CN102857468B - SC-FDE (single carrier with frequency-domain equalization) system based on MAP (maximum a posterior) equalization and construction method of pilot frequency structure therein - Google Patents

SC-FDE (single carrier with frequency-domain equalization) system based on MAP (maximum a posterior) equalization and construction method of pilot frequency structure therein Download PDF

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CN102857468B
CN102857468B CN201210344223.0A CN201210344223A CN102857468B CN 102857468 B CN102857468 B CN 102857468B CN 201210344223 A CN201210344223 A CN 201210344223A CN 102857468 B CN102857468 B CN 102857468B
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channel
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map
formula
fde
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CN102857468A (en
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谭学治
李枫
王丽
李秀华
贾敏
迟永钢
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses to an SC-FDE system based on MAP equalization and a construction method of a pilot frequency structure in the SC-FDE system based on the MAP equalization, relates to the SC-FDE system and the construction method of the pilot frequency structure in the SC-FDE system, and is used for solving the problems of high peak-to-average ratio of signals emitted by an OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system and sensitivity on a frequency offset and a phase noise. A mapping signal input end of a mapping unit is connected with a signal output end of a signal generator, and a modulation signal output end of a modulator is connected with the signal input end of a signal channel; the signal output end of the signal channel is connected with the signal input end of a Fourier transform module; a transformation signal output end of the Fourier transform module is connected with a transformation signal input end of a signal channel estimating and balancing unit; the signal output end of the signal channel estimating and balancing unit is connected with the signal input end of the Fourier transform module; a demodulation output end of a demodulator is connected with a demodulation signal input end of a decoder; and a decoding signal output end of the decoder is connected with a decoding signal input end of a judging unit. According to the SC-FDE system based on the MAP equalization and the construction method of the pilot frequency structure in the SC-FDE system based on the MAP equalization, a multipath effect of a single carrier system is eliminated.

Description

Based on the construction method of pilot configuration in the SC-FDE system of MAP equilibrium and this system
Technical field
The present invention relates to pilot configuration construction method in SC-FDE system and this system.
Background technology
The pilot configuration of communication system, also can be described as frame structure, the formation scheme of data in namely transmitting.As Fig. 1, general pilot configuration comprises three parts, CP (Cyclic Prefixed), pilot tone and data.CP is Cyclic Prefix, and its effect is for resisting multidiameter delay, normally the final stage of frame data is copied to whole frame foremost.The length of CP will be determined according to channel conditions, is usually greater than maximum multidiameter delay long, and such guarantee CP data below do not affect by intersymbol interference.The purposes of pilot portion is mainly used for channel estimating and the equilibrium of receiving terminal.The balance module of receiving terminal is proved by theory and practice can the performance of elevator system to a great extent, particularly under multidiameter fading channel environment.Data division is exactly the content really will transmitted, and CP and pilot tone are all play auxiliary transmission effect.But because CP and pilot tone all belong to invalid data, in order to improve the efficiency of transmission of system, therefore CP and pilot tone are merged, now pilot tone is by the effect of alternative CP, and this scheme maturation is applied to a lot of occasion.Pilot configuration is from being divided into serial type frame structure and block frame structure two kinds in shape.
The channel estimating of system receiving terminal and the impact of equalization methods on single-carrier system performance most important, channel estimating is divided into blind estimate and non-blind estimate substantially.Blind estimate does not rely on pilot transmission, can save system resource, improves efficiency of transmission.But it is higher that blind estimate also exists complexity, the shortcoming of limited precision.Channel estimating and equalization algorithm can solving multipath effect problem to a great extent, and different pilot configurations is also the key factor affecting frequency domain equalization system performance and communication efficiency simultaneously.General pilot configuration design needs depend on specific channel estimation methods or equalization methods, because under different estimations and equalization algorithm, change and the choosing of pilot frequency sequence of pilot configuration can produce different effects.
