CN102838208A - River channel purifier technology for polluted river water quality improvement - Google Patents

River channel purifier technology for polluted river water quality improvement Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102838208A
CN102838208A CN 201110170786 CN201110170786A CN102838208A CN 102838208 A CN102838208 A CN 102838208A CN 201110170786 CN201110170786 CN 201110170786 CN 201110170786 A CN201110170786 A CN 201110170786A CN 102838208 A CN102838208 A CN 102838208A
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river
water
ecological
purification
continent
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单保庆
王元月
唐文忠
张文强
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Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences of CAS
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Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences of CAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to a river channel purifier technology for polluted river water quality improvement. The river channel purifier structure comprises an artificial river center continent, an ecological spur dike, and a bypass ecology purification system, wherein ecological purification channels and an ecological aerobic pond are connected in series to form the bypass ecology purification system. According to the present invention, the artificial river center continent is adopted to separate a river channel, the bypass ecology purification system is constructed, and the ecological spur dike is adopted to block water, such that the water enters the system; with staggered distribution of the bypass ecology purification system inside the river channel, the river channel presents a diversified form with characteristics of meandering, rapid slowing and multiple changing so as to easily achieve water body reoxygenation and ecological restoration; the part of the water flows through the bypass ecology purification system so as to purify the water quality, and the remaining water flows through the river channel so as to degrade pollutants relying on functions of reoxygenation and self-purification of the water body; and the process of the bypass ecology purification system comprises ecology purification channel, ecological aerobic pond, ecology purification channel and opened river segment.

Description

A kind of river course cleaner technology that is used for the polluted river water correction
Technical field:
This patent relates to a kind of river course cleaner technology, mainly suffers in-situ construction river course cleaner in the river course, destructive basin through receive pollution and habitat at water body, to improve polluted river water quality and impaired river course is carried out restoration of the ecosystem.
Background technology:
Along with of the sustained and rapid development of China's economy with society, increasing to the demand of water resources, but produced simultaneously various industry and sanitary wastewater are also more and more.According to statistics, national wastewater emission amount was 589.2 hundred million tons in 2009, increased by 3.0% than the last year, and wherein discharged volume of industrial waste water is 234.4 hundred million tons, and the sanitary wastewater quantity discharged is 354.8 hundred million tons, accounts for 39.8% and 60.2% of total emission volumn respectively.Though the environmental protection consciousness of Industrial-Enterprises in China and urban and rural residents is improved significantly in recent years; But, China ignored environment protection owing to developing the economy emphatically the past period; Reasons such as laws and regulations system not enough owing to fund input in addition and the environmental protection field is unsound cause the environment situation of present China relatively severeer.The water resources that current China utilizes mainly is river, lake and shallow ground water, and wherein former two kinds is main, so cause China's surface water resources to reduce year after year, lake level reduces year by year, and phenomenons such as cutout appear in the part river course.On the other hand, the wastewater treatment rate of China is far below developed country, and the emission standard of Sewage Plant is on the low side, even qualified discharge still can cause certain destruction to natural water.A large amount of municipal effluent plant effluents have been admitted in the many rivers that are in the downstream, city; Even directly on function, it is divided into the blowdown river course; This measure has caused the severe exacerbation of the aquatic attitude in river; Water function is destroyed, and jeopardizes the plant-animal in the basin, brings serious negative impact also for littoral resident's productive life.So, imperative with reparation to the improvement in impaired river.
At present, the biology/ecological reestablishment to polluted river mainly contains following several kinds.
(1) phytoremediation technology
The plant that is used for the water body reparation mainly be divided into swim, very three types in water and heavy water, its representative plant mainly contains reed, cattail and water hyacinth etc.Plant can utilize root system to absorb nutritive salt such as dissolved nitrogen in the water body, phosphorus and supply self growth; Flourishing root system also has adsorption function; Plant can and discharge into water body to the root transmission through the oxygen that photosynthesis produces, and around root system, forms small aerobic zone and is beneficial to the microbiological deterioration pollutent.In addition, there are some researches show that the root system of plant can be secreted and to have sterilization and the material that suppresses algal grown.If but plant do not gather in, the nitrogen phosphorus substance of its absorption still can be discharged in the water body again after rotting and goes in that plant is withered, causes secondary pollution.
(2) artificial swamp technology
The removing pollutant process of artificial swamp relates to many-sided comprehensive actions such as physics, chemistry and biology.Purification to polluted river water mainly contains following several kinds of approach: through filtering and hold back the removal PM for particulate matter; Phosphorus and heavy metal ion are removed in effects such as the absorption through the wetland medium, complexing, IX; Through wetland microbial process degradable organic pollutant, remove the nitrogen in the water; Through the nitrogen phosphorus in the plant absorbing removal water and the heavy metal of enrichment.
