CN103788972B - Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace - Google Patents

Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103788972B
CN103788972B CN201410063757.5A CN201410063757A CN103788972B CN 103788972 B CN103788972 B CN 103788972B CN 201410063757 A CN201410063757 A CN 201410063757A CN 103788972 B CN103788972 B CN 103788972B
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internal combustion
gas
gasification
furnace
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CN201410063757.5A
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CN103788972A (en
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陈天虎
胡孔元
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合肥工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace. The side wall of the furnace body is designed to be a jacket; the jacket successively comprises a gasification layer, a gasification layer wall, a hot exhaust gas layer, a hot exhaust gas layer wall, a fuel gas layer, a fuel gas layer wall and an insulation layer; a track is arranged on the gasification layer wall; two horizontal internal-combustion rotary pipelines are arranged at a same height below the central surface of the furnace body; a plurality of vane gap plates are alternately arranged in the two internal-combustion rotary pipelines along the circumferences of the walls thereof; the gaps of the vane gap plates are not communicated with the interiors of the internal-combustion rotary pipelines; vanes are arranged in the gaps of the vane gap plates; the overhang ends of the vanes are connected with the track; a feed hopper is arranged above the furnace body; the feed hopper is communicated with the gasification layer; a cone-shaped furnace bottom is borne at the bottom of the furnace body; the cone-shaped furnace bottom is communicated with the gasification layer; and a slag discharging hole is located at the cone bottom hole. According to the internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace, the gasification rate and the fuel gas heat value of the biomass are greatly improved, the secondary pollution is avoided and the gasification cost of the biomass is reduced, so that the internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace is suitable for various biomass raw materials to produce combustible gas, and the operation, the management and the maintenance are simple and convenient.