Traditional single-carrier system adopts time domain equalization to eliminate multipath effect, but this to be generally considered to complexity higher.Orthogonal frequency division multiplex OFDM: the appearance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing system solves the high problem of complexity of equalization, but it is high that ofdm system also exists the peak-to-average force ratio that transmits, to frequency deviation and phase noise than more sensitive shortcoming.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is high for solving the ofdm system peak-to-average force ratio that transmits, and compares sensitive issue to frequency deviation and phase noise, the construction method of pilot configuration in the SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium of proposition and this system.
Based on the SC-FDE system of MAP equilibrium, SC-FDE system is made up of transmitting terminal module, channel mechanism and receiving terminal module; Described transmitting terminal module is made up of map unit, decoder and modulator; Described channel mechanism is made up of channel; Described receiving terminal module is made up of Fourier transform module, channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit, inversefouriertransform module, demodulator, decoder and judging unit; The mapping signal input of described map unit is connected with the signal output part of signal generation apparatus, the mapping signal output of described map unit is connected with the mapping signal input of decoder, and the decoded signal output of described decoder is connected with the decoded signal input of modulator; The modulation signal output of described modulator is connected with the signal input part of channel; The signal output part of channel is connected with the signal input part of Fourier transform module; The figure signal output of described Fourier transform module is connected with the figure signal input of balanced unit with channel estimating; Described channel estimating is connected with the signal input part of inversefouriertransform module with the signal output part of balanced unit; The figure signal output of described inversefouriertransform module is connected in the figure signal input of demodulator: the restituted signal output of described demodulator is connected with the restituted signal input of decoder; The decoded signal output of described decoder is connected with the decoded signal input of judging unit; The decision signal output of described judging unit is connected with the receiver port of external signal receiving system.
Adopt the pilot configuration construction method of the above-mentioned SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium; Described construction method is completed by following steps:
Step one: determine multi-path fading channel, in described SC-FDE system, fading channel model is shown in formula 1;
formula 1
In formula 1, Parameter N is path number, and parameters ai and parameter τ i represent amplitude damping factor and the propagation delay of the i-th paths respectively, parameter it is the phase place between straight line path and transmission path;
Parameter Tm represents that maximum multipath time delay is long; namely maximum multipath time delay length is that the maximum of each footpath time delay is multiplied by transmission rate; Simultaneously according to multipath channel models determination frame length T; The length of described frame length T will ensure that channel status does not change in a frame data transmission duration;
Step 2: the long T of maximum many multidiameter delays utilizing step one to determine mwith frame length T, determine the pilot length T in frame data of pilot configuration in conjunction with MAP balanced way pwith valid data length T d; Under MAP balanced way, the relation of signal to noise ratio and effective frame length is shown in formula 2;
SNR MAP , eff = T - T p T d min 2 4 σ 2 ( 1 + L T p - L + 1 ) - 1 Formula 2
Parameter T in formula 2 pfor pilot tone is long, parameter for channel minimum range, parameter L is channel memory length, parameter σ 2for environmental noise power value; The length of described pilot length Tp is less than the length of frame length T; Nash Equilibrium equation in application theory of games is shown in formula 3:
J i ( T p * , T d * ) ≥ J i ( T p i , T d i ) , ∀ i = 1,2 , · · · , N . Formula 3
By deriving to Nash Equilibrium equation, the ideal pilot obtained is long and data are long is respectively:
T p=T/4+T m/ 2 and T d=T/4-T m/ 2;
Step 3: according to the pilot length T determined in step 2 p, generating pilot length according to the formula of Zadoff-Chu sequence of complex numbers x (n) is T ppilot tone;
Step 4: channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit 9 receive the data comprising pilot tone, and after the pilot tone in these data and valid data are extracted, carry out channel estimating according to LS channel estimation method, and the channel function after defeated estimation described it is an impulse function;
Step 5: by obtaining impulse Response Function after the LS channel estimating of step 4 this impulse Response Function being delivered to MAP equalizer utilizes the relational expression of MAP equalizer to carry out equilibrium treatment;
Step 6: the data obtained after the MAP equalizer processes of step 5 are carried out decoding decoding by the decoder in SC-FDE system and decoder, obtains final valid data.
