CN103788972A - Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace - Google Patents

Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace Download PDF

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CN103788972A
CN103788972A CN201410063757.5A CN201410063757A CN103788972A CN 103788972 A CN103788972 A CN 103788972A CN 201410063757 A CN201410063757 A CN 201410063757A CN 103788972 A CN103788972 A CN 103788972A
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internal combustion
gas
gasification
furnace
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CN201410063757.5A
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CN103788972B (en
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陈天虎
胡孔元
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合肥工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace. The side wall of the furnace body is designed to be a jacket; the jacket successively comprises a gasification layer, a gasification layer wall, a hot exhaust gas layer, a hot exhaust gas layer wall, a fuel gas layer, a fuel gas layer wall and an insulation layer; a track is arranged on the gasification layer wall; two horizontal internal-combustion rotary pipelines are arranged at a same height below the central surface of the furnace body; a plurality of vane gap plates are alternately arranged in the two internal-combustion rotary pipelines along the circumferences of the walls thereof; the gaps of the vane gap plates are not communicated with the interiors of the internal-combustion rotary pipelines; vanes are arranged in the gaps of the vane gap plates; the overhang ends of the vanes are connected with the track; a feed hopper is arranged above the furnace body; the feed hopper is communicated with the gasification layer; a cone-shaped furnace bottom is borne at the bottom of the furnace body; the cone-shaped furnace bottom is communicated with the gasification layer; and a slag discharging hole is located at the cone bottom hole. According to the internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace, the gasification rate and the fuel gas heat value of the biomass are greatly improved, the secondary pollution is avoided and the gasification cost of the biomass is reduced, so that the internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace is suitable for various biomass raw materials to produce combustible gas, and the operation, the management and the maintenance are simple and convenient.

Description

Internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace
Technical field
The present invention relates to gasification installation, more specifically say the vapourizing furnace take biomass as raw material.
Background technology
Biomass comprise forestry material, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and feces of livestock and poultry etc.Biomass are a kind of renewable energy sources, and reserves are abundant, and energy utilization as an alternative, can realize CO 2zero release, and wherein S, N content are low, greatly alleviate Greenhouse effect and environmental pollution.Gasifying biomass is under certain thermochemistry condition, by Wood Adhesives from Biomass for mainly by carbon monoxide, hydrogen and low molecular combustible gas.Affect gasifying biomass effect because have biomass kind and pre-treatment thereof, biomass input speed and vaporized chemical delivery rate, the temperature and pressure in reactor etc.
At present, it is that fuel gases calorific value is lower that biomass gasification technology and combustion gas utilize the problem one that process mainly exists, and owing to directly introducing more air in biomass gasification process, causes nitrogen content in combustion gas to exceed 55%, and the calorific value of combustion gas is generally lower than 7000KJ/m3; The 2nd, the tar that gasification produces is more, because gasification is introduced more freezing air, in vapourizing furnace, temperature is not high enough, causes tar yield higher, not only affect the normal work of vapourizing furnace and conveying, storage and the utilization of combustion gas, and waste a large amount of energy and resource.
For the problem that contains more tar in combustion gas, current solution has two kinds: the one, and washing is processed, tar in combustion gas is transferred in the aqueous solution and gone, although this method is simple, gas-purification efficiency is also higher, but can produce a large amount of containing tar and waste water, such wastewater treatment difficulty is large, cost is high, causes secondary pollution, and can affect the high-efficient operation of gasification system, finally cause combustion gas cost higher, be unfavorable for utilization and the popularization of biomass energy; The 2nd, catalytic pyrolysis, under the effect of catalyzer, is low molecule combustion gas by coke tar cracking, has not only solved the harm problem of tar, and can improve fuel gases calorific value, does not produce secondary pollution.
The catalytic pyrolysis of tar, non-secondary pollution, can improve biogas rate and fuel gases calorific value, but the deficiencies such as current catalytic cracking of tar technology still exists, and goudron lysis rate is low, the easy carbon distribution inactivation of catalyzer, cracker complexity, the easy adhesion of cracking system tar itself, practical effect is poor.The catalytic pyrolysis efficiency of tar is relevant with temperature, and temperature is higher, and coke tar cracking efficiency is higher, and current catalytic pyrolysis mode or be that cold beds is passed through in combustion gas, catalytic pyrolysis efficiency is low, or is the temperature that improves beds by external heat, and energy consumption increases.
In recent years, biomass gasification technology obtains very fast development, and the vapourizing furnace of various ways is developed, and these vapourizing furnaces can be divided into fixed-bed gasification furnace and fluidized-bed gasification furnace two classes substantially.It is several that fixed-bed gasification furnace further can be divided into again downdraft, updraft type, crossdraft and happy formula.Down-draft type gasifying furnace moves under micro-negative pressure, not high to seal request, and output combustible gas calorific value is high, tar content is few, but in combustible gas, ash content is many, and combustible gas tapping temperature is high.Updraft type vapourizing furnace moves under pressure-fired, high to seal request, and the coal-tar middle oil content of combustible gas is high.Fluidized-bed gasification furnace, in stove, temperature is high and constant, and at high temperature cracking of tar generates gas, combustion gas is coal-tar middle oil fewer, but contains more ash content in the combustion gas of coming out of the stove, and fluidized-bed gasification furnace complicated structure, facility investment is large, and large-scale equipment for gasification is more.
 
