CN102922147A - Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system - Google Patents

Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102922147A
CN102922147A CN2012104017360A CN201210401736A CN102922147A CN 102922147 A CN102922147 A CN 102922147A CN 2012104017360 A CN2012104017360 A CN 2012104017360A CN 201210401736 A CN201210401736 A CN 201210401736A CN 102922147 A CN102922147 A CN 102922147A
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welding
stress
reference point
distance measuring
mobile robot
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CN2012104017360A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102922147B (en
Inventor
华亮
顾菊平
丁立军
张华�
周磊
吴晓
张新松
俞钶安
赵振东
张齐
刘雨晴
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南通大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system, which comprises mobile welding equipment, a welding stress removal moving robot, a synchronous motor and two reflection-type distance measuring sensors, wherein the mobile welding equipment is used for welding a welding seam, the welding stress removal moving robot is used for removing welding stress, the synchronous motor is fixedly arranged outside the welding seam and takes the axis of a synchronous motor rotation shaft as a reference point, the two reflection-type distance measuring sensors are fixed on a motor shaft, coaxially rotates with the motor and are arranged at intervals, and reflecting sheets are glued at a welding initial point, a welding nozzle of the mobile welding equipment and the operating tail end of the welding stress removal moving robot. The constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system is simple in structure, high in automation and high in post-welding seam tracking precision, and is free from influence of welding slag or welding defect on a post-welding seam.

Description

Constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of welding stress and eliminate automatic control system, belong to sensing and observation and control technology field.

Background technology

In large-sized structural parts welding, plate sheet welding, different-metal material welding, high temperature alloy welding, and in fields such as high accuracy special equipment welding, welding deformation need be effectively controlled, otherwise can be influential to weldment size and profile, and can reduce the bearing capacity of structure.As in the aluminium alloy shipbuilding industry, sheet material is large owing to heat input larger in the welding process deforms, property of welded joint is relatively poor.When building hull, approximately have 25% workload be to deck of boat shaping and beat flat, to meet the requirements of flatness and curvature, in order to the deck of boat can be fixed together.This has not only affected the efficient that boats and ships are produced, and greatly reduces the quality of ship.Even also there is the welding deformation problem in the laser weld that the heat input is little, distortion is little.Welding stress is the main cause of welding deformation.Eliminate welding stress, the method for control welding deformation is a lot, and several after welding treatment methods comparatively commonly used have that ultrasonic impact, weld toe ground, shot-peening, hammering, TIG are molten repaiies, uses low transformation temperature welding rod method etc. in engineering at present.With weldering or postwelding impact, hammering, to roll be a kind of effective way that reduces welding stress, prevents welding deformation.Wherein the ultrasonic impact technology is a kind of harmful residual tension of effective elimination parts surface or weld metal zone of novelty, the method for the useful compression of introduction, compares its advantages of other method.The powerful energy of ultrasonic impact equipment utilization promote impact head with per second approximately 20,000 times frequency impact metal object surface, high frequency, efficient and focus on lower macro-energy and make the larger compressive plastic deformation of metal surface generation; Ultrasonic impact has changed original stress field simultaneously, produces useful compression; Again rapidly cooling of the very fast rising of metallic surface temperature changes top layer, active region metal structure under the high energy impact events, and impact site is strengthened.

Though developed both at home and abroad the travelling car carrying with weldering/post-weld stress abatement apparatus, do not possess the long weld seam of postwelding, bending weld seam automatic tracking function.Make with weldering/post-weld stress abatement apparatus and can automatically implement operation, need possess the postwelding welding line tracking function.Advanced postwelding weld joint tracking all uses in weldquality detects, the method of using adopts the mode of machine vision more, see document (Lu Changfu. based on postwelding detection technique research [D] the .[master thesis of laser-vision sensing]. Harbin: Harbin Institute of Technology, college of materials science and engineering, 2007.7.; Jean-Paul Boillot, Koichi Uota, Etienne Berthiaume, et al.Tracking and inspection for laser welding[J] .Proceedingof SPIE, 2002 (4): 165-170.), because postwelding groove characteristic disappear, weld defect, residual solder flux welding slag and splash etc. and all directly to have influence on vision-based detection.Explore a kind of precision high, be not subjected to weld joint tracking mode behind the full automatic welding that the postwelding operating mode affects, and be applied to will have very strong practical value in the post-weld stress elimination system.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of real time record welding tip motion track, the constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking that the stress cancel job is effective and residual stress are eliminated system.

Technical solution of the present invention is:

A kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment that butt welded seam welds, eliminating welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot, a synchronous motor fixed placement is outside weld seam, and is as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors are fixed on the motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminate mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment and all post reflector plate, cooperate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end; In system's running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus welding tip obtained with respect to the motion track of reference point; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate mobile robot's operation end with respect to the motion track of reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and rectify a deviation by control system.

