap, the electrophoretic painting described in step S3 is cathode electro-coating.Cathode electro-coating is immersed in by the coated article with electric conductivity to fill in water-reducible, that concentration is lower electrophoretic coating groove as negative electrode, the anode that another setting is corresponding with it in groove, between the two poles of the earth, connect direct current form extra electric field, make the pigment particle directional migration that is suspended in electrophoresis liquid after a period of time and make it be deposited in cast(ing) surface as electrode, coated article surface deposition go out evenly fine and closely woven, by a kind of special coating process of water-soluble solution film.The cathode electro-coating that the present invention selects and traditional solvent based coating and other dip-coating, spray watersoluble baking paint and compare, there is unrivaled superiority: homogeneous thickness can be obtained; Swimming permeability is good; Improve the anticorrosive property of core cavity; Utilization efficiency of coatings is high; Security is high, is low public hazards coating; The outward appearance of film is good, has flattening property preferably during oven dry, in addition can full automation, is applicable to large-scale production.
Wherein, the paint liquid concentration of described cathode electro-coating is 10-15%.Excessive concentration, paint film levelability is not good enough, easily occurs the defects such as tangerine peel.Concentration is too low, and paint film is thinning, easily occurs phenomenon.
The die opening of described cathode electro-coating is 50-400mm, and ultimate ratio is 1/4-1/6.Distance (die opening) during ability cathode electrophoresis between anode and negative electrode (coated article) and area ratio (ultimate ratio) have certain influence to electrodeposition efficiency.Die opening is excessively far away, and electrode resistance increases, and electrodeposition efficiency reduces, and deposition reduces, and film is uneven; Otherwise then can produce that local current is excessive, electro-deposition is excessive, and then affect film thickness uniformity.
The cathode electrophoresis dope tank liquor of described cathode electro-coating temperature be 28-34 DEG C, electrical conductivity is 1200-1600 μ S/cm, pH is 6.1-6.2.Tank liquor temperature, electrical conductivity and pH are the key factors controlling electrophoretic coating stability.When other process conditions are constant, raise tank liquor temperature, the viscosity of tank liquor can be reduced, accelerate the reaction of electrode, the resistance value of film can be reduced simultaneously, be conducive to electro-deposition, increase thickness.But when tank liquor temperature is higher than 35 DEG C, film becomes coarse, after drying, produce wavy accumulation, and cosolvent in tank liquor is volatile, causes tank liquor to go bad, bad stability.Temperature is too low, and when being less than 15 DEG C, deposition is very little, and film is very thin, and glossiness and covering power are all poor, and tank liquor viscosity is large, and the bubble produced in electrodeposition process is difficult to eliminate, and paint film easily occurs pin hole.Therefore, cathode electrophoresis dope tank liquor temperature answer Comprehensive Control at 28-34 DEG C.Tank liquor maintains certain conductive capability, the quality of guarantee coating.In electrophoresis process, due to being mixed into of foreign ion, electrical conductivity can increase gradually.Electrical conductivity is too high not only increases power consumption, reduces throwing power, tank liquor also can be made to heat up too fast, reduces the gloss of film, separates out granules of pigments, reduces paint film resistance to corrosion.In electrophoretic painting process, the pH value of tank liquor is the key factor controlling electrophoretic coating stability.The pH value of tank liquor is too high, and electrophoretic coating can become unstable, can cause Precipitation time serious; The pH value of tank liquor should be not too low yet, although electrophoretic current increases when pH value reduces, electrodeposition weight increases, and be conducive to film and formed, the dissolution degree again of the lower paint film of pH value also strengthens thereupon.
The electrophoretic voltage of described cathode electro-coating controls at 150-340V, and electrophoresis time is 2-3min.Overtension, the dash current that foundry goods enters groove moment is too large, and film deposition excessive velocities, easily causes appearance of film and degradation.Voltage is high, and to when exceeding the breakdown voltage of electrocoating film, electrodeposition coating film is breakdown, and cell reaction aggravates, and electrode surface produces a large amount of gas, and film coated surface produces a large amount of bubble.And electrophoretic voltage too low time, coating throwing power is poor, and deposition velocity is slow, and efficiency is low, and film is thinning.Generally under the prerequisite ensureing appearance of film quality, adopt higher voltage to carry out cathode electro-coating as far as possible, therefore, electrophoretic voltage is controlled at 150-340V.Generally, electrophoresis time is long, and film can be caused to produce defect, degraded appearance.Therefore, under guarantee coating quality prerequisite, should shorten electrophoresis time, after electrophoresis terminates, coated article should take out as early as possible from groove as far as possible, in order to avoid film is thinning because again dissolving.