Summary of the invention
The present invention is for avoiding the existing weak point of above-mentioned prior art, a kind of internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace is provided, improve gasifying biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, reduce the productive rate of tar, avoid secondary pollution, reduce gasifying biomass cost, be applicable to various biomass materials and produce combustible gas.
The constructional feature of internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace of the present invention is:
The sidewall of body of heater is set to jacket structured, and chuck is followed successively by gasification layer, gasification layer wall, hot waste gas layer, hot waste gas layer wall, fuel gas layer, fuel gas layer wall and thermal insulation layer from inside to outside; On gasification layer wall, track is set; Below the centerplane of body of heater, sustained height place arranges two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes, along the circle alternate of its wall, multiple leaf seam plates are set in two internal combustion rotating pipe inside, the gap of leaf seam plate does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe inside, in the gap of leaf seam plate, blade is set, blade overhanging end is connected with track; Internal combustion rotating pipe two ends connect two rotary support pipelines with one heart, and internal combustion intake ducting and internal combustion outlet pipe are set respectively in two rotary support pipelines; Hopper is set above body of heater, and hopper communicates with gasification layer, undertakes taper furnace bottom in the bottom of body of heater, and taper furnace bottom communicates with gasification layer, and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer into the bottom that is positioned at gasification layer, combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall, and stove is connected to gas pipe line on combustion gas delivery port outward and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan.
The constructional feature of internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace of the present invention is also:
Hot waste gas reflux line and exhaust emission tube road are set respectively on hot waste gas layer wall, and hot waste gas reflux line is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe, and the outlet in exhaust emission tube road is extended to body of heater outside.
Two internal combustion rotating pipes are the rotatable parts that driven by transmission rig.
In internal combustion intake ducting inside, gas pipeline is set, gas pipeline is connected to fuel gas source from internal combustion intake ducting entrance.
Compared with the prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in:
1, the present invention is take internal combustion rotating pipe as combustion heating chamber, burn in internal combustion rotating pipe by combustion gas for gasifying biomass heating outside pipe, and the backflow that utilizes hot waste gas is gasification heating, adopt tube wall and sidewall heat transfer material heating rate high, make full use of combustion heat energy and heat energy from waste gas, keep higher fire box temperature, effectively avoid the airborne nitrogen after burning to sneak in stove, improve gasifying biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, greatly reduce tar yield, gas-purification difficulty and purify cost, save energy;
3, the present invention adopts blade to be arranged in the leaf seam plate in internal combustion rotating pipe, its overhanging end is connected with the track of gasification layer wall, work Leaf rotates and stretching motion, make material under the effect of blade, between gentleization of internal combustion rotation tube wall layer wall, be rotated down motion, by regulating the rotating speed of variable-frequency motor, can control and improve the residence time of material in stove, improve gasifying biomass efficiency;
3, the present invention adopts internal combustion rotating pipe to be arranged on the centerplane below of body of heater, gasification layer is diminished from top to bottom gradually, material and tube wall and gasification layer wall close contact, be conducive to conduct heat, when material when falling with blade rotary internal combustion rotating pipe and gasification layer wall to material play a part to grind, extruding and broken, be conducive to pyrolysis product and discharge from material particles, improve gasifying biomass efficiency;
4, the present invention adopts two rotating pipes to turning, and realizes material diversion gasification, improves gasification intensity;
5, the present invention is good to material particular diameter adaptability, and particle diameter is not strict with, and reduces energy consumption and the cost of biomass precrushings processing, can continuously feeding, and operation is convenient, stable, has the efficiency of fluidized-bed, but has overcome the shortcoming of fluidized-bed;
6, the present invention flows combustion gas fuel gas layer in stove from bottom to top by induced draft fan, draw body of heater through gas distribution channel again, extend the residence time of high-temperature fuel gas in stove, guarantee that coke tar cracking is inflammable gas, can not cause the tar of fuel gas transportation pipeline system to adhere to obstruction, negative-pressure operation, does not have environmental pollution.
 