At the welding initial point up and down two reflector plates are set, and the segment distance of being separated by between two reflector plates; A reflector plate center on the reflector plate center at welding tip place, the welding initial point and a distance measuring sensor are on same level; Welding stress is eliminated reflector plate center, another reflector plate center on the welding initial point and another distance measuring sensor of mobile robot's operation end on same level.

The distance measuring sensor setting height(from bottom) is higher than welding tip, adopts modulating frequency to avoid the interference of arc light and plasma resonance.

Eliminate the mobile robot at welding stress the pose detecting sensor is installed, obtain arbitrary moment robot with respect to the pose of reference point, rectify a deviation by control system.

Welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot and is adopted wheeled mobile robot as body, by the differential realization of two-wheeled robot location coarse positioning, adopts crosshead shoe as stress cancel job end Locating driver mechanism, realizes the precision positioning of stress cancel job end.

The present invention is simple in structure, automaticity is high, postwelding weld joint tracking precision is high, is not subjected to welding slag or weld defect on the impact of postwelding weld joint tracking.The Department of Automation of the making a general survey of domestic existing welding field equipment of unifying, the design object unit of there is no that the present invention carries realizes.

The present invention with the constant speed rotary motor as the reference position, the method real time record welding tip motion track that adopts range measurement and angular surveying (segmentation of high-frequency impulse linear interpolation is adopted in angular surveying) to combine, and the adjustment of control welding stress elimination mobile robot pose, implement the stress cancel job along the welding tip track.

Description of drawings

The invention will be further described below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.

Fig. 1 is that constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress are eliminated system construction drawing.

Fig. 2 is in of the present invention kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and the residual stress elimination system, and welding stress is eliminated the Mobile Robot Control System structure chart.

Fig. 3 is in constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and the residual stress elimination system, postwelding seam tracking system measuring principle top view sketch.

Fig. 4 is in constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and the residual stress elimination system, postwelding seam tracking system measuring principle sequential chart.

The specific embodiment

A kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment 1 that butt welded seam welds, eliminating welding stress is eliminated mobile robot 2, synchronous motor 3 fixed placement are outside weld seam, and are as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors 4,5 are fixed on the motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminating mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment, to post respectively reflector plate 6(be reflector plate C), 7(is reflector plate D), 8(is reflector plate A), 9(is reflector plate B), cooperate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end; In system's running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus welding tip obtained with respect to the motion track of reference point; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate mobile robot's operation end with respect to the motion track of reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and rectify a deviation by control system.Welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot and is adopted wheeled mobile robot as body, by the differential realization of two-wheeled robot location coarse positioning, adopts crosshead shoe as stress cancel job end Locating driver mechanism, realizes the precision positioning of stress cancel job end.

Specific as follows: take two dimensional surface bending or straight weld as example, as shown in Figure 1.Synchronous motor is wherein arranged, distance measuring sensor F, distance measuring sensor E, reflector plate A, B, C, D, Mobile welding equipment (containing welding tip), stress are eliminated mobile robot's (contain electronic compass, stress abatement apparatus operation end can adopt electromagnetic hammer or ultrasonic impact first-class).Distance measuring sensor E, F are fixed on the motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between E, F.E, F and corresponding reflector plate are avoided the phase mutual interference by being installed in differing heights, and adopt laser or the infrared light of different modulating frequency to avoid interference.Weld seam is planar-two-dimensional weld seam mixing, and the black interstitial wire is welding line, and all the other are welding line not.A mark post is holded up at welding starting point place, and reflector plate C, D are fixed on the mark post, the segment distance of being separated by between C, D.The center of reflector plate A, C and distance measuring sensor F when distance measuring sensor F and reflector plate A, C are just relative, can measure the distance of FA, FC on a horizontal plane.The center of reflector plate B, D and distance measuring sensor E when distance measuring sensor E and reflector plate B, D are just relative, can measure the distance of EB, ED on a horizontal plane.For avoiding the interference such as arc light in the laser beam welding, the distance measuring sensor setting height(from bottom) is higher than welding tip, and adopts the specific modulation frequency to avoid the interference of arc light and plasma resonance.

For the purpose of easy analysis, draw the measuring principle diagrammatic top view shown in 3.If synchronous motor drives distance measuring sensor E, F and turns clockwise, transfer point A moves in the counterclockwise direction.Transfer point A initial position is A0, and welding equipment is along in the weld movement process, the continuous high-speed rotating scanning of distance measuring sensor.

Can obtain the distance L 0 that A0 point and F are ordered.If when the light that F sends process C point and A0 point, can export two high level pulses by interface circuit and see Fig. 4.If when initial, welding tip is still in A0 place, position, starting phase angle ∠ CFA 0Be designated as α 0Start the high-frequency impulse counting during light process A, stop counting when arriving C.If motor speed is constant, and rotate that to fill high-frequency impulse in the circle be N.And the high-frequency impulse that can record angle representative between A0 and C by controller is counted N0, then can calculate:

The L that in like manner can survey 1, ∠ CFA 1, L 2, ∠ CFA 2Therefore welding tip is with respect to variable in distance track (L1, L2, the L3 of reference position under can real time record ...) and angle variation track (∠ CFA 0, ∠ CFA 1, ∠ CFA 2), obtain the track (prerequisite is to be defaulted as welding tip to have higher weld joint tracking precision) at weld seam center by match.