The baking temperature of described cathode electro-coating is 165-180 DEG C, baking time 20-30min.Baking temperature and time all have a great impact the corrosion resistance of film, resistance to impact.Long-time high-temperature baking may cause film yellowing, become fragile.
Turnery processing adopts hard cutter head in step s 5, and the life-span of hard cutter head is longer than the life-span of general cutter, can improve processing conditions, shortens the production time, reaches the effect reduced costs.
The present invention has the following advantages:
In the processing technology of 1, automobile engine end cap of the present invention, stock utilization is high, and loss is little, and production cost is low, and processing technology is simple, atmosphere pollution and environmental hazard little, meet environmental requirement.
The intensity of the automobile engine end cap 2, obtained by the processing technology of automobile engine end cap of the present invention, case hardness and dimensional accuracy are high, and surface roughness is low.
Detailed description of the invention
Be below specific embodiments of the invention, technical scheme of the present invention is further described, but the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.
Embodiment 1
Automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy melting 70min at 720 DEG C is become aluminium liquid, passes into nitrogen after stirring and carry out refinery by de-gassing, leave standstill 15min after refining and skim again;
Coating after compression mod being preheated to 330 DEG C, insert core, be that the condition retrofilling of 40m/s is in compression mod die cavity by the aluminium liquid after skimming at filling velocity again, loading time is 0.10s, then be 65MPa at pressure, temperature is the condition compacted under of 710 DEG C, die sinking after pressurize 10s, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain, open time is 200s, wherein said coating is the whiting of 10%, flake asbestos, the graphite powder of 28%, titanium dioxide, the zinc oxide of 8%, the waterglass of 15% of 8% of 6% by mass percent, and surplus is that water mixes;
Successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting by after the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, burr, in described impeller blasting, the impelling amount of impeller head is 200kg/min, and the ejection velocity that bullet throws to foundry goods is 60m/s; Described electrophoretic painting is cathode electro-coating, and its die opening is 300mm, and ultimate ratio is 1/5, and paint liquid concentration is 12%, tank liquor temperature be 30 DEG C, electrical conductivity is 1400 μ S/cm, pH is 6.1, and electrophoretic voltage control is 280V, electrophoresis time is 2min, and baking temperature is 170 DEG C, baking time 25min;
Successively fine finishining is carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, comprises turning, secondary operations, boring, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.
Embodiment 2
Automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy melting 60min at 700 DEG C is become aluminium liquid, passes into nitrogen after stirring and carry out refinery by de-gassing, leave standstill 10min after refining and skim again;
Coating after compression mod being preheated to 300 DEG C, insert core, be that the condition retrofilling of 30m/s is in compression mod die cavity by the aluminium liquid after skimming at filling velocity again, loading time is 0.01s, then be 60MPa at pressure, temperature is the condition compacted under of 700 DEG C, die sinking after pressurize 8s, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain, open time is 180s, wherein said coating is the whiting of 8%, flake asbestos, the graphite powder of 35%, titanium dioxide, the zinc oxide of 6%, the waterglass of 18% of 6% of 8% by mass percent, and surplus is that water mixes;
Successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting by after the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, burr, in described impeller blasting, the impelling amount of impeller head is 110kg/min, and the ejection velocity that bullet throws to foundry goods is 50m/s; Described electrophoretic painting is cathode electro-coating, and its die opening is 200mm, and ultimate ratio is 1/4, and paint liquid concentration is 10%, tank liquor temperature be 28 DEG C, electrical conductivity is 1200 μ S/cm, pH is 6.1, and electrophoretic voltage control is 180V, electrophoresis time is 2min, and baking temperature is 165 DEG C, baking time 20min;
Successively fine finishining is carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, comprises turning, secondary operations, boring, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.