Description

Internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace
Technical field
The present invention relates to gasification installation, is more particularly take biomass as the vapourizing furnace of raw material.
Background technology
Biomass comprise forestry material, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and feces of livestock and poultry etc.Biomass are a kind of renewable energy sources, and rich reserves, as an alternative energy utilization can realize CO 2zero release, and wherein S, N content are low, greatly alleviate Greenhouse effect and environmental pollution.Gasifying biomass is under certain thermochemistry condition, is the combustible gas primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and low molecule composition by Wood Adhesives from Biomass.Affect gasifying biomass effect because have biomass kind and pre-treatment, biomass input speed and vaporized chemical delivery rate, the temperature and pressure etc. in reactor.
At present, biomass gasification technology and combustion gas utilize the main Problems existing of process one to be that fuel gases calorific value is lower, and owing to directly introducing more air in biomass gasification process, cause in combustion gas that nitrogen content is more than 55%, the calorific value of combustion gas is generally lower than 7000KJ/m3; Two is that the tar that gasification produces is more, because gasification introduces more freezing air, gasification in-furnace temperature is not high enough, causes tar yield higher, not only affect the conveying of the normal work of vapourizing furnace and combustion gas, storage and utilization, and waste a large amount of energy and resource.
For the problem containing more tar in combustion gas, current solution has two kinds: one to be washing process, transferred in the aqueous solution by tar in combustion gas and go, although this method is simple, gas-purification efficiency is also higher, but can produce a large amount of containing tar and waste water, such wastewater treatment difficulty is large, cost is high, causes secondary pollution, and can affect the high-efficient operation of gasification system, finally cause combustion gas cost higher, be unfavorable for utilization and the popularization of biomass energy; Two is catalytic pyrolysiss, under the effect of catalyzer, is low molecule combustion gas by coke tar cracking, not only solves the harm problem of tar, and can improve fuel gases calorific value, do not produce secondary pollution.
The catalytic pyrolysis of tar, non-secondary pollution, biogas rate and fuel gases calorific value can be improved, but current catalytic cracking of tar technology still exists, and goudron lysis rate is low, the easy carbon distribution inactivation of catalyzer, cracker complicated, cracking system itself easily adheres to the deficiencies such as tar, and practical effect is poor.The catalytic pyrolysis efficiency of tar is relevant with temperature, and temperature is higher, and coke tar cracking efficiency is higher, and current catalytic pyrolysis mode or be that combustion gas is by cold beds, catalytic pyrolysis efficiency is low, or is the temperature being improved beds by external heat, and energy consumption increases.
In recent years, biomass gasification technology obtains very fast development, and the vapourizing furnace of various ways is developed, and these vapourizing furnaces can be divided into fixed-bed gasification furnace and fluidized-bed gasification furnace two class substantially.Fixed-bed gasification furnace can be divided into again downdraft, updraft type, crossdraft and happy formula several further.Down-draft type gasifying furnace runs under tiny structure, not high to seal request, and output combustible gas calorific value is high, tar content is few, but in combustible gas, ash content is many, and combustible gas tapping temperature is high.Uniflow gas stove runs under pressure-fired, high to seal request, and the coal-tar middle oil content of combustible gas is high.Fluidized-bed gasification furnace, in-furnace temperature is high and constant, and tar at high temperature cracking generates gas, combustion gas is coal-tar middle oil fewer, but containing more ash content in the combustion gas of coming out of the stove, and fluidized-bed gasification furnace complicated structure, facility investment is large, and large-scale equipment for gasification is more.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is the weak point for avoiding existing for above-mentioned prior art, a kind of internal combustion is provided to heat Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace, improve gasifying biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, reduce the productive rate of tar, avoid secondary pollution, reduce gasifying biomass cost, be applicable to various biomass material and produce combustible gas.
The constructional feature of internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace of the present invention is:
The sidewall of body of heater is set to jacket structured, and chuck is followed successively by gasification layer, gasification layer wall, hot waste gas layer, hot waste gas layer wall, fuel gas layer, fuel gas layer wall and thermal insulation layer from inside to outside; Gasification layer wall arranges track; Below the centerplane of body of heater, sustained height place arranges two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes, at the inner circle alternate along its wall of two internal combustion rotating pipes, multiple leaf seam plate is set, the gap of leaf seam plate does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe inside, in the gap of leaf seam plate, arrange blade, blade overhanging end is connected with track; Each internal combustion rotating pipe two ends connect two rotary support pipelines with one heart, arrange internal combustion intake ducting and internal combustion outlet pipe in two rotary support pipelines respectively; Arrange gas pipeline in internal combustion intake ducting inside, gas pipeline is connected to fuel gas source from internal combustion intake ducting entrance; Internal combustion intake ducting arranges air line, at set-point, the ingress burner of internal combustion intake ducting; Above body of heater, arrange hopper, hopper communicates with gasification layer, undertakes taper furnace bottom in the bottom of body of heater, and taper furnace bottom communicates with gasification layer, and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer into the bottom being positioned at gasification layer, and combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall, is connected to gas pipe line on combustion gas delivery port and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan outside stove.
