CN102960372B - Botanical pesticide for preventing and treating root knot nematode disease and method thereof - Google Patents

Botanical pesticide for preventing and treating root knot nematode disease and method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102960372B
CN102960372B CN201210482605.XA CN201210482605A CN102960372B CN 102960372 B CN102960372 B CN 102960372B CN 201210482605 A CN201210482605 A CN 201210482605A CN 102960372 B CN102960372 B CN 102960372B
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knot nematode
pesticide
botanical pesticide
root
soil
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CN102960372A (en
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江春
方果
张瑾华
郭生金
师光禄
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Jinzhong University
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Jinzhong University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a pesticide, in particular to a botanical pesticide for preventing and treating the root knot nematode disease, and the pesticide is used for solving a series of problems, such as environment pollution and food unsafety caused by the chemical nematocide for preventing and treating the greenhouse vegetable root knot nematode. The botanical pesticide for preventing and treating the root knot nematode disease comprises artemisia capillaries. A preparation method of the botanical pesticide comprises the following steps of: picking up young and tender stem leaves in the early April, drying, and smashing. The pesticide is reasonable to design, the main raw material artemisia capillaries is abundant in wild resource, and the pesticide is low in cost, simple in preparation technology, convenient to operate, obvious in effects, and easy to popularize and use in large area. The quantity of the root-knot nematodes of the pesticide-applied greenhouse vegetable can be obviously reduced, and the pesticide is ideal in control efficiency.

Description

Prevent and treat botanical pesticide and the method for root knot nematode disease
Technical field
The present invention relates to prevent and treat the technical field of root-knot nematode, be specially botanical pesticide and the method for preventing and treating root knot nematode disease.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the spread of green house and the extensive plantation of vegetables in improper season, root knot nematode disease had become one of Major Diseases of facility (booth) vegetables.
Root-knot nematode ( meloidogynespp.) be a kind of plant pathogeny line insect of height specialized form, host range is wide, host types is many.The nematode of current known danger to vegetables mainly contains high bow root-knot nematode, peanut root-knot nematode, northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, javanese root knot nematode and beet root-knot nematode etc.Nematode host range is extensive, usually endangers 30 various vegetables such as melon, solanaceous vegetables, beans and radish, calabash radish, lettuce, Chinese cabbage, can also propagate some fungus and bacterium venereal diseases evils.The root of the various vegetables of root-knot nematode main harm forms the spherical or conical white root nodule differing in size on young root, and what have is beads shape.Short and small, slow, the leaf color anomaly of killed above-ground plant parts growth, result is few, yields poorly, and even causes plant dead ahead of time.And, in danger to vegetables, may aggravate again the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as root rot, greatly reduce quality of vegetable, directly affect peasant's income, greatly restrict the development of agricultural production.According to recent statistics, the economic loss that the whole world causes because of nemas has every year exceeded 1,000 hundred million dollars.For a long time, for the control of nemas, be a global difficult problem always.
At present, the medicine that is used for preventing and treating plant root-knot nematode is take nematocide as main, but well-known, nematocide is the agricultural chemicals of high poison, high residue mostly, carry out hidden danger not only to food safety belt, bring manyly as the problem of soil pollution, disruption of ecological balance aspect to environment, and can make root-knot nematode produce great pesticide resistance, cause the great harm of root-knot nematode to be difficult to control.
Therefore, be necessary to invent a kind of safe, green agricultural chemicals, for the root knot nematode disease of facility for prevention and control vegetables.
Summary of the invention
An object of the present invention is to provide a kind of new for preventing and treating the botanical pesticide of root knot nematode disease, for solving the uneasy congruent series of problems of environmental pollution, food bringing for the nematocide of facility for prevention and control root knot nematode disease at present; Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize:
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, crushed after being dried.
When concrete enforcement, the drying means of the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris is included in baking oven and dries 20~24h(oven method under 60~70 ℃ of conditions) or naturally dry to water content and naturally dry method at 10%~15%(, simple to operate, be applicable to suitability for industrialized production, be also applicable to peasant household and promote the use of); Afterwards, be crushed to the powder of 325 mesh sieves.
