CN103587548B - The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection that sensor is directly measured - Google Patents

The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection that sensor is directly measured Download PDF

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CN103587548B
CN103587548B CN201310556600.1A CN201310556600A CN103587548B CN 103587548 B CN103587548 B CN 103587548B CN 201310556600 A CN201310556600 A CN 201310556600A CN 103587548 B CN103587548 B CN 103587548B
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sensor
wheel
rail
sigma
laser
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CN201310556600.1A
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CN103587548A (en
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邢宗义
张永
陈岳剑
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南京理工大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device and method that a kind of sensor directly measures.This device comprises central processing unit and multiple laser sensor, and described laser sensor is all connected with central processing unit; The rail of detector segments outwards offsets, and arranges guard rail inside the rail of this detector segments; Laser sensor be arranged at rail offset vacate between region and guard rail, the probe of laser sensor is along the arrangement of rail direction and be all positioned at below wheel, and all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out non-roundness measurement.The method uses multiple laser sensor, it is arranged on below wheel according to certain geometric relationship, choose the sensing point of wheel within the scope of each sensor measurement, obtained the diameter of each sensor correspondence measurement by least square fitting, then deduct minimum value by maxim and obtain wheel out of round degree.On line non contact measurement of the present invention has the advantage that speed is fast, precision is high, measurement diameter range is large.

Description

The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection that sensor is directly measured

Technical field

The present invention relates to railway wheel detection field, particularly the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device directly measured of a kind of sensor and method.

Background technology

City rail vehicle there will be abrasion in various degree in the process run, abrasion can have an impact to wheel safe operation, and it is particularly important wherein to wear away the uneven wheel tread polygon caused, it constitutes a serious threat to the safety in operation of train, rolling stock is strengthened greatly to circuit and the dynamic action of self, also can bring additional vibration and impact simultaneously, reduce the critical speed of rolling stock, the stationarity of train and traveling comfort are deteriorated.Therefore to the non-roundness measurement of wheel tread to safe train operation important in inhibiting.

The method of inspection of wheel circularity is mainly divided into Static Detection and dynamic monitoring, and Static Detection needs to carry out when train stops or wheel dismantles, and not only take the turn round time of train, and speed is slow, labour intensity is large; Dynamic monitoring not only can realize the on-line monitoring right to wheel, and degree of automation is high, does not take car cycle, and be convenient to store information material, the dynamic monitoring out of roundness method adopted at present has vibration acceleration detection method and contact measuring method:

Vibration acceleration detection method, by analyzing the Vibration Condition of entire train through check point track of collection, extracts the out of roundness information of wheel, but the method is by the impact of sensor adjusting device, sleeper vibration damping, and measuring accuracy is not high.Contact measuring method is typically parallelogram method, patent 1(lifting mode wheel tread is inserted and is injured out of roundness dynamic on-line monitoring device, application number: 200720082608.9, the applying date: 2007-12-20) and patent 2(wheel tread insert wound and out of roundness on-line measuring device, application number: 201210307496.8, the applying date: 2012-08-27) all disclose On-line Measuring Method and the improvement thereof of parallelogram sturcutre, in the method, displacement pickup is connected with the bearing be fixed on the rail forming parallel-crank mechanism one side, sensor directly can measure the variable quantity of the relative height of wheel tread and wheel rim, the diameter situation of the whole tread circumference of displacement pickup record, when tread not bowlder sensor and delivery curve thus draw out of roundness, but the process employs contact type measurement, be not suitable for the situation that train passes through at a high speed, and it is slow to there is measurement speed of response, the physical construction life-span is low, the problems such as engineering construction difficulty.

Summary of the invention

The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device that the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of high-precision sensor directly to measure, adopt non-contact measurement, detection speed is fast, measurement range is large.

The technical solution realizing the object of the invention is: the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device that a kind of sensor is directly measured, and comprise central processing unit and multiple laser sensor, described laser sensor is all connected with central processing unit; The rail of detector segments outwards offsets, and arranges guard rail inside the rail of this detector segments, tangent inside guard rail and wheel rim; Laser sensor be arranged at rail offset vacate between region and guard rail, the probe of laser sensor arranges along rail direction and distributes on a horizontal, upwards, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out non-roundness measurement for the vertical rail of detecting light beam of each laser sensor.