(3) ecological stabilization pond technology
Ecological stabilization pond is a kind of dirty water living creature processing technique of main dependence natural biology purification function, mainly is divided into three types of the aerobic pool, facultative lagoon and anaerobic ponds, and the self-purification process of the scavenging process of sewage and natural water is close in the pool.Sewage flows slowly in the pool, has the long residence time, and Metabolic activity and the comprehensive action that comprises the multiple biology of waterplant, fish etc. through mikrobe in the water make contaminant degradation, and water body is purified.Different biotic populations form many food link networks in the pool, constitute intact ecocystem.
(4) gravel catalytic oxidation technology
Gravel catalytic oxidation technology is in the river course, to lay the gravel filling layer; Or with in the polluted river water water conservancy diversion introducing gravel filling layer; Because filling surface length has one deck microbial film; Fully contact with microbial film when river flows through from gravel bed, water pollutant is fully degraded under the microbial process in film.Simultaneously, PM for particulate matter also can obtain removing through effects such as adsorbing, precipitate and hold back in the water.
Patent art just is being based on the biological and ecological of polluted river and is repairing principle; And combine the above-mentioned several kinds of common technique of using during polluted river is repaired at home and abroad; Through inner in-situ construction river course cleaner in the existing waterway; Under the prerequisite that does not influence basic functions such as the original flood passage in river course, transportation and fish migration, polluted-water is carried out original position purify, reach impaired river course is carried out the purpose that biological and ecological is repaired.
Summary of the invention
River course cleaner structures comprise continent, the artificial middle of the river, ecological groynes and the bypass ecological purification system that is in series by ecological purification canal, the ecological aerobic pool.Separate the river course through continent, the artificial middle of the river, make up the bypass ecological purification system, utilize ecological groynes dash simultaneously, make water get into system.Bypass ecological purification system being interspersed in the river course makes the river course be cranky, anxious slow changeable variety pattern, is beneficial to water reoxygenation and restoration of the ecosystem.The part current bypass ecological purification system of will flowing through is purified water quality; All the other current flow through from the river course, rely on water reoxygenation and self-purification function degradation of contaminant.The technical process of bypass ecological purification system is " an ecological purification canal-ecological aerobic pool-ecological purification canal-opening section ".
The ecological purification canal is formed by filling gravel, layer of sand and plant.Body region is a large amount of gravel, relies on its bigger specific surface area, abundant Ca content, simultaneously by channel flow velocity comparatively slowly, through precipitate, hold back, effect removal COD in water body, TP and other kinds pollutent such as absorption.The system upper strata is owing to the oxygen conduction of root system of plant, and water body is facultative preference oxygen condition, and a large amount of mikrobes are present in this layer region, with the plant acting in conjunction, absorbs conversion pollutant.Lower floor of the system depth of water is bigger, is anaerobic state basically, has the part anaerobion, and purification of water quality is played respective action.The bigger meaning of lower floor of system is to progress into lower floor behind the microbial death of upper strata, and finally precipitates, changes into peat bed, and pollutent is for good and all removed from water body.Fluctuation of water table in channel, or when receiving nature, artificial disturbance, ecological purification canal median water level fluctuates thereupon, thereby brings the oxygen environmental turbulence, for the condition that provides is removed in the conversion of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen etc.
The ecological purification canal relies on the river course and builds, and causes long-width ratio excessive, and end is prone to anoxia phenomenon.Both at home and abroad current research generally believes, therefore ecological purification canal long-width ratio should, be provided with the ecological aerobic pool or open section less than 8 behind the ecological purification canal, make water reoxygenation, is beneficial to the removal of ammonia nitrogen etc.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is a river course cleaner site plan (unit: rice);
Fig. 2 is everywhere a sectional view (unit: decimetre) in the river course cleaner;
Fig. 3 is a river course cleaner simulator plat (unit: millimeter);
Fig. 4 purifies canal sectional view (unit: millimeter) in the simulator;
Fig. 5 is 0.2m 3/ m 2.d load down " three nitrogen " changing conditions in the river course;
Annotate: X-coordinate " along the journey sampled distance " means the distance of sampling point apart from feed-water end, and wherein the 0m place is a feed-water end, and the 25m place is water side (down together);
Fig. 6 is 0.2m 3/ m 2.d load down the changing conditions of SRP and TP in the river course;
Fig. 7 is 0.2m 3/ m 2.d load purifies the changing conditions of each index in the canal down.