Artemisia capillaris ( artemisia capillariesthunb) be the herbaceos perennial that belongs to Angiospermae Dicotyledoneae Asteridae chrysanthemum order composite family artemisia.Be distributed in each provinces and regions, China north and south, grow in hillside, wasteland, roadside, meadow etc.Cauline leaf is used as medicine, and human body is had to the effects such as clearing heat and promoting diuresis, removing jaundice, cholagogic, diuresis, treatment skin disease.The volatile oil of Artemisia capillaris has obvious inhibitory action to staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and shigella dysenteriae, hemolytic streptococcus, Diplococcus pneumopniae, diphtheria bacillus, ox type and Bacillus tuberculosis etc. are also had to certain inhibitory action.Artemisia capillaris volatile oil can suppress the growth of skin disease pathogenic fungi in vitro, and its antimycotic active ingredient is capillin.In prior art, Artemisia capillaris nature and flavor are sweet, flat to be slightly cold, nontoxic, mainly as a kind of medicinal material, oral as main take decoction.
When concrete use, apply in the topsoil that is subject to root-knot nematode infection (root-knot nematode lives in apart from surface soil 5~25cm place) being prepared into pulverous Artemisia capillaris (powder pesticide), fully mix with it, can play the effect of control root-knot nematode.The concrete usage amount of Artemisia capillaris (powder pesticide) can be determined according to the actual conditions of root-knot nematode amount in soil.
Verification experimental verification effect is as following table 1:
Test soil reaches infectious effect by sterilizing soil inoculation nematode.
Specific practice is for example, to separate root-knot nematode egg capsule from the serious facilities vegetable of catching an illness (tomato) root, egg capsule adds the second instar larvae (J2) that clear water is hatched at 26 ℃, before inoculation, be concentrated into 1000/ml of second instar larvae (J2), divide and be inoculated in for 2 times in sterilizing soil, each 3000, inoculation interval 7d.
Average disease index, carries out statistical counting according to root-knot nematode harm plant infection classification and root knot index.Computing formula is: disease index (%)=100 × ∑ (root knot numbers at different levels × typical values at different levels)/(investigating total root knot number × highest typical value).
The computing formula of control efficiency: control efficiency (%)=(contrast nematode population-processing nematode population)/contrast nematode population × 100%.
Above-mentioned computing formula, those skilled in the art can with reference to Liu Weizhi chief editor's " plant nematology investigative technique " (Liaoning science tech publishing house. Shenyang .1995).
Table 1 unit: g/10kg
? Artemisia capillaris (g) Average disease index (%) Control efficiency (%)
Example 1 40 14.65 79.60
Example 2 20 18.47 74.28
Example 3 10 21.33 70.30
Example 4 40 15.29 78.71
Example 5 20 20.11 72.00
Example 6 10 25.98 63.83
CK(control group) ? 71.82
Upper table explanation, Artemisia capillaris has good preventive and therapeutic effect to root-knot nematode, meets actual requirement completely.And according to the biological property of root-knot nematode, in practical operation, existing any agricultural chemicals all can not very kill root-knot nematode, is not endangering under the prerequisite of facilities vegetable normal growth, root-knot nematode need to be controlled in the scope of some.And the usage amount of Artemisia capillaris is also not The more the better, table 1 also shows, even if the usage amount of Artemisia capillaris is doubled, the control efficiency of root-knot nematode is only slightly to improve.So, peasant household can, according to the specific requirement of oneself, determine the usage amount of Artemisia capillaris.
A kind of method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, as follows: above-mentioned botanical pesticide is applied in soil equably, then the quicklime after pulverizing is applied in above-mentioned soil again equably, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5; Or, after above-mentioned botanical pesticide is evenly mixed with the quicklime after pulverizing, then applying equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5.
Verification experimental verification effect is as following table 2:
Table 2 unit: g/10kg
? Artemisia capillaris/quicklime (g) Average disease index (%) Control efficiency (%)
Example 1 40/0.4 16.49 78.41
Example 2 20/0.2 18.31 76.02
Example 3 10/0.1 21.55 71.78
Example 4 40/0.4 17.70 76.82
Example 5 20/0.2 19.95 73.88
Example 6 10/0.1 24.92 67.37
CK(control group) ? 76.37
Upper table explanation, said method has good preventive and therapeutic effect to root-knot nematode, meets actual requirement completely.