The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection that sensor is directly measured, comprises the following steps:

1st step, is installed on rail and offsets the region vacated by each laser sensor, make the probe of each laser sensor along the arrangement of rail direction and be all positioned at below wheel, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement, and laser sensor is designated as P i, be followed successively by 1,2 along rail direction i ... n, n are the number of laser sensor;

2nd step, sets up two-dimensional coordinate system at the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement: be X-axis along rail direction, in the plane through first laser sensor P 1and be upwards Y-axis perpendicular to rail, then the coordinate of laser sensor is (x i, y i), each laser sensor probe is 90 ° relative to the mounted angle of X-axis;

3rd step, gathers the output valve of all laser sensors, and selects the valid data group { S having individual sensor to export i, S ibe i-th sensor P ioutput valve, i=1,2 ... n;

4th step: determine the speed of train through each sensor P:

v i=d i/t i

Wherein d i=(x i-x i-1)/2+ (x i+1-x i)/2, t i=(t pi-t pi-1)/2+ (t pi+1-t pi)/2, t pibe i-th sensor P iexport the moment of minimum value, t pi+1be the i-th+1 sensor P i+1export the moment of minimum value, t pi-1be the i-th-1 sensor P i-1export the moment of minimum value, and supposition is at the uniform velocity in this sensor P interval;

5th step, according to sensor P ioutput valve S i, coordinate figure (x i, y i) determine respective sensor P on wheel imeasurement point coordinate, and be time shaft with t, select this wheel through sensor P imeasurement range interior point coordinate (X it, Y it):

(X it,Y it)=(x i,y i)+(tv i/f,S it)i=1,2…nt=1,2…

Wherein: i represents i-th sensor; T is sampling instant; F is the sampling period; v ifor wheel is through sensor P ispeed;

6th step, according to sequence of points (X it, Y it) carry out fitting circle, obtain sensor P icorresponding wheel diameter D i;

7th step, repeats 5th ~ 6 steps, to the valid data group S that each sensor collects icarry out the calculating of measurement point coordinate and obtain n wheel diameter with matching, the maxim in n the diameter obtained is deducted minimum value, obtain the quantized value E of wheel out of round degree after n sensor matching.

Compared with prior art, remarkable advantage of the present invention is: (1), based on laser detection system, by the algorithm of least square fitting, realize the online noncontact measurement of train wheel, survey precision is high; (2) by any multiple spot coordinate of laser sensor automatic acquisition wheel, by corresponding data Processing Algorithm, obtain institute's measuring car wheel diameter instantly, the maxim in cut-off footpath deducts minimum value, obtains the quantizating index of out of roundness, fast simple, convenient; (3) automatic acquisition wheel is through out-of-date speed; (4) there is the advantage that detection speed is fast, measurement range is large.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the postrun abrasion schematic diagram of wheel tread.

Fig. 2 is the constructional drawing of the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device that sensor of the present invention is directly measured.

Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of rail switching place in city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is that the distance Q of rail of the present invention skew and the size of guard rail break face schematic diagram.

Fig. 5 is that the wheel out of round degree that in embodiment, laser sensor linear vertical is installed detects schematic diagram.

Fig. 6 is the relation of the observed reading S t (ms) in time of 9 laser sensors in embodiment.

Fig. 7 is the output (X of certain sensor measurement point in embodiment it, Y it) and matching after circle.

Fig. 8 is duplicate measurements 20 out of roundness acquired results schematic diagrams in embodiment.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with drawings and the specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further detail.

The tread profile after the operation of certain wheel and tread profile when just putting into operation is indicated in Fig. 1, can find out that distance wheel rim side place 70mm concentrates for abrasion to locate, this place is measurement diameter position conventional in engineering, and wheel diameter often controls between 770 ~ 840mm, therefore laser sensor sensing point is chosen for the wheel circumference at this place.

