CN102922147B - Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system - Google Patents

Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102922147B
CN102922147B CN 201210401736 CN201210401736A CN102922147B CN 102922147 B CN102922147 B CN 102922147B CN 201210401736 CN201210401736 CN 201210401736 CN 201210401736 A CN201210401736 A CN 201210401736A CN 102922147 B CN102922147 B CN 102922147B
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welding
reference point
stress
distance measuring
distance
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CN 201210401736
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102922147A (en
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华亮
顾菊平
丁立军
张华�
周磊
吴晓
张新松
俞钶安
赵振东
张齐
刘雨晴
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南通大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system, which comprises mobile welding equipment, a welding stress removal moving robot, a synchronous motor and two reflection-type distance measuring sensors, wherein the mobile welding equipment is used for welding a welding seam, the welding stress removal moving robot is used for removing welding stress, the synchronous motor is fixedly arranged outside the welding seam and takes the axis of a synchronous motor rotation shaft as a reference point, the two reflection-type distance measuring sensors are fixed on a motor shaft, coaxially rotates with the motor and are arranged at intervals, and reflecting sheets are glued at a welding initial point, a welding nozzle of the mobile welding equipment and the operating tail end of the welding stress removal moving robot. The constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system is simple in structure, high in automation and high in post-welding seam tracking precision, and is free from influence of welding slag or welding defect on a post-welding seam.

Description

Constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of welding stress and eliminate automatic control system, belong to sensing and observation and control technology field.

Background technology

In large-sized structural parts welding, plate sheet welding, different-metal material welding, high temperature alloy welding, and in fields such as high accuracy special equipment welding, welding deformation need be effectively controlled, otherwise can be influential to weldment size and profile, and can reduce the bearing capacity of structure.As in the aluminium alloy shipbuilding industry, sheet material is large because heat input larger in welding process deforms, property of welded joint is poor.When building hull, approximately have 25% workload be to deck of boat shaping and beat flat, to meet the requirements of flatness and curvature, in order to the deck of boat can be fixed together.This has not only affected the efficiency that boats and ships are produced, and greatly reduces the quality of ship.Even heat input is little, be out of shape little laser weld, also there is the welding deformation problem.Welding stress is the main cause of welding deformation.Eliminate welding stress, the method for controlling welding deformation is a lot, and in engineering, several after welding treatment methods comparatively commonly used have that ultrasonic impact, weld toe ground, shot-peening, hammering, TIG are molten repaiies, applies low transformation temperature welding rod method etc. at present.With weldering or postwelding impact, hammering, to roll be a kind of effective way that reduces welding stress, prevents welding deformation.Wherein the ultrasonic impact technology is the harmful residual tension in a kind of effective elimination parts surface of novelty or weld metal zone, introduces the method for useful compression, compares its advantages of other method.The powerful energy of ultrasonic impact equipment utilization promote impact head with per second approximately the frequency of 20,000 times impact metal object surface, high frequency, efficient and focus on lower macro-energy and make the larger compressive plastic deformation of metal surface generation; Ultrasonic impact has changed original stress field simultaneously, produces useful compression; Under high energy impact events, the very fast rising of metallic surface temperature is cooling rapidly again, and top layer, active region metal structure is changed, and impact site is strengthened.

Though developed both at home and abroad the travelling car carrying with weldering/post-weld stress abatement apparatus, do not possess the long weld seam of postwelding, bending weld seam automatic tracking function.Make can automatically implement operation with weldering/post-weld stress abatement apparatus, need possess the postwelding welding line tracking function.Advanced postwelding weld joint tracking is all used in weldquality detects, the method of using adopts the mode of machine vision more, see document (Lu Changfu. postwelding detection technique research [D] the .[master thesis based on laser-vision sensing]. Harbin: Harbin Institute of Technology, college of materials science and engineering, 2007.7.; Jean-Paul Boillot, Koichi Uota, Etienne Berthiaume, et al.Tracking and inspection for laser welding[J] .Proceedingof SPIE, 2002 (4): 165-170.), due to postwelding groove characteristic disappear, weld defect, residual solder flux welding slag with splash etc. and all directly to have influence on vision-based detection.Explore that a kind of precision is high, weld joint tracking mode after the full automatic welding that not affected by the postwelding operating mode, and be applied to, in post-weld stress elimination system, will there is very strong practical value.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of real time record welding tip motion track, the constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking that the stress cancel job is effective and residual stress are eliminated system.

Technical solution of the present invention is:

A kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment that butt welded seam welded, eliminating welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot, a synchronous motor fixed placement is outside weld seam, as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors are fixed on motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminate mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment and all post reflector plate, coordinate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding stress are eliminated the distance between mobile robot's operation end; In the system running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus the motion track of welding tip with respect to reference point obtained; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate the motion track of mobile robot's operation end with respect to reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and be rectified a deviation by control system.