Embodiment 3
Automobile engine end cap aluminium alloy melting 80min at 730 DEG C is become aluminium liquid, passes into nitrogen after stirring and carry out refinery by de-gassing, skim after leaving standstill 20min after refining;
Coating after compression mod being preheated to 350 DEG C, insert core, be that the condition retrofilling of 50m/s is in compression mod die cavity by the aluminium liquid after skimming at filling velocity again, loading time is 0.15s, then be 70MPa at pressure, temperature is the condition compacted under of 720 DEG C, die sinking after pressurize 11s, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain, open time is 220s, wherein said coating is the whiting of 12%, flake asbestos, the graphite powder of 20%, titanium dioxide, the zinc oxide of 12%, the waterglass of 12% of 12% of 8% by mass percent, and surplus is that water mixes;
Successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting by after the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, burr, in described impeller blasting, the impelling amount of impeller head is 260kg/min, and the ejection velocity that bullet throws to foundry goods is 75m/s; Described electrophoretic painting is cathode electro-coating, and its die opening is 400mm, and ultimate ratio is 1/6, and paint liquid concentration is 15%, tank liquor temperature be 34 DEG C, electrical conductivity is 1600 μ S/cm, pH is 6.2, and electrophoretic voltage control is 340V, electrophoresis time is 3min, and baking temperature is 180 DEG C, baking time 30min;
Successively fine finishining is carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, comprises turning, secondary operations, boring, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.
Automobile engine end cap in embodiment 1-3 is carried out measuring mechanical property, and compares with the mechanical performance of common aluminum alloy end cover of engine, test result is as shown in table 1.
Table 1: the automobile engine end cap in embodiment 1-3 and the measuring mechanical property result of common aluminum alloy end cover of engine
As known from Table 1, the intensity of the automobile engine end cap that the present invention prepares, case hardness, dimensional accuracy, surface roughness are all better than common aluminum alloy end cover of engine, and wherein the tensile strength of automobile engine end cap of the present invention and yield strength are far above common aluminum alloy end cover of engine.
Specific embodiment described herein is only to the explanation for example of the present invention's spirit.Those skilled in the art can make various amendment or supplement or adopt similar mode to substitute to described specific embodiment, but can't depart from spirit of the present invention or surmount the scope that appended claims defines.
Although made a detailed description the present invention and quoted some specific embodiments as proof, to those skilled in the art, only otherwise it is obvious for leaving that the spirit and scope of the present invention can make various changes or revise.

Claims (2)

1. a processing technology for automobile engine end cap, is characterized in that, described processing technology comprises the steps:
S1, aluminium alloy smelting used for automobile engine end cap is become aluminium liquid, refinery by de-gassing after stirring;
S2, by coating after compression mod preheating, insert core, then the aluminium liquid after refining is at a high speed filled to compression mod die cavity, and under high pressure shaping, die sinking, foundry goods of loosing core to obtain; Wherein, the temperature of described compression mod is 300-350 DEG C, and filling velocity is 30-50m/s, and loading time is 0.01-0.15s, and the pressure of high-pressure molding is 60-70MPa, and the dwell time is 8-11s, and forming temperature is 700-720 DEG C;
S3, by the casting cleaning obtained removing material handle, successively carry out Shot Blasting, electrophoretic painting after burr; Wherein, in described Shot Blasting, the impelling amount of impeller head is 110-260kg/min, and the ejection velocity that bullet throws to foundry goods is 50-75m/s; Described electrophoretic painting is cathode electro-coating, and die opening is 50-400mm, and ultimate ratio is 1/4-1/6, the temperature of electrophoretic coating tank liquor is 28-34 DEG C, and electrical conductivity is 1200-1600 μ S/cm, pH is 6.1-6.2, electrophoretic voltage controls at 150-340V, and electrophoresis time is 2-3min;
S4, successively turning, secondary operations, boring are carried out to the foundry goods after electrophoretic painting, obtain final products automobile engine end cap.
2. the processing technology of automobile engine end cap according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the smelting temperature described in step S1 is 700-730 DEG C, and smelting time is 60-80min.
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