The constructional feature of internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace of the present invention is also:
Hot waste gas layer wall arranges hot waste gas reflux line and exhaust emission tube road respectively, and hot waste gas reflux line is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe, and the outlet in exhaust emission tube road is extended outside to body of heater.
Two internal combustion rotating pipes are the rotatable parts driven by transmission rig.
Compared with the prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in:
1, the present invention with internal combustion rotating pipe for combustion heating chamber, by combustion gas internal combustion rotating pipe combustion be pipe exogenous substances gasification heating, and utilize the backflow of hot waste gas for gasification heating, adopt tube wall and sidewall heat transfer material heating rate high, make full use of combustion heat energy and heat energy from waste gas, keep higher fire box temperature, the nitrogen that effectively prevent in the air after burning is mixed in stove, improve gasifying biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, greatly reduce tar yield, gas-purification difficulty and purification cost, save energy;
2, in the leaf seam plate that the present invention adopts blade to be arranged in internal combustion rotating pipe, its overhanging end is connected with the track of gasification layer wall, work Leaf rotates and stretching motion, make material under the effect of blade, the intercropping rotating tube wall gentleization layer wall at internal combustion is rotated down motion, by regulating the rotating speed of variable-frequency motor, can control namely to improve the residence time of material in stove, improving gasifying biomass efficiency;
3, the present invention adopts internal combustion rotating pipe to be arranged on below the centerplane of body of heater, gasification layer is diminished from top to bottom gradually, material and tube wall and gasification layer wall close contact, be conducive to heat transfer, when material plays grinding, extruding and fragmentation with internal combustion rotating pipe when falling with blade rotary and gasification layer wall to material, be conducive to pyrolysis product to discharge from material particles, improve gasifying biomass efficiency;
4, the present invention adopts two rotating pipes to turning, and realizes material diversion gasification, improves gasification intensity;
5, the present invention is good to material particular diameter adaptability, is not strict with particle diameter, reduces energy consumption and the cost of biomass precrushings processing, can continuously feeding, runs convenient, stable, has the efficiency of fluidized-bed, but overcome the shortcoming of fluidized-bed;
6, the present invention makes combustion gas fuel gas layer in stove flow from bottom to top by induced draft fan, body of heater is drawn again through gas distribution channel, extend the residence time of high-temperature fuel gas in stove, guarantee that coke tar cracking is inflammable gas, the tar of fuel gas transportation pipeline system can not be caused to adhere to blocking, negative-pressure operation, does not have environmental pollution.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is internal structure schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional structure schematic diagram of Fig. 1;
Number in the figure: 1 body of heater, 2 thermal insulation layers, 3 fuel gas layer walls, 4 fuel gas layers, 5 hot waste gas layer wall, 6 hot waste gas layers, 7 gasification layer walls, 8 gasification layers, 9 taper furnace bottoms, 10 internal combustion rotating pipes, 11 leaf seam plates, 12 blades, 13 tracks, 14 hoppers, 15 backflow gas quantity variable valve, 16 backflow gas meters, 17 cyclonic separators, 18 spark arresters, 19 variable-frequency motors, 20 speed reduction units, 21 gears, 22 rotary support pipelines, 23 gas pipelines, 24 inlet valves, 25 feed water flow gauge, 26 internal combustion intake ductings, 27 spraying guns, 28 hot waste gas reflux lines, 29 bearings, 30 internal combustion outlet pipes, 31 internal combustion portholes, 32 air quantity under meters, 33 volume dampers, 34 exhaust emission tube roads, 35 gas pipe lines, 36 gears, 37 gears, 38 lighting-up tuyeres, 39 air flowmeter, 40 air doors, 41 air lines, 42 blower fans, 43 heat exchangers, 44 induced draft fans, 45 fuel gas return-flow pipelines.
Below by way of embodiment, and the invention will be further described by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Embodiment
See Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, adopt the oval tubular body of heater 1 of class, body of heater 1 is in axially horizontally disposed, and the sidewall of body of heater 1 is set to jacket structured, and chuck is followed successively by gasification layer 8, gasification layer wall 7, hot waste gas layer 6, hot waste gas layer wall 5, fuel gas layer 4, fuel gas layer wall 3 and thermal insulation layer 2 from inside to outside; Gasification layer wall 7 arranges track 13; Two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are set in body of heater 1, in two internal combustion rotating pipe 10 inside, multiple leaf seam plate 11 is set along the circle alternate of its wall, the gap of leaf seam plate 11 does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe 10 inside, in the gap of leaf seam plate 11, arrange blade 12, blade 12 overhanging end is connected with track 13; Each internal combustion rotating pipe 10 two ends connect two rotary support pipelines 22 with one heart, arrange internal combustion intake ducting 26 and internal combustion outlet pipe 30 in two rotary support pipelines 22 respectively; Above body of heater 1, arrange hopper 14, hopper 14 communicates with gasification layer 8, undertakes taper furnace bottom 9 in the bottom of body of heater 1, and taper furnace bottom 9 communicates with gasification layer 8, and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer 4 into the bottom being positioned at gasification layer 8, and combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall 3, is connected to gas pipe line 35 on combustion gas delivery port and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan 44 outside stove.