Upper and lower two reflector plates are set in welding on initial point, and the segment distance of being separated by between two reflector plates; A reflector plate center on the reflector plate center at welding tip place, welding initial point and a distance measuring sensor are on same level; Welding stress is eliminated reflector plate center, another reflector plate center on the welding initial point and another distance measuring sensor of mobile robot's operation end on same level.

The distance measuring sensor setting height(from bottom), higher than welding tip, adopts modulating frequency to avoid the interference of arc light and plasma resonance.

Eliminate on the mobile robot pose detecting sensor is installed at welding stress, obtain arbitrary moment robot with respect to the pose of reference point, rectified a deviation by control system.

Welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot and is adopted wheeled mobile robot as body, by the differential robot location's coarse positioning of realizing of two-wheeled, adopts crosshead shoe as stress cancel job end Locating driver mechanism, realizes the precision positioning of stress cancel job end.

The present invention is simple in structure, automaticity is high, postwelding weld joint tracking precision is high, is not subject to the impact on the postwelding weld joint tracking of welding slag or weld defect.The Department of Automation of the making a general survey of domestic existing welding field equipment of unifying, the design object unit of there is no that the present invention carries realizes.

The present invention is usingd the constant speed rotary motor as the reference position, the method real time record welding tip motion track that adopts range measurement and angular surveying (angular surveying adopts the segmentation of high-frequency impulse linear interpolation) to combine, and control welding stress and eliminate the adjustment of mobile robot's pose, implement the stress cancel job along the welding tip track.

The accompanying drawing explanation

Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described.

Fig. 1 is that constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress are eliminated system construction drawing.

Fig. 2 is in of the present invention kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress elimination system, and welding stress is eliminated the Mobile Robot Control System structure chart.

Fig. 3 is in constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress elimination system, postwelding seam tracking system measuring principle top view sketch.

Fig. 4 is in constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress elimination system, postwelding seam tracking system measuring principle sequential chart.

The specific embodiment

A kind of constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment 1 that butt welded seam welded, eliminating welding stress is eliminated mobile robot 2, synchronous motor 3 fixed placement are outside weld seam, as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors 4,5 are fixed on motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminating mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment, to post respectively reflector plate 6(be reflector plate C), 7(is reflector plate D), 8(is reflector plate A), 9(is reflector plate B), coordinate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding stress are eliminated the distance between mobile robot's operation end; In the system running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus the motion track of welding tip with respect to reference point obtained; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate the motion track of mobile robot's operation end with respect to reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and be rectified a deviation by control system.Welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot and is adopted wheeled mobile robot as body, by the differential robot location's coarse positioning of realizing of two-wheeled, adopts crosshead shoe as stress cancel job end Locating driver mechanism, realizes the precision positioning of stress cancel job end.

Specific as follows: as to take two dimensional surface bending or straight weld as example, as shown in Figure 1.Synchronous motor is wherein arranged, distance measuring sensor F, distance measuring sensor E, reflector plate A, B, C, D, Mobile welding equipment (containing welding tip), stress eliminate the mobile robot (containing electronic compass, stress abatement apparatus operation end can adopt electromagnetic hammer or ultrasonic impact first-class).Distance measuring sensor E, F are fixed on motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between E, F.E, F and corresponding reflector plate are avoided the phase mutual interference by being arranged on differing heights, and adopt laser or the infrared light of different modulating frequency to avoid interference.Weld seam is planar-two-dimensional weld seam mixing, and the black interstitial wire is welding line, and all the other are welding line not.A mark post is holded up in the welding starting point, and reflector plate C, D are fixed on mark post, the segment distance of being separated by between C, D.The center of reflector plate A, C and distance measuring sensor F, on a horizontal plane, when distance measuring sensor F and reflector plate A, C are just relative, can measure the distance of FA, FC.The center of reflector plate B, D and distance measuring sensor E, on a horizontal plane, when distance measuring sensor E and reflector plate B, D are just relative, can measure the distance of EB, ED.For avoiding the interference such as arc light in laser beam welding, the distance measuring sensor setting height(from bottom) is higher than welding tip, and employing specific modulation frequency is avoided the interference of arc light and plasma resonance.

For the purpose of easy analysis, draw the measuring principle diagrammatic top view as shown in 3.If synchronous motor drives distance measuring sensor E, F and turns clockwise, transfer point A moves in the counterclockwise direction.Transfer point A initial position is A0, and welding equipment is along in the weld movement process, the continuous high-speed rotating scanning of distance measuring sensor.

Can obtain the distance L 0 that A0 point and F are ordered.If, when the light that F sends process C point and A0 point, can export two high level pulses by interface circuit and see Fig. 4.If, when initial, welding tip is still in A0 place, position, starting phase angle ∠ CFA 0be designated as α 0.Start the high-frequency impulse counting during light process A, stop counting while arriving C.If motor speed is constant, and rotate in a circle that to fill high-frequency impulse be N.And the high-frequency impulse that can record angle representative between A0 and C by controller is counted N0, can calculate:

The L that in like manner can survey 1, ∠ CFA 1, L 2, ∠ CFA 2Therefore under can real time record, welding tip be with respect to variable in distance track (L1, L2, the L3 of reference position ...) and angle variation track (∠ CFA 0, ∠ CFA 1, ∠ CFA 2), obtain the track (prerequisite is to be defaulted as welding tip to have higher weld joint tracking precision) at weld seam center by matching.