Embodiment:
Concrete river course according to be repaired has designed the river course cleaner, mainly comprises continent, the artificial middle of the river, ecological groynes and ecological purification system.Site plan is as shown in Figure 1.
Every section ecological purification system length is 80m, and the wide 7m that is about comprises ecological purification canal that two length are 35m and longly is the ecological aerobic pool of 10m with middle one.Ecological purification canal upper strata 20cm is a layer of sand, the plantation emergent; It is the gravel of 20-40cm that the thick particle diameter of 50cm is filled by lower floor; Separate with geotextile between gravel bed and the layer of sand.Ecological purification canal sectional view is shown in Fig. 2 a.
Continent, the artificial middle of the river is piled up 1.2m by the earthwork and is formed on the elevation of existing river bed.Continent, middle of the river form changes with bank, river course form, and length is 80m, top width 1m, and bottom width 7.2m, the gradient is 1: 3.Adopt big gravel (particle diameter 20-50cm) spats around the continent, the middle of the river, prevent sluicing.Serike on the continent, the middle of the river.
Ecological groynes makes up perpendicular to continent, the middle of the river, long 6m, and high 0.8m, top width 1m, bottom width 5.8m, the gradient is 1: 3, the top serike.Ecological groynes mainly act as shunting and comes water to get into the ecological purification canal, and certain pollutant purification effect is arranged simultaneously.The river course is respectively shown in Fig. 2 b and Fig. 2 c at the sectional view at ecological groynes and place, the ecological aerobic pool.
In the river course cleaner engineering, that plant is selected is strong with endemic species, tolerance, breeding is principle soon, and emergent is mainly adopted reed and cattail, can select Scirpus tabernaemontani or calamus for use at regional area; Submerged plant is adopted water caltrop, hornwort, watermifoil, eel grass etc.
Specific embodiment:
1. the structure of river course cleaner simulator
2010, river course cleaner simulator was built in the township's addressing of the big yellow castle of Wuqing District in Tianjin.Simulator is of a size of 27 * 2 * 1.25m (length * wide * height), and the bottom surface gradient is 1%, and being provided with a volume at feed-water end is 2m 3Suction sump.The cross section that two length of device set inside are the PVC plate making of 8m is the continent, the artificial middle of the river of ladder type, is placed in the river course both sides of front and back apart from feed-water end and each 3m of water side.Continent, the ladder type middle of the river simulator that 2m is wide vertically is divided into two halves.Wherein on one side still as the river course; Has the open water surface; Mainly utilize the settlement action and the microbial process in the water of PM for particulate matter self in the water to remove pollutent; Photosynthesis through algae in wind-force disturbance surface reoxygenation and the water body produces oxygen simultaneously, makes water body have higher relatively dissolved oxygen.And another half of gravel and coarse sand of loading different-grain diameter, and on coarse sand, plant reed, build up the ecological purification canal and come purifying river water.The cleaning principle that utilizes has between artificial swamp technology and gravel and contact oxidation etc., is that a kind of artificial-strengthening of pollutent in the polluted river water is degraded.
The ecological purification canal is built the both sides in simulation river course respectively in, and length is 8m, wherein comprises the long ecological aerobic pool of a 1m and former and later two long ecological purification canals that is 3.5m.The filler that purifies canal is divided into three layers, and orlop is that the thick particle diameter of 30cm is the bulk gravel bed of 40mm~60mm, and the middle layer is that the thick particle diameter of 20cm is the little gravel bed of 10mm~30mm, and the superiors are the thick coarse sands layers of 20cm.Plantation is in the reed of local suitable growth on coarse sands layer.So river course cleaner simulator comprises 4 ecological purification canal unit and two aerobic pools of ecology.
Imbed 3 one group pvc pipe 4 unitary intermediate vertical of purification canal respectively; The end of pipe punches equably and was beneficial to water; The lower end of three pipes is embedded in the middle of three layers of filler respectively, parameter indexs such as the ORP of following three layers of inside, DO, pH in being convenient to measure on the purification canal in 3 vertical tubes of potential electrode insertion.In addition, also be embedded with the horizontal duct of even punching and extend to outer wall, connect valve, be convenient to gather the inner water sample of purification canal to analyze nitrate salt, the isoparametric changing conditions of ammonia nitrogen in the centre of each layer of filler.Also upwards be provided with 3 sampling points along Cheng Fang in the river course.The sectional view of the plat of simulator and purification canal is respectively like Fig. 3 and shown in Figure 4.