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is internal structure schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional structure schematic diagram of Fig. 1;
Number in the figure: 1 body of heater, 2 thermal insulation layers, 3 fuel gas layer walls, 4 fuel gas layers, 5 hot waste gas layer wall, 6 hot waste gas layers, 7 gasification layer walls, 8 gasification layers, 9 taper furnace bottoms, 10 internal combustion rotating pipes, 11 leaf seam plates, 12 blades, 13 tracks, 14 hoppers, 15 backflow gas quantity variable valve, 16 backflow gas meters, 17 cyclonic separators, 18 spark arresters, 19 variable-frequency motors, 20 speed reduction units, 21 gears, 22 rotary support pipelines, 23 gas pipelines, 24 inlet valves, 25 flooding velocity meters, 26 internal combustion intake ductings, 27 spraying guns, 28 hot waste gas reflux lines, 29 bearings, 30 internal combustion outlet pipes, 31 internal combustion portholes, 32 air quantity under meters, 33 volume dampers, 34 exhaust emission tube roads, 35 gas pipe lines, 36 gears, 37 gears, 38 lighting-up tuyeres, 39 air flowmeter, 40 air doors, 41 air lines, 42 blower fans, 43 heat exchangers, 44 induced draft fans, 45 fuel gas return-flow pipelines.
Below pass through embodiment, and the invention will be further described by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Embodiment
Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, adopt the oval tubular body of heater 1 of class, it is axially horizontally disposed that body of heater 1 is, and the sidewall of body of heater 1 is set to jacket structured, and chuck is followed successively by gasification layer 8, gasification layer wall 7, hot waste gas layer 6, hot waste gas layer wall 5, fuel gas layer 4, fuel gas layer wall 3 and thermal insulation layer 2 from inside to outside; Track 13 is set on gasification layer wall 7; At the interior two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes 10 that arrange of body of heater 1, along the circle alternate of its wall, multiple leaf seam plates 11 are set in two internal combustion rotating pipe 10 inside, the gap of leaf seam plate 11 does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe 10 inside, in the gap of leaf seam plate 11, blade 12 is set, blade 12 overhanging ends are connected with track 13; Internal combustion rotating pipe 10 two ends connect two rotary support pipelines 22 with one heart, at interior internal combustion intake ducting 26 and the internal combustion outlet pipe 30 of arranging respectively of two rotary support pipelines 22; Hopper 14 is set above body of heater 1, and hopper 14 communicates with gasification layer 8, undertakes taper furnace bottom 9 in the bottom of body of heater 1, and taper furnace bottom 9 communicates with gasification layer 8, and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer 4 into be positioned at the bottom of gasification layer 8, combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall 3, and stove is connected to gas pipe line 35 on combustion gas delivery port outward and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan 44.
In the present embodiment, utilize the burning of gasification combustible gas for gasifying biomass heats, specifically export on gas pipe line 35 fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 is set at induced draft fan 44, backflow gas quantity variable valve 15 and backflow gas meter 16 are installed on fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45.In two internal combustion intake ducting 26 inside, gas pipeline 23 is set, gas pipeline 23 is connected to fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 from internal combustion intake ducting 26 entrances, and spark arrester 18 is installed on gas pipeline 23, the air-supply duct take fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45 as gas pipeline 23.On two internal combustion intake ductings 26, air line 41 is set, air flowmeter 39 and air door 40 are installed on air line 41, air line 41 is connected to blower fan 42.
In concrete enforcement, also comprise:
Hot waste gas reflux line 28 and exhaust emission tube road 34 are set respectively on hot waste gas layer wall 5, hot waste gas reflux line 28 is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe 30, the outlet in exhaust emission tube road 34 is extended to body of heater outside, air-supply duct take hot waste gas reflux line 28 as hot waste gas layer 6, the backflow of high temperature hot waste gas is conducive to improve temperature in stove, save energy.
Two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are the rotatable parts that driven by transmission rig, and arrange accordingly speed reduction unit 20, gear 21, gear 37 and gear 36, driven by variable-frequency motor 19.
In order to light a fire and to observe backflow fuel gas buring situation, at the set-point, ingress of internal combustion intake ducting 26 burner 38, in the exit of internal combustion outlet pipe 30, internal combustion porthole 31 is set.