The main purpose that adds quicklime is the pH value that regulates soil.Only have just easy infection root-knot nematode of acid ground, because root-knot nematode is especially active in Acid soil (pH value is below 5), reproduction speed is fast, larger to the harm of facilities vegetable afterwards.Infect the more serious soil of rank for root knot nematode disease so, that its pH value is is acid, and (pH value can reach 2 left and right when serious, when more serious conventionally also between 4~5), add after quicklime, make the pH value of soil be elevated to the pH value of facilities vegetable suitable growth, make the living environment of root-knot nematode worsen simultaneously, be conducive to prevent and treat root knot nematode disease.Easily infect the vegetables of root knot nematode disease and the pH value scope of suitable growth thereof as follows: cucumber 5.5~6.7; Tomato 5.2~6.7; Eggplant 6.8~7.3; Capsicum 6.0~6.6; Wild cabbage 5.5~6.7; Spinach 6.0~7.3; Celery 5.5~6.3; Leek 6.0~6.8; Cauliflower 6.0~6.7; Chinese cabbage 6.0~6.8.So the addition of quicklime is that the pH value of soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5, makes vegetables suitable growth, is unfavorable for the existence of root-knot nematode simultaneously.Even if soil infection has root-knot nematode, still, the optimum range of the pH value of soil in vegetable growth, does not need to add quicklime.And the ratio of Artemisia capillaris and quicklime is that 20:1 is only an example in table 2, the addition of quicklime depends on the pH value of soil in actual conditions, there is no inevitable contacting with the addition of Artemisia capillaris.In addition, the pH value that detects soil has been known technology, and those skilled in the art all can realize, so, determine that the addition of quicklime does not exist hell and high water.
Preferably, in above-mentioned method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, can also include filler white carbon, method is as follows: after described botanical pesticide, quicklime, filler white carbon mixes, then apply equably in soil.
Verification experimental verification effect is as following table 3:
Table 3 unit: kg/ mu
? Artemisia capillaris/quicklime/white carbon (kg) Average disease index (%) Control efficiency (%)
Example 1 80/4/16 10.68 85.17
Example 2 40/2/8 15.16 79.29
Example 3 20/1/4 23.87 67.40
CK(control group) ? 73.21
Upper table explanation, said method has good preventive and therapeutic effect to root-knot nematode, meets actual requirement completely.
Adding white carbon is only the effect of playing filler, Artemisia capillaris is fully mixed with quicklime, in the time applying said mixture, active ingredient Artemisia capillaris in agricultural chemicals and quicklime also can mix well with soil, reduce to greatest extent the waste of agricultural chemicals and quicklime, reduce costs, raise the efficiency.In addition, the object that Artemisia capillaris, quicklime powder is broken to powder is also under the prerequisite that reaches same control efficiency, saves their usage amount, enhances productivity, cost-saving.
In addition, also agricultural chemicals can be prepared into liquor, method is as follows: after pulverous Artemisia capillaris is mixed with the ratio of 50% ethanol take weight part ratio as 1:2, leave standstill 24h, form liquid after then adding the water of 100 weight portions.The object that adds ethanol and standing 24h is the active ingredient as far as possible extracting in Artemisia capillaris, for example capillin.
When concrete use, take the tomato of planting as example, infect the more serious soil of rank for root-knot nematode, after first botanical pesticide, quicklime, white carbon being mixed, apply equably again in soil, then before tomato field planting, every cave is spilt and is executed above-mentioned liquor agricultural chemicals 10ml, field planting tomato after half an hour.
Verification experimental verification effect is as following table 4:
Table 4 unit: g/10kg
? Artemisia capillaris/quicklime (g) Average disease index (%) Control efficiency (%)
Example 1 40/2 10.56 87.04
Example 2 20/1 10.24 87.43
Example 3 10/0.5 11.34 86.08
Example 4 40/2 16.07 80.27
Example 5 20/1 14.81 81.82
Example 6 10/0.5 10.19 67.37
CK(control group) ? 81.46
Upper table explanation, said method infects the more serious soil of rank to root knot nematode disease and has good preventive and therapeutic effect.
In addition, infect the soil of rank especially severe for root knot nematode disease, except said method, also can be watered 10kg ratio in Artemisia capillaris powder 100g again at tomato bud stage, water with water.
Verification experimental verification effect is as following table 5:
Table 5 unit: g/10kg
? Artemisia capillaris/quicklime (g) Average disease index (%) Control efficiency (%)
Example 1 40/2 8.21 90.69
Example 2 20/1 6.30 92.86
Example 3 10/0.5 11.00 87.53
Example 4 40/2 12.57 85.75
Example 5 20/1 15.62 82.29
Example 6 10/0.5 16.44 81.36
CK(control group) ? 88.19
Upper table explanation, the soil that said method infects rank especially severe to root knot nematode disease has good preventive and therapeutic effect.