Adopt said method, adopt sensor E to cooperate with reflector plate B, D, detect in real time the position of stress abatement apparatus operation end, can obtain stress abatement apparatus operation end with respect to variable in distance track and the angle variation track of reference position.The track of stress abatement apparatus operation end orbit and welding tip is compared, can obtain the angle and distance (taking the reference position as benchmark) that stress abatement apparatus operation end departs from the weld seam center.Eliminate the mobile robot at stress simultaneously electronic compass is installed, can obtain robot with respect to the pose of reference position, this moment can be by the motion control to robot, reduce the deviation of robot current location and match track, make stress abatement apparatus operation end aim at all the time weld seam and (when adopting the hammering mode, by the electromagnetic hammer tup postwelding still is in the toe of weld of the condition of high temperature and the hammer force that the weld metal zone metal applies certain frequency.When adopting ultrasonic impact, realize that by the ultrasonic impact head toe of weld or full welding bead cover type impact.So the motion track of stress abatement apparatus operation end, actually along the weld seam centrode, or the toe of weld track, decide on concrete process of eliminating stress.)

Constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress are eliminated system, and under the laser weld operating mode, E, F can adopt the less infrared distance sensor of range.Because the cooling velocity of weld metal is faster than normal welding during Laser Welding, can reach 106 ℃/s, welding gun and stress abatement apparatus distance can be nearer, can implement the processing such as hammering, impact after the short time later in welding.Under other welding manners, E, F can adopt and can adopt laser sensor, follow the tracks of on a large scale to realize long weld seam.

Claims (5)

1. a constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment that butt welded seam welds, eliminating welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot, a synchronous motor fixed placement is outside weld seam, and is as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors are fixed on the motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminate mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment and all post reflector plate, cooperate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and the welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end; In system's running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus welding tip obtained with respect to the motion track of reference point; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate mobile robot's operation end with respect to the motion track of reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and rectify a deviation by control system.
2. constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking according to claim 1 and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: at the welding initial point up and down two reflector plates are set, and the segment distance of being separated by between two reflector plates; A reflector plate center on the reflector plate center at welding tip place, the welding initial point and a distance measuring sensor are on same level; Welding stress is eliminated reflector plate center, another reflector plate center on the welding initial point and another distance measuring sensor of mobile robot's operation end on same level.
3. constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking according to claim 1 and 2 and residual stress are eliminated system, and it is characterized in that: the distance measuring sensor setting height(from bottom) is higher than welding tip, adopt modulating frequency to avoid the interference of arc light and plasma resonance.
4. constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking according to claim 1 and 2 and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: eliminate the mobile robot at welding stress the pose detecting sensor is installed, obtain arbitrary moment robot with respect to the pose of reference point, rectify a deviation by control system.
5. constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking according to claim 1 and 2 and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot and is adopted wheeled mobile robot as body, by the differential realization of two-wheeled robot location coarse positioning, adopt crosshead shoe as stress cancel job end Locating driver mechanism, realize the precision positioning of stress cancel job end.
CN 201210401736 2012-10-19 2012-10-19 Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system CN102922147B (en)

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CN103866112A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-06-18 北京理工大学 Residual stress eliminating device based on high-energy acoustic and magnetic coupling principle
CN104384734A (en) * 2014-11-20 2015-03-04 南通大学 Full-automatic postwelding seam tracking and ultrasonic peening system
CN106191420A (en) * 2016-08-09 2016-12-07 南通大学 Postwelding impact manipulator trajectory tracking TT&C system
CN106563913A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-04-19 浙江大学宁波理工学院 Die repairing hammering stress eliminating device and method
CN107045718A (en) * 2017-03-24 2017-08-15 南通大学 Postwelding weld seam three-dimensional is followed the trail of and stress processing method
CN107192765A (en) * 2017-06-08 2017-09-22 南通大学 Laser locating apparatus based on the tracking of postwelding weld seam three-dimensional and stress handling machine people
CN108118139A (en) * 2017-12-26 2018-06-05 南通大学 Intelligent weld stress handles impact device

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CN103866112A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-06-18 北京理工大学 Residual stress eliminating device based on high-energy acoustic and magnetic coupling principle
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CN107045718A (en) * 2017-03-24 2017-08-15 南通大学 Postwelding weld seam three-dimensional is followed the trail of and stress processing method
CN107192765A (en) * 2017-06-08 2017-09-22 南通大学 Laser locating apparatus based on the tracking of postwelding weld seam three-dimensional and stress handling machine people
CN108118139A (en) * 2017-12-26 2018-06-05 南通大学 Intelligent weld stress handles impact device

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