In order to monitor the operation conditions of vapourizing furnace, set temperature and pressure display instrument table on body of heater 1.
Keep high temperature in order to improve gasification result and not affect burner hearth middle and lower part, vaporized chemical (air) entrance is arranged on the top of body of heater 1, on vaporized chemical (air) inlet duct, air quantity under meter 32 and volume damper 33 is installed.
For gas-purification dedusting, cyclonic separator 17 is set on gas pipe line 35.
On gas pipe line 35, arrange and connect heat exchanger 43, at the interior spraying gun 27 that arranges of taper furnace bottom 9, spraying gun 27 is to communicate with the hydraulic pipe coming in automatic heat-exchanger 43, flooding velocity meter 25 and inlet valve 24 are set on hydraulic pipe, water in spraying gun, when by heat exchanger 43, carries out heat exchange with high-temperature fuel gas, obtains temperature rise, be conducive to keep temperature in stove, improved gasification result.
The present embodiment has provided biomass gasification equipment, and internal combustion heating Spiralism type greatly reduces the nitrogen content in combustion gas, and fuel gases calorific value improves 2~3 times than existing installation; Can maintain very high fire box temperature, reduce tar yield, improve gasifying biomass efficiency; Gas-purification process is carried out all the time under hot conditions, and goudron lysis rate is high, good purification.Be applicable to various biomass materials, produce high heating value combustion gas, can be for villages and small towns, family, kind plant, hotel, bathroom, office and industrial enterprise etc.
In working process, biomass material is sent into by hopper 14 between the blade 12 of gasification layer 8; Two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 are through geartransmission motion for the relative rotation under the driving of variable-frequency motor 19, and blade 12, along with internal combustion rotating pipe 10 rotatablely moves, meanwhile, is made stretching motion under the effect of track 13, and material is along with blade 12 rotates.In the process falling in material rotation, on the one hand, the heat coming via internal combustion rotating pipe 10 and 7 transmissions of gasification layer wall adds thermal material generation thermo-cracking; On the other hand, along with gasification layer diminishing gradually, internal combustion rotating pipe 10 and gasification layer wall 7 play grinding, extruding and crushing effect to material, are conducive to pyrolysis product and discharge from material particles, improve gasifying biomass efficiency.Finally, a small amount of lime-ash autopneumatolysis layer 8 bottom fall into taper furnace bottom 9, discharge from cone end slag-drip opening.。
Under the suction of induced draft fan 44, high-temperature fuel gas is guided fuel gas layer 4 into from the bottom of gasification layer 8, enter cyclonic separator 17 from the top combustion gas delivery port of fuel gas layer wall 3 through gas pipe line 35, after cyclone dust removal, high-temperature fuel gas enters heat exchanger 43 from the top gas outlet of cyclonic separator 17, its heat water that is cooled is taken away, last, sends into gas storage holder.Because temperature in stove is very high, the efficiency that the tar in combustion gas is converted into combustible gas through Pintsch process is greatly enhanced.
Part combustion gas enters gas pipeline 23 through backflow gas quantity variable valve 15, backflow gas meter 16 in fuel gas return-flow pipeline 45, in gas pipeline 23, enter two internal combustion rotating pipes 10 through spark arrester 18, combustion air is introduced two internal combustion intake ductings 26 from blower fan 42 through air door 40 and air flowmeter 39, by the lighter for ignition ignition of being inserted by lighting-up tuyere 38, high-temperature gas after burning enters hot waste gas layer 6 through two internal combustion outlet pipes 30, hot waste gas reflux line 28, finally, discharge body of heater from exhaust emission tube road 34.The type of heating that this internal combustion and hot waste gas reflux makes to maintain in burner hearth very high temperature, greatly reduce tar yield, improve biogas rate, and effectively avoid a large amount of nitrogen to sneak in combustion gas, greatly improve fuel gases calorific value, reduce power loss, reduced the total cost of biomass pyrolysis liquefaction.
Vaporized chemical (air) is introduced gasification layers 8 from body of heater 1 upper entrance through 33 mouthfuls of air quantity under meter 32 and volume dampers.
Produce water vapour by spraying gun 27, in burner hearth high-temperature zone, water vapour and biomass and pyrolysis gas react, and further produce combustible gas, have improved biomass efficiency and fuel gases calorific value, have reduced the grey quantity of slag.