In the present embodiment, utilize the burning of gasification combustible gas to heat for gasifying biomass, specifically export on gas pipe line 35 at induced draft fan 44 and fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 is set, fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 is installed backflow gas quantity variable valve 15 and backflow gas meter 16.Arrange gas pipeline 23 in two internal combustion intake ducting 26 inside, gas pipeline 23 is connected to fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 from internal combustion intake ducting 26 entrance, and gas pipeline 23 is installed spark arrester 18, take fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 as the air-supply duct of gas pipeline 23.Two internal combustion intake ductings 26 arrange air line 41, and air line 41 is installed air flowmeter 39 and air door 40, and air line 41 is connected to blower fan 42.
Also comprise in concrete enforcement:
Hot waste gas layer wall 5 arranges hot waste gas reflux line 28 and exhaust emission tube road 34 respectively, hot waste gas reflux line 28 is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe 30, the outlet in exhaust emission tube road 34 is extended outside to body of heater, with the air-supply duct that hot waste gas reflux line 28 is hot waste gas layer 6, the backflow of high-temperature hot waste gas is conducive to improving in-furnace temperature, save energy.
Two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are the rotatable parts driven by transmission rig, and arrange accordingly speed reduction unit 20, gear 21, gear 37 and gear 36, driven by variable-frequency motor 19.
In order to light a fire and observe backflow fuel gas buring situation, at set-point, the ingress burner 38 of internal combustion intake ducting 26, internal combustion porthole 31 is set in the exit of internal combustion outlet pipe 30.
In order to monitor the operation conditions of vapourizing furnace, set temperature and pressure display instrument table on body of heater 1.
Keep high temperature to improve gasification result and not affecting burner hearth middle and lower part, vaporized chemical (air) entrance is arranged on the top of body of heater 1, and vaporized chemical (air) inlet duct is installed air quantity under meter 32 and volume damper 33.
In order to gas-purification dedusting, gas pipe line 35 arranges cyclonic separator 17.
Gas pipe line 35 is arranged and connects heat exchanger 43, spraying gun 27 is set in taper furnace bottom 9, spraying gun 27 communicates with the hydraulic pipe come in automatic heat-exchanger 43, hydraulic pipe arranges feed water flow gauge 25 and inlet valve 24, water in spraying gun, when by heat exchanger 43, carries out heat exchange with high-temperature fuel gas, obtains temperature rise, be conducive to keeping in-furnace temperature, improve gasification result.
This gives biomass gasification equipment, internal combustion heating Spiralism type greatly reduces the nitrogen content in combustion gas, and fuel gases calorific value improves 2 ~ 3 times than existing installation; Very high fire box temperature can be maintained, reduce tar yield, improve gasifying biomass efficiency; Gas cleaning process carries out all the time under the high temperature conditions, and goudron lysis rate is high, good purification.Be applicable to various biomass material, produce high heating value combustion gas, can for villages and small towns, family, kind plant, hotel, bathroom, office and industrial enterprise etc.
In working process, biomass material is sent between the blade 12 of gasification layer 8 by hopper 14; Two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are through geartransmission motion for the relative rotation under the driving of variable-frequency motor 19, and blade 12, along with internal combustion rotating pipe 10 rotary motion, meanwhile, makes stretching motion under the effect of track 13, and material rotates along with blade 12.Rotate at material in the process fallen, on the one hand, pass on via internal combustion rotating pipe 10 and gasification layer wall 7 the heat heated material generation thermo-cracking of coming; On the other hand, along with gasification layer diminishing gradually, internal combustion rotating pipe 10 and gasification layer wall 7 pairs of materials play grinding, extruding and crushing effect, are conducive to pyrolysis product and discharge from material particles, improve gasifying biomass efficiency.Finally, bottom a small amount of lime-ash autopneumatolysis layer 8, fall into taper furnace bottom 9, discharge from cone end slag-drip opening.。
Under the suction of induced draft fan 44, high-temperature fuel gas guides fuel gas layer 4 into from the bottom of gasification layer 8, cyclonic separator 17 is entered through gas pipe line 35 from the top combustion gas delivery port of fuel gas layer wall 3, after cyclone dust removal, high-temperature fuel gas enters heat exchanger 43 from the top gas outlet of cyclonic separator 17, its heat water-band that is cooled is walked, and finally, sends into gas storage holder.Because in-furnace temperature is very high, the efficiency that the tar in combustion gas is converted into combustible gas through Pintsch process is greatly enhanced.
Some gases enters gas pipeline 23 through backflow gas quantity variable valve 15, backflow gas meter 16 in fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45, two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are entered through spark arrester 18 in gas pipeline 23, combustion air introduces two internal combustion intake ductings 26 from blower fan 42 through air door 40 and air flowmeter 39, by the igniter fire burning of being inserted by lighting-up tuyere 38, high-temperature gas after burning enters hot waste gas layer 6 through two internal combustion outlet pipes 30, hot waste gas reflux line 28, finally, body of heater is discharged from exhaust emission tube road 34.The type of heating of this internal combustion and hot waste gas backflow makes to maintain very high temperature in burner hearth, greatly reduce tar yield, improve biogas rate, and effectively prevent a large amount of nitrogen is mixed in combustion gas, drastically increase fuel gases calorific value, decrease power loss, reduce the total cost of biomass pyrolysis liquefaction.
Vaporized chemical (air) introduces gasification layer 8 from body of heater 1 upper entrance through air quantity under meter 32 and volume damper 33 mouthfuls.
Produce water vapour by spraying gun 27, in burner hearth high-temperature zone, water vapour and biomass and pyrolysis gas react, and produce combustible gas further, improve biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, reduce the grey quantity of slag.