Note: the example 1,2,3 in table 1,2,4,5 is Artemisia capillaris and is prepared from through oven method; Example 4,5,6 in table 1,2,3,4,5 is Artemisia capillaris and forms through the dry process of naturally drying in the air.
Advantage of the present invention is as follows:
(1), main raw material(s) Artemisia capillaris wild resource is abundant, with low cost, manufacture craft is simple, convenient, is easy to spread and uses.
(2), the root-knot nematode quantity of using rear facilities vegetable obviously reduces, control efficiency ideal.
(3), add less important raw material quicklime, with low cost, contribute to improve sick soil pH value, further improve the control efficiency of root-knot nematode.
(4), that the present invention uses the rear retention time is long, harmless to people and animals, Crop securify, not contaminated soil and underground water.
(5) the present invention can improve soil physico-chemical property, and balance C/N ratio, uses the stalk that C/N ratio is high, can promote the growth of facilities vegetable root.
(6), multiple application process of the present invention combine use, year after year use, better effects if, has a extensive future.
In the life cycle of root-knot nematode, root-knot nematode a period of time lives in soil, and a period of time lives with the root of facilities vegetable, the normal growth of harm facilities vegetable.The present invention is reasonable in design, when actual use, can gradation use better effects if.The stage of utilizing the larva of root-knot nematode to live in soil, apply botanical pesticide of the present invention or use method of the present invention, the not only root knot nematode disease of facility for prevention and control vegetables effectively, and solved the uneasy congruent series of problems of environmental pollution, food that current nematocide used brings.
Embodiment
Below specific embodiments of the invention are elaborated.
embodiment 1
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, pulverize after drying 20~24h under 60-70 ℃ of condition.
When concrete enforcement, baking temperature can be selected 60 ℃, 63 ℃, 65 ℃, 67 ℃, 70 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 22h, 24h etc.According to the order of severity of root-knot nematode in soil, specifically determine the usage amount of botanical pesticide, for example 35g/10kg(soil).
embodiment 2
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, naturally dry to water content and pulverize after 10%-15%.
When concrete enforcement, naturally dry rear water content and can be 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15% etc.According to the order of severity of root-knot nematode in soil, specifically determine the usage amount of botanical pesticide, for example 50g/10kg(soil).
embodiment 3
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, naturally dry the powder that was crushed to 325 mesh sieves to water content after 10%-15%.
When concrete enforcement, naturally dry rear water content and can be 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15% etc.According to the order of severity of root-knot nematode in soil, specifically determine the usage amount of botanical pesticide, for example 25g/10kg(soil).
embodiment 4
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, be crushed to the powder of 325 mesh sieves under 60-70 ℃ of condition after drying 20~24h.
When concrete enforcement, baking temperature can be selected 60 ℃, 61 ℃, 64 ℃, 68 ℃, 70 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 21h, 23h, 24h etc.According to the order of severity of root-knot nematode in soil, specifically determine the usage amount of botanical pesticide, for example 45g/10kg(soil).
embodiment 5
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, be crushed to the powder of 325 mesh sieves under 60-70 ℃ of condition after drying 20~24h.After described powder mixes with the ratio of 50% ethanol take weight part ratio as 1:2, leave standstill 24h, form liquid after then adding the water of 100 weight portions.
When concrete enforcement, baking temperature can be selected 60 ℃, 62 ℃, 63 ℃, 66 ℃, 70 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 22h, 23h, 24h etc.
embodiment 6
A botanical pesticide of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, comprises Artemisia capillaris, by the following method preparation: pluck the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris in early April, naturally dry the powder that was crushed to 325 mesh sieves to water content after 10%-15%.After described powder mixes with the ratio of 50% ethanol take weight part ratio as 1:2, leave standstill 24h, form liquid after then adding the water of 100 weight portions.
When concrete enforcement, naturally dry rear water content and can be 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15% etc.
embodiment 7
A kind of method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, as follows: botanical pesticide of the present invention is applied in soil equably, then the quicklime after pulverizing is applied in above-mentioned soil again equably, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5.