Adopt said method, adopt sensor E to coordinate with reflector plate B, D, detect in real time the position of stress abatement apparatus operation end, can obtain variable in distance track and the angle variation track of stress abatement apparatus operation end with respect to reference position.The track of stress abatement apparatus operation end orbit and welding tip is compared, can obtain the angle and distance (take reference position as benchmark) that stress abatement apparatus operation end departs from the weld seam center.Eliminate on the mobile robot electronic compass is installed at stress simultaneously, can obtain the pose of robot with respect to reference position, now can be by the motion control to robot, reduce the deviation of robot current location and matching track, (when adopting the hammering mode, by the electromagnetic hammer tup, to postwelding, still the toe of weld in the condition of high temperature and weld metal zone metal apply the hammer force of certain frequency to make stress abatement apparatus operation end aim at all the time weld seam.When adopting ultrasonic impact, by the ultrasonic impact head, realize that toe of weld or full welding bead cover type impact.So the motion track of stress abatement apparatus operation end, actually along the weld seam centrode, or the toe of weld track, be depending on concrete process of eliminating stress.)

Constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking of the present invention and residual stress are eliminated system, and under the laser weld operating mode, E, F can adopt the infrared distance sensor that range is less.Because during Laser Welding, the cooling velocity of weld metal is faster than normal welding, can reach 106 ℃/s, welding gun and stress abatement apparatus distance can be nearer, in welding, can implement the processing such as hammering, impact after the short time later.Under other welding manners, E, F can adopt and can adopt laser sensor, to realize long weld seam, follow the tracks of on a large scale.

Claims (1)

1. a constant scanning locate mode postwelding weld joint tracking and residual stress are eliminated system, it is characterized in that: the welding stress of comprise Mobile welding equipment that butt welded seam welded, eliminating welding stress is eliminated the mobile robot, a synchronous motor fixed placement is outside weld seam, as a reference point with the synchronous motor rotating shaft core; Two reflective distance measuring sensors are fixed on motor shaft, with motor coaxle rotation, the segment distance of being separated by between two sensors; Eliminate mobile robot's operation end at welding tip place, the welding stress of welding initial point, Mobile welding equipment and all post reflector plate, coordinate range finding with above-mentioned distance measuring sensor, one of them distance measuring sensor detects respectively the distance between reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding tip, and another distance measuring sensor detects respectively reference point and welding initial point, reference point and welding stress are eliminated the distance between mobile robot's operation end; In the system running, motor is constant speed rotary ceaselessly, and distance measuring sensor constantly detects the distance of welding tip and reference point, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding initial point, the formed angle of welding transfer point, thus the motion track of welding tip with respect to reference point obtained; Distance measuring sensor detects the distance that welding stress is eliminated mobile robot's operation end and reference point in real time simultaneously, and take reference point as the center of circle, reference point, welding starting point, stress are eliminated the formed angle of transfer point, thereby obtain welding stress and eliminate the motion track of mobile robot's operation end with respect to reference point, above-mentioned two tracks are compared, can obtain welding stress elimination mobile robot operation end and depart from distance and the direction of welding line, and be rectified a deviation by control system; Upper and lower two reflector plates are set in welding on initial point, and the segment distance of being separated by between two reflector plates; A reflector plate center on the reflector plate center at welding tip place, welding initial point and a distance measuring sensor are on same level; Welding stress is eliminated reflector plate center, another reflector plate center on the welding initial point and another distance measuring sensor of mobile robot's operation end on same level.
CN 201210401736 2012-10-19 2012-10-19 Constant-speed scanning positioning type post-welding seam tracking and residual stress removal system CN102922147B (en)

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CN201310341420.1A Division CN103386554B (en) 2012-10-19 2012-10-19 Tracking system for movable welding line stress eliminating robot

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CN103866112A (en) * 2014-03-18 2014-06-18 北京理工大学 Residual stress eliminating device based on high-energy acoustic and magnetic coupling principle
CN104384734B (en) * 2014-11-20 2016-08-17 南通大学 Weld joint tracking and ultrasonic impact system after full automatic welding
CN107964585B (en) * 2016-08-09 2019-02-12 南通大学 Robot trajectory control system
CN106563913B (en) * 2016-11-10 2018-09-18 浙江大学宁波理工学院 Stress apparatus and method are eliminated in mould repair hammering
CN107045718A (en) * 2017-03-24 2017-08-15 南通大学 Postwelding weld seam three-dimensional is followed the trail of and stress processing method
CN107192765A (en) * 2017-06-08 2017-09-22 南通大学 Laser locating apparatus based on the tracking of postwelding weld seam three-dimensional and stress handling machine people
CN109706308A (en) * 2017-12-26 2019-05-03 南通大学 Intelligent after welding treatment equipment

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