Claims (3)

1. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace, it is characterized in that the sidewall of body of heater (1) is set to jacket structured, described chuck is followed successively by gasification layer (8), gasification layer wall (7), hot waste gas layer (6), hot waste gas layer wall (5), fuel gas layer (4), fuel gas layer wall (3) and thermal insulation layer (2) from inside to outside; Described gasification layer wall (7) arranges track (13); Below the centerplane of described body of heater (1), sustained height place arranges two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes (10), at the inner circle alternate along its wall of described two internal combustion rotating pipes (10), multiple leaf seam plate (11) is set, the gap of described leaf seam plate (11) does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe (10) inside, in the gap of described leaf seam plate (11), arrange blade (12), described blade (12) overhanging end is connected with track (13); Described each internal combustion rotating pipe (10) two ends connect two rotary support pipelines (22) with one heart, in described two rotary support pipelines (22), arrange internal combustion intake ducting (26) and internal combustion outlet pipe (30) respectively; Arrange gas pipeline (23) in described internal combustion intake ducting (26) inside, described gas pipeline (23) is connected to fuel gas source from internal combustion intake ducting (26) entrance; Described internal combustion intake ducting (26) arranges air line (41), in the set-point, ingress burner (38) of described internal combustion intake ducting (26); In the top of described body of heater (1), hopper (14) is set, described hopper (14) communicates with gasification layer (8), undertake taper furnace bottom (9) in the bottom of described body of heater (1), described taper furnace bottom (9) communicates with gasification layer (8), and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer (4) into the bottom being positioned at described gasification layer (8), combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall (3), is connected to gas pipe line (35) on combustion gas delivery port and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan (44) outside stove.
2. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace according to claim 1, it is characterized in that arranging hot waste gas reflux line (28) and exhaust emission tube road (34) respectively on described hot waste gas layer wall (5), described hot waste gas reflux line (28) is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe (30), and the outlet of described exhaust emission tube road (34) is extended outside to body of heater.
3. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace according to claim 1, is characterized in that described two internal combustion rotating pipes (10) are the rotatable parts driven by transmission rig.
CN201410063757.5A 2014-02-25 2014-02-25 Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace CN103788972B (en)

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2005037042A (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-02-10 Meidensha Corp Heat processing device
CN102010730A (en) * 2010-12-19 2011-04-13 昆明理工大学 Biomass spiral pyrolytic process and antipyretic device
CN103589441A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-19 潍坊金丝达环境工程股份有限公司 Improved energy-saving continuous gasification cracking furnace

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090007484A1 (en) * 2007-02-23 2009-01-08 Smith David G Apparatus and process for converting biomass feed materials into reusable carbonaceous and hydrocarbon products

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2005037042A (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-02-10 Meidensha Corp Heat processing device
CN102010730A (en) * 2010-12-19 2011-04-13 昆明理工大学 Biomass spiral pyrolytic process and antipyretic device
CN103589441A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-19 潍坊金丝达环境工程股份有限公司 Improved energy-saving continuous gasification cracking furnace

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