Claims (4)

1. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace, is characterized in that
The sidewall of body of heater (1) is set to jacket structured, and described chuck is followed successively by gasification layer (8), gasification layer wall (7), hot waste gas layer (6), hot waste gas layer wall (5), fuel gas layer (4), fuel gas layer wall (3) and thermal insulation layer (2) from inside to outside; Track (13) is set on described gasification layer wall (7); Sustained height place, centerplane below at described body of heater (1) arranges two horizontal internal combustion rotating pipes (10), along the circle alternate of its wall, multiple leaves seam plates (11) are set in described two internal combustion rotating pipes (10) inside, the gap of described leaf seam plate (11) does not communicate with internal combustion rotating pipe (10) inside, in the gap of described leaf seam plate (11), blade (12) is set, described blade (12) overhanging end is connected with track (13); Described internal combustion rotating pipe (10) two ends connect two rotary support pipelines (22) with one heart, in described two rotary support pipelines (22), internal combustion intake ducting (26) and internal combustion outlet pipe (30) are set respectively; In the top of described body of heater (1), hopper (14) is set, described hopper (14) communicates with gasification layer (8), undertake taper furnace bottom (9) in the bottom of described body of heater (1), described taper furnace bottom (9) communicates with gasification layer (8), and slag-drip opening is positioned at cone end mouth; The gas channel that combustion gas is drawn in stove is: guide fuel gas layer (4) into be positioned at the bottom of described gasification layer (8), combustion gas delivery port is positioned at the top of fuel gas layer wall (3), and stove is connected to gas pipe line on combustion gas delivery port (35) outward and is connected to gas storage holder by induced draft fan (44).
2. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace according to claim 1, it is characterized in that arranging respectively hot waste gas reflux line (28) and exhaust emission tube road (34) on described hot waste gas layer wall (5), described hot waste gas reflux line (28) is connected to internal combustion outlet pipe (30), and the outlet in described exhaust emission tube road (34) is extended to body of heater outside.
3. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace according to claim 1, is characterized in that described two internal combustion rotating pipes (10) are the rotatable parts being driven by transmission rig.
4. internal combustion heating Spiralism type biomass gasifying furnace according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in described internal combustion intake ducting (26) inside, gas pipeline (23) is set, and described gas pipeline (23) is connected to fuel gas source from internal combustion intake ducting (26) entrance.
CN201410063757.5A 2014-02-25 2014-02-25 Internal-combustion heating rotary vane type biomass gasification furnace Active CN103788972B (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2005037042A (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-02-10 Meidensha Corp Heat processing device
US20090007484A1 (en) * 2007-02-23 2009-01-08 Smith David G Apparatus and process for converting biomass feed materials into reusable carbonaceous and hydrocarbon products
CN102010730A (en) * 2010-12-19 2011-04-13 昆明理工大学 Biomass spiral pyrolytic process and antipyretic device
CN103589441A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-19 潍坊金丝达环境工程股份有限公司 Improved energy-saving continuous gasification cracking furnace

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2005037042A (en) * 2003-07-15 2005-02-10 Meidensha Corp Heat processing device
US20090007484A1 (en) * 2007-02-23 2009-01-08 Smith David G Apparatus and process for converting biomass feed materials into reusable carbonaceous and hydrocarbon products
CN102010730A (en) * 2010-12-19 2011-04-13 昆明理工大学 Biomass spiral pyrolytic process and antipyretic device
CN103589441A (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-02-19 潍坊金丝达环境工程股份有限公司 Improved energy-saving continuous gasification cracking furnace

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