The present invention is based on the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device of laser sensor, comprise central processing unit and multiple laser sensor, described laser sensor is all connected with central processing unit; The rail of detector segments outwards offsets, and arranges guard rail inside the rail of this detector segments, tangent inside guard rail and wheel rim; Laser sensor be arranged at rail offset vacate between region and guard rail, the probe of laser sensor arranges along rail direction and distributes on a horizontal, upwards, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out non-roundness measurement for the vertical rail of detecting light beam of each laser sensor.

As shown in Figure 2, in detector segments, rail 6 is partially outer, vacate certain area, laser sensor probe 3 is arranged on below the measurement point of wheel 1, guard rail 5 is set inside wheel rim and causes derailing to prevent taking turns in S or end float misalignment, laser sensor probe 3 is fixed by clamp of sensor 4, and can adjust position and the inclination angle of laser sensor probe 3, and the laser beam 2 that each laser sensor probe 3 sends can detect the corresponding check point on wheel simultaneously.

As shown in Figure 3, switching place that rail outwards offsets is arc, is conducive to train and enters and exit detecting area.Fig. 4 describes the concrete size Q that rail outwards offsets, and for wheel tread and 60 rails, Q controls between 50 ~ 65mm, makes track centerline not exceed the outer rim of wheel.Guard rail exceeds the size P of wheel rim, controls between 30 ~ 50mm.The distance of carrying out the wheel circumference distance wheel rim side of diameter measurement is 70mm.

Due to wheel to be measured and track Long Term Contact, smooth surface roughness is low, therefore relates to the metal curved surface utilizing laser scanning testing head very strong to mirror-reflection and carries out profile measurement, and this measurand is a difficult point in current topography measurement field.Zhang Liang etc. analyze existing several laser feeler to the measurement capability of metal surface, show that cone light polarization holography probe and oblique fire formula triangle probe are comparatively applicable to measuring metal curved surface (Zhang Liang, Fei Zhigen, Guo Junjie. laser scanning testing head is to metal curved surface measuring study, lathe and hydraulic pressure, the 39th volume the 9th phase: in May, 2011).Therefore the laser sensor that the present invention relates to, preferably cone light polarization holography probe and oblique fire formula triangle probe, the quantity of laser sensor is 3 ~ 20 and the probe of all laser sensors is fixed on below wheel by clamp of sensor.

The city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device using the sensor directly to measure carries out the method for wheel out of round degree detection, comprises the following steps:

1st step, is installed on rail and offsets the region vacated by each laser sensor, make the probe of each laser sensor along the arrangement of rail direction and be all positioned at below wheel, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement, and laser sensor is designated as P i, be followed successively by 1,2 along rail direction i ... n, n are the number of laser sensor;

2nd step, sets up two-dimensional coordinate system at the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement: be X-axis along rail direction, in the plane through first laser sensor P 1and be upwards Y-axis perpendicular to rail, then the coordinate of laser sensor is (x i, y i), each laser sensor probe is 90 ° relative to the mounted angle of X-axis;

3rd step, gathers the output valve of all laser sensors, and selects the valid data group { S having individual sensor to export i, S ibe i-th sensor P ioutput valve, i=1,2 ... n;

4th step: determine the speed of train through each sensor P:

v i=d i/t i

Wherein d i=(x i-x i-1)/2+ (x i+1-x i)/2, t i=(t pi-t pi-1)/2+ (t pi+1-t pi)/2, t pibe i-th sensor P iexport the moment of minimum value, t pi+1be the i-th+1 sensor P i+1export the moment of minimum value, t pi-1be the i-th-1 sensor P i-1export the moment of minimum value, and supposition is at the uniform velocity in this sensor P interval;

5th step, according to sensor P ioutput valve S i, coordinate figure (x i, y i) determine respective sensor P on wheel imeasurement point coordinate, and be time shaft with t, select this wheel through sensor P imeasurement range interior point coordinate (X it, Y it):

(X it,Y it)=(x i,y i)+(tv i/f,S it)i=1,2…nt=1,2…

Wherein: i represents i-th sensor; T is sampling instant; F is the sampling period; v ifor wheel is through sensor P ispeed;