It is low that SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium of the present invention has the peak-to-average force ratio that transmits, to frequency deviation and phase noise insensitive, complexity is lower, and precision is higher, the advantage that efficiency of transmission is higher.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is existing pilot configuration schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 for described in the application based on the modular structure schematic diagram of the SC-FDE system of MAP equilibrium.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: composition graphs 2 illustrates present embodiment, based on the SC-FDE system of MAP equilibrium described in present embodiment, SC-FDE system is made up of transmitting terminal module 1, channel mechanism 2 and receiving terminal module 3; Described transmitting terminal module 1 is made up of map unit 4, decoder 5 and modulator 6; Described channel mechanism 2 is made up of channel 7; Described receiving terminal module 3 is made up of Fourier transform module 8, channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit 9, inversefouriertransform module 10, demodulator 11, decoder 12 and judging unit 14; The mapping signal input of described map unit 4 is connected with the signal output part of signal generation apparatus, the mapping signal output of described map unit 4 is connected with the mapping signal input of decoder 5, and the decoded signal output of described decoder 5 is connected with the decoded signal input of modulator 6; The modulation signal output of described modulator 6 is connected with the signal input part of channel 7; The signal output part of channel 7 is connected with the signal input part of Fourier transform module 8; The figure signal output of described Fourier transform module 8 is connected with the figure signal input of balanced unit 9 with channel estimating; Described channel estimating is connected with the signal input part of inversefouriertransform module 10 with the signal output part of balanced unit 9; The figure signal output of described inversefouriertransform module 10 is connected in the figure signal input of demodulator 11: the restituted signal output of described demodulator 11 is connected with the restituted signal input of decoder 12; The decoded signal output of described decoder 12 is connected with the decoded signal input of judging unit 13; The decision signal output of described judging unit 13 is connected with the receiver port of external signal receiving system.
In transmitting terminal module 1, the signal data Sn map decoding first will received, passes through fading channel after ovennodulation.Through channel signal arrival receiving terminal before, have noise Wn add come in.After receiving terminal receives data, first carry out Fourier transform (FFT), then carry out channel estimating and equilibrium, object is to resist the factors such as multi-path jamming in transmission.Be exactly inversefouriertransform (IFFT) after equalized, last demodulating and decoding is carrying out adjudicating the data Rn that can obtain wanting.SC-FDE system and single carrier with frequency-domain equalization system, MAP equilibrium and maximum a posterior equilibrium.
Embodiment two: composition graphs 2 illustrates present embodiment, present embodiment is for adopting the pilot configuration construction method of the SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium described in embodiment one; Described construction method is completed by following steps:
Step one: determine multi-path fading channel, in described SC-FDE system, fading channel model is shown in formula 1;
formula 1
In formula 1, Parameter N is path number, parameter a iwith parameter τ irepresent amplitude damping factor and the propagation delay of the i-th paths respectively, parameter it is the phase place between straight line path and transmission path;