When concrete enforcement, the addition of quicklime can be adjusted to the pH value of above-mentioned soil 5.5,6.0,6.5 etc.
embodiment 8
A method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease is as follows: after botanical pesticide of the present invention is mixed with the quicklime after pulverizing, then apply equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5.Described quicklime was crushed to the powder of 100 mesh sieves dry 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions after.
When concrete enforcement, the drying condition of quicklime can be selected 40 ℃, 43 ℃, 45 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 22h, 24h etc.The addition of quicklime can be adjusted to the pH value of above-mentioned soil 5.5,5.7,6.2,6.5 etc.
embodiment 9
A kind of method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, it is as follows: after botanical pesticide of the present invention, quicklime, filler white carbon are mixed, apply equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5 again.Described white carbon is dried 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions.Described quicklime was crushed to the powder of 100 mesh sieves dry 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions after.
When concrete enforcement, the drying condition of quicklime can be selected 40 ℃, 41,42 ℃, 45 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 23h, 24h etc.The addition of quicklime can be adjusted to the pH value of above-mentioned soil 5.5,5.6,6.1,6.5 etc.The drying condition of white carbon can be selected 40 ℃, 42 ℃, 45 ℃ etc., and can select drying time such as 20h, 23h, 24h etc.
embodiment 10
Infect the more serious soil of rank for root-knot nematode, the method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease is as follows: after botanical pesticide of the present invention, quicklime, filler white carbon are mixed, apply equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5 again.Before crops field planting, every cave is spilt and is executed described liquor botanical pesticide 10ml, the crops of planting after half an hour.
When concrete enforcement, the addition of quicklime can be adjusted to the pH value of above-mentioned soil 5.5,5.7,6.4,6.5 etc.
embodiment 11
Infect the soil of rank especially severe for root-knot nematode, the method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease is as follows: after botanical pesticide of the present invention, quicklime, filler white carbon are mixed, apply equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5 again.Before crops field planting, every cave is spilt and is executed described liquor botanical pesticide 10ml, the crops of planting after half an hour.Crops, during in bud stage, the ratio that is watered 10kg in described botanical pesticide 100g is watered with water.
When concrete enforcement, described white carbon is dried 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions.Described quicklime was crushed to the powder of 100 mesh sieves dry 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions after.

Claims (3)

1. a method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease, is characterized in that:
First, preparation prevents and treats the pulvis botanical pesticide of root knot nematode disease, described pulvis botanical pesticide comprises Artemisia capillaris, preparation by the following method: the young young stem and leaf of plucking Artemisia capillaris in early April, the young young stem and leaf of Artemisia capillaris is dried 20~24h or is naturally dried to water content 10%~15% under 60~70 ℃ of conditions, and crushed after being dried is to the powder of crossing 325 mesh sieves;
Secondly, preparation prevents and treats the liquor botanical pesticide of root knot nematode disease, by the following method preparation: described pulvis botanical pesticide mixes rear standing 24h with the ratio of 50% ethanol take weight part ratio as 1:2, forms liquid after then adding the water of 100 weight portions;
Afterwards, described pulvis botanical pesticide is applied in soil equably, then the quicklime after pulverizing is applied in above-mentioned soil again equably, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5; Or, after described pulvis botanical pesticide is evenly mixed with quicklime, filler white carbon after pulverizing, then applying equably in soil, the addition of described quicklime is that the pH value of above-mentioned soil is adjusted to 5.5~6.5;
Before crops field planting, every cave is spilt and is executed described liquor botanical pesticide 10ml, the crops of planting after half an hour;
Crops, during in bud stage, the ratio that is watered 10kg in described pulvis botanical pesticide 100g is watered with water.
2. method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described quicklime was crushed to the powder of 100 mesh sieves dry 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions after.
3. method of preventing and treating root knot nematode disease according to claim 2, is characterized in that: described white carbon is dried 20~24h under 40~45 ℃ of conditions.
CN201210482605.XA 2012-11-26 2012-11-26 Botanical pesticide for preventing and treating root knot nematode disease and method thereof Expired - Fee Related CN102960372B (en)

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CN113248308A (en) * 2021-05-20 2021-08-13 施可丰化工股份有限公司 Microbial agent for effectively preventing and treating root knot nematode disease and preparation method thereof
CN113248308B (en) * 2021-05-20 2022-07-01 施可丰化工股份有限公司 Microbial agent for effectively preventing and treating root knot nematode disease and preparation method thereof

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