6th step, according to sequence of points (X it, Y it) carry out fitting circle, obtain sensor P icorresponding wheel diameter D i; Adopt method of least square to carry out fitting circle, formula is as follows:

D = a 2 + b 2 + 4 Σ ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) + aΣ X i + bΣ Y i n , i = 1,2 · · · n

Wherein, a is the center of circle abscissa x after matching 0-2 times of i.e. a=-2x 0, b is the center of circle ordinate y after matching 0-2 times of i.e. b=-2y 0, and

a = HD - EG CG - D 2 b = HC - ED D 2 - GC

Wherein C, D, E, G, H are intermediate parameters, as follows respectively:

C = nΣ X i 2 - Σ X i Σ X i D = nΣ X i Y i - Σ X i Σ Y i E = nΣ X i 3 + nΣ X i Y i 2 - Σ ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) Σ X i G = nΣ Y i 2 - Σ Y i Σ Y i H = nΣ X i 2 Y i + nΣ Y i 3 - Σ ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) Σ Y i i = 1,2 . . . n

7th step, repeats 5th ~ 6 steps, to the valid data group S that each sensor collects icarry out the calculating of measurement point coordinate and obtain n wheel diameter with matching, the maxim in n the diameter obtained is deducted minimum value, obtain the quantized value E of wheel out of round degree after n sensor matching.

Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, introduce city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device and method that sensor adopts linear vertical, straight line inclination mounting means respectively, the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment

The present embodiment is linear sensor vertically arranged city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree detecting device and method.

As shown in Figure 5, the probe of n laser sensor is on a horizontal uniform along the arrangement of rail direction, and the vertical rail of detecting light beam of each laser sensor upwards.

The installation parameter of laser sensor meets the following conditions: the number n of laser sensor is 9, adjacent laser sensor distance 300mm, and the attachment point of laser sensor to the vertical distance of rail is | y 1| be 100mm.This mount scheme 6 and the distance that simultaneously measures with upper sensor are more than 2800mm, cover situation 840 × 3.14=2637.6mm that wheel diameter is maximum, the whole circumference range of wheel tread can be detected, and make the measurement light of sensor and the pitch angle control of tested surface ± 20 ° between, avoid changing the sensor measurement errors that inclination angle causes.Thus obtain the coordinate (x of each sensor i, y i) (unit: mm):

x i=300(i-1)i=1,2…9

Wherein i represents i-th sensor;

If the sampling period of laser sensor is 1kHz, measure random error 0.05mm, and suppose that train running speed is 1m/s, by computer modeling produce diameter be the tested vechicle wheel measurement data of 800 as shown in Figure 6, export out of roundness by take off data according to following steps:

(1.1) gather the output valve of all laser sensors, and select the valid data group { S simultaneously having 9 sensor output values i, S ibe i-th sensor P ioutput valve, i=1,2 ... n;

(1.2) according to sensor P ioutput valve S i, coordinate figure (x i, y i) determine respective sensor P on wheel imeasurement point coordinate (X it, Y it), during Fig. 7 depicts (1.1), first sensor exports S isequence of points (the X determined it, Y it) and this moment matching after circle;

(1.3) according to sequence of points (X it, Y it) carry out fitting circle, obtaining wheel diameter corresponding to this sensor is 799.913mm.9 sensor measurements export S ithe diameter error sequence obtained after matching is:

ε=[-0.08700.1606-0.08200.09130.1481-0.1556-0.06810.0824-0.2800]

(1.4) the diameter error sequence that 9 sensor measurements of trying to achieve step (1.3) obtain, the maxim in cut-off footpath deducts minimum value, and obtaining out of roundness is 0.4406.Analogue measurement 20 times, obtains the result of a measurement shown in Fig. 8, and from this result of a measurement, this embodiment can realize the high-acruracy survey of wheel out of round degree, and measured error is <0.8mm when not considering installation error.

In sum, the present invention is based on laser detection system, by the algorithm of least square fitting, realize the online noncontact measurement to train wheel out of roundness, survey precision is high, fast simple, convenient, and has the advantage that detection speed is fast, measurement range is large.