Parameter Tm represents that maximum multipath time delay is long; namely maximum multipath time delay length is that the maximum of each footpath time delay is multiplied by transmission rate; Simultaneously according to multipath channel models determination frame length T; The length of described frame length T will ensure that channel status does not change in a frame data transmission duration;
Step 2: the long T of maximum many multidiameter delays utilizing step one to determine mwith frame length T, determine the pilot length T in frame data of pilot configuration in conjunction with MAP balanced way pwith valid data length T d; Under MAP balanced way, the relation of signal to noise ratio and effective frame length is shown in formula 2;
SNR MAP , eff = T - T p T d min 2 4 σ 2 ( 1 + L T p - L + 1 ) - 1 Formula 2
Parameter T in formula 2 pfor pilot tone is long, parameter for channel minimum range, parameter L is channel memory length, parameter σ 2for environmental noise power value; The length of described pilot length Tp is less than the length of frame length T; Nash Equilibrium equation in application theory of games is shown in formula 3:
J i ( T p * , T d * ) ≥ J i ( T p i , T d i ) , ∀ i = 1,2 , · · · , N . Formula 3
By deriving to Nash Equilibrium equation, the ideal pilot obtained is long and data are long is respectively:
T p=T/4+T m/ 2 and T d=T/4-T m/ 2;
Step 3: according to the pilot length T determined in step 2 p, generating pilot length according to the formula of Zadoff-Chu sequence of complex numbers x (n) is T ppilot tone;
Step 4: channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit 9 receive the data comprising pilot tone, and after the pilot tone in these data and valid data are extracted, carry out channel estimating according to LS channel estimation method, and the channel function after defeated estimation described it is an impulse function;
Step 5: by obtaining impulse Response Function after the LS channel estimating of step 4 this impulse Response Function being delivered to MAP equalizer utilizes the relational expression of MAP equalizer to carry out equilibrium treatment;
Step 6: the data obtained after the MAP equalizer processes of step 5 are carried out decoding decoding by the decoder in SC-FDE system and decoder, obtains final valid data.
Embodiment three: present embodiment and embodiment two difference are the pilot configuration construction method of the described SC-FDE system balanced based on MAP, and the formula of Zadoff-Chu sequence of complex numbers x (n) in step 3 is:
formula 4
Wherein, n=1,2 ..., T p, j is imaginary symbols.Other parameter and step identical with embodiment two.
Embodiment four: present embodiment and embodiment two difference are the pilot configuration construction method of the described SC-FDE system balanced based on MAP, and the formula of the LS channel estimation method in step 4 is:
H ^ LS = X - 1 Y ‾ = [ ( X k / Y k ) ] T , ( k = 0,1 , . . . , N - 1 ) Formula 5
Wherein, parameter for the impulse function that channel estimating exports, parameter X is the estimated value obtained after carrying out interpolation to known pilot data, and parameter Y is the data obtained through Fourier transform in receiving terminal module 3.Other parameter and step identical with embodiment two.
Embodiment five: present embodiment and embodiment two difference are the pilot configuration construction method of the described SC-FDE system balanced based on MAP, and the relational expression of the MAP equalizer in step 5 is
S ‾ ^ arg min u ‾ ( | | x ‾ - τ ( h ‾ ) u ‾ | | : u ‾ ∈ A T + L - 1 ) Formula 6
Parameter in formula 6 be the estimated value of symbol transposition to be asked, parameter argmin is the variable u value making target function minimum, parameter xthe input signal of equalizer, parameter hbe channel impulse function, parameter τ is Toeplitz matrix, and parameter A is the data acquisition system of corresponding modulating mode, uses BPSK to modulate A={+1 ,-1}.Other parameter and step identical with embodiment two.

Claims (4)

1. based on the pilot configuration construction method of the SC-FDE system of MAP equilibrium; Described construction method based on system be SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium, SC-FDE system is made up of transmitting terminal module (1), channel mechanism (2) and receiving terminal module (3); Described transmitting terminal module (1) is made up of map unit (4), decoder (5) and modulator (6); Described channel mechanism (2) is made up of channel (7); Described receiving terminal module (3) is made up of Fourier transform module (8), channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit (9), inversefouriertransform module (10), demodulator (11), decoder (12) and judging unit (14); The mapping signal input of described map unit (4) is connected with the signal output part of signal generation apparatus, the mapping signal output of described map unit (4) is connected with the mapping signal input of decoder (5), and the decoded signal output of described decoder (5) is connected with the decoded signal input of modulator (6); The modulation signal output of described modulator (6) is connected with the signal input part of channel (7); The signal output part of channel (7) is connected with the signal input part of Fourier transform module (8); The figure signal output of described Fourier transform module (8) is connected with the figure signal input of channel estimating with balanced unit (9); Described channel estimating is connected with the signal input part of inversefouriertransform module (10) with the signal output part of balanced unit (9); The figure signal output of described inversefouriertransform module (10) is connected in the figure signal input of demodulator (11): the restituted signal output of described demodulator (11) is connected with the restituted signal input of decoder (12); The decoded signal output of described decoder (12) is connected with the decoded signal input of judging unit (13); The decision signal output of described judging unit (13) is connected with the receiver port of external signal receiving system;
It is characterized in that described construction method is completed by following steps:
Step one: determine multi-path fading channel, in described SC-FDE system, fading channel model is shown in formula 1;
formula 1
In formula 1, Parameter N is path number, parameter a iwith parameter τ irepresent amplitude damping factor and the propagation delay of the i-th paths respectively, parameter it is the phase place between straight line path and transmission path;
Parameter T mrepresent that maximum multipath time delay is long; namely maximum multipath time delay length is that the maximum of each footpath time delay is multiplied by transmission rate; Simultaneously according to multipath channel models determination frame length T; The length of described frame length T will ensure that channel status does not change in a frame data transmission duration;
Step 2: the long T of maximum many multidiameter delays utilizing step one to determine mwith frame length T, determine the pilot length T in frame data of pilot configuration in conjunction with MAP balanced way pwith valid data length T d; Under MAP balanced way, the relation of signal to noise ratio and effective frame length is shown in formula 2;
formula 2
Parameter T in formula 2 pfor pilot tone is long, parameter for channel minimum range, parameter L is channel memory length, parameter σ 2for environmental noise power value; The length of described pilot length Tp is less than the length of frame length T; Nash Equilibrium equation in application theory of games is shown in formula 3:
formula 3
By deriving to Nash Equilibrium equation, the ideal pilot obtained is long and data are long is respectively:
T p=T/4+T m/ 2 and T d=T/4-T m/ 2;
Step 3: according to the pilot length T determined in step 2 p, generating pilot length according to the formula of Zadoff-Chu sequence of complex numbers x (n) is T ppilot tone;
Step 4: channel estimating and equilibrium degree unit (9) receive the data comprising pilot tone, and after extracting the pilot tone in these data and valid data, carry out channel estimating according to LS channel estimation method, and the channel function after output estimation described it is an impulse function;
Step 5: by obtaining impulse function after the LS channel estimating of step 4 this impulse function being delivered to MAP equalizer utilizes the relational expression of MAP equalizer to carry out equilibrium treatment;
Step 6: the data obtained after the MAP equalizer processes of step 5 are carried out decoding decoding by the decoder in SC-FDE system and decoder, obtains final valid data.
2. the pilot configuration construction method of the SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium according to claim 1, is characterized in that the formula of Zadoff-Chu sequence of complex numbers x (n) in step 3 is:
formula 4
Wherein, n=1,2 ..., T p, j is imaginary symbols.
3. the pilot configuration construction method of the SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium according to claim 1, is characterized in that the formula of the LS channel estimation method in step 4 is:
formula 5
Wherein, parameter for the impulse function that channel estimating exports, parameter X is the estimated value obtained after carrying out interpolation to known pilot data, and parameter Y is the data obtained through Fourier transform in receiving terminal module (3).
4. the pilot configuration construction method of the SC-FDE system based on MAP equilibrium according to claim 1, is characterized in that the relational expression of the MAP equalizer in step 5 is
formula 6
Parameter in formula 6 be the estimated value of symbol transposition to be asked, parameter argmin is the variable u value making target function minimum, parameter xthe input signal of equalizer, parameter hbe Channel Impulse function, parameter τ is Toeplitz matrix, and parameter A is the data acquisition system of corresponding modulating mode, uses BPSK to modulate Α={+1 ,-1}.
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