Claims (2)

1. the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection directly measured of sensor, it is characterized in that, comprise central processing unit and multiple laser sensor, described laser sensor is all connected with central processing unit; The rail of detector segments outwards offsets, and arranges guard rail inside the rail of this detector segments, tangent inside guard rail and wheel rim; Laser sensor be arranged at rail offset vacate between region and guard rail, the probe of laser sensor arranges along rail direction and distributes on a horizontal, the vertical rail of detecting light beam of each laser sensor upwards, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out non-roundness measurement, specifically comprise the following steps:
1st step, is installed on rail and offsets the region vacated by each laser sensor, make the probe of each laser sensor along the arrangement of rail direction and be all positioned at below wheel, all laser sensors are coplanar with the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement, and laser sensor is designated as P i, be followed successively by 1,2, Kn along rail direction i, n is the number of laser sensor;
2nd step, sets up two-dimensional coordinate system at the wheel circumference carrying out diameter measurement: be X-axis along rail direction, in the plane through first laser sensor P 1and be upwards Y-axis perpendicular to rail, then the coordinate of laser sensor is (x i, y i), each laser sensor probe is 90 ° relative to the mounted angle of X-axis;
3rd step, gathers the output valve of all laser sensors, and selects the valid data group { S of each sensor output i, S ibe i-th sensor P ioutput valve, i=1,2, Kn;
4th step: determine the speed of train through each sensor P:
v i=d i/t i
Wherein d i=(x i-x i-1)/2+ (x i+1-x i)/2, t i=(t pi-t pi-1)/2+ (t pi+1-t pi)/2, t pibe i-th sensor P iexport the moment of minimum value, t pi+1be the i-th+1 sensor P i+1export the moment of minimum value, t pi-1be the i-th-1 sensor P i-1export the moment of minimum value, and supposition is at the uniform velocity in this sensor P interval;
5th step, according to sensor P ioutput valve S i, coordinate figure (x i, y i) determine respective sensor P on wheel imeasurement point coordinate, and be time shaft with t, select this wheel through sensor P imeasurement range interior point coordinate (X it, Y it):
(X it,Y it)=(x i,y i)+(tv i/f,S it)i=1,2…nt=1,2…
Wherein: i represents i-th sensor; T is sampling instant; F is the sampling period; v ifor wheel is through sensor P ispeed;
6th step, according to sequence of points (X it, Y it) carry out fitting circle, obtain sensor P icorresponding wheel diameter D i;
7th step, repeats 5th ~ 6 steps, to the valid data group S that each sensor collects icarry out the calculating of measurement point coordinate and obtain n wheel diameter with matching, the maxim in n the diameter obtained is deducted minimum value, obtain the quantized value E of wheel out of round degree after n sensor matching.
2. the city rail vehicle wheel out of round degree method of inspection directly measured of sensor according to claim 1, is characterized in that, according to n on wheel measurement point coordinate (X described in the 6th step i, Y i) carry out fitting circle, adopt method of least square, formula is as follows:
D = a 2 + b 2 + 4 &Sigma; ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) + a&Sigma;X i + b&Sigma;Y i n , i = 1 , 2 ... n
Wherein, a is the center of circle abscissa x after matching 0-2 times of i.e. a=-2x 0, b is the center of circle ordinate y after matching 0-2 times of i.e. b=-2y 0, and
a = H D - E G C G - D 2
b = H C - E D D 2 - G C
Wherein C, D, E, G, H are intermediate parameters, as follows respectively:
C = n&Sigma;X i 2 - &Sigma;X i &Sigma;X i D = n&Sigma;X i Y i - &Sigma;X i &Sigma;Y i E = n&Sigma;X i 3 + n&Sigma;X i Y i 2 - &Sigma; ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) &Sigma;X i G = nY i 2 - &Sigma;Y i &Sigma;Y i H = n&Sigma;X i 2 Y i + n&Sigma;Y i 3 - &Sigma; ( X i 2 + Y i 2 ) &Sigma;Y i , i = 1 , 2 ... n .
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