River course cleaner simulator is in the plantation of accomplishing reed by the end of May, and beginning is with average 0.06m 3/ m 2.d load water inlet makes device mature and stable on the one hand, makes reed take root survival as early as possible on the other hand.After for some time, reed grows fine, and has covered ecological purification canal surface, and the surface of gravel filling is also grown in addition has the filemot microbial film of one deck, shows that river course cleaner simulator has got into the mature and stable stage.Simulator gets into the commencement of commercial operation stage subsequently.
2. interpretation of result
After formally bringing into operation, at first be to investigate the effect of hydraulic load regulation and control to river course cleaner processing polluted river water, influent load is set at 0.2m respectively 3/ m 2.d, 0.06m 3/ m 2.d and 0m 3/ m 2.d (leave standstill).And then river course cleaner median water level turned down 0.5m from 0.85m, investigate the effect of river course cleaner under low-water level, and relatively at the treatment effect of two kinds of water level lower devices of height.Influent load is 0.2m 3/ m 2.d the experimental result the time is following.
1) the water inlet hydraulic load is 0.2m 3/ m 2.d under the condition, the treatment effect of river course cleaner
Fig. 5 has explained that the river course cleaner is at 0.2m 3/ m 2.d under the influent load, the removal effect of the ammonia nitrogen in the river course, nitric nitrogen and total nitrogen.The concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen is 3.64mg/L, is declining to a great extent apart from feed-water end 7m place concentration, and ammonia nitrogen concentration still slowly reduces backward, finally reduces to 1.10mg/L in the water side.The concentration of nitric nitrogen is 2.18mg/L in the water inlet, and is though as can be seen from the figure there is certain removal effect in the river course to nitric nitrogen, much lower with respect to ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen.Minimum nitric nitrogen concentration appears at the place apart from feed-water end 12.5m, and final outflow water concentration is 1.72mg/L.The total nitrogen of water inlet reaches 6.68mg/L, but it reduces along Cheng Chixu in the river course, and in the concentration the biggest drop at 7m place, the total nitrogen concentration of water outlet is 3.37mg/L equally.So; All in all, " three nitrogen " concentration all has reduction in various degree in the river course, and wherein the removal effect of ammonia nitrogen is best; Total nitrogen takes second place; The removal effect of nitric nitrogen is the poorest relatively, and after the river course cleaner, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and nitric nitrogen concentration have reduced 70%, 50% and 21% respectively.
At 0.2m 3/ m 2.d under the load, SRP and TP's is as shown in Figure 6 along the journey changing conditions in the river course.As can be seen from the figure the SRP of water inlet and the concentration of TP are respectively 0.84mg/L and 1.28mg/L, and after the river course cleaner, both concentration has reduced by 9% and 27% respectively, and the concentration of water outlet is respectively 0.77mg/L and 0.93mg/L.The concentration Schwellenwert of SRP appears at the centre of river course cleaner, and concentration rises again slightly afterwards, and the concentration at this place is 0.62mg/L.The removal effect of TP is apparent in view, when influent concentration is 1.28mg/L, is just removing 27% apart from feed-water end 7m, and TP concentration slightly fluctuates in the river course afterwards, but the concentration of water outlet is still reduced to 0.93mg/L.
Fig. 7 is that the river course cleaner is 0.2m at influent load 3/ m 2.d the time, the concentration change situation of each form nitrogen phosphorus in purifying canal.Concentration in conjunction with each pollutent index of the water inlet that provides among Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 can find that the purification canal is very tangible to the removal effect of each contamination index.A figure among Fig. 7 is that the ammonia nitrogen concentration that purifies the place's water outlet of canal different positions changes; Can find out obviously that purification canal upper strata is best to the removal effect of ammonia nitrogen; On average go out water concentration 0.086mg/L; Clearance is up to 98%, and the ammonia nitrogen mean concns is respectively 0.48mg/L and 0.68mg/L in the water outlet of middle level and lower floor.B figure is the variation of nitric nitrogen concentration, from figure, can know still to be that the upper strata is best to the removal effect of nitric nitrogen, and on average going out water concentration is 0.42mg/L.Different with the ammonia nitrogen situation is that the nitric nitrogen concentration that purifies in the canal lower floor will be lower than the middle level, can explain because the dissolved oxygen concentration of lower floor is minimum, so a part of nitric nitrogen has been removed in denitrification.C figure purifies total nitrogen concentration changing conditions in the canal.All in all, the total nitrogen concentration in the upper strata is minimum, and lower floor takes second place; The concentration in middle layer is the highest, and the mean concns of each layer is respectively 0.55mg/L, 1.50mg/L and 1.77mg/L, and analyzing reason possibly be that the upper strata is that layer of sand and length have reed; Can remove a part of ammonia nitrogen through the absorption of layer of sand and the absorption of reed root system; Certainly main is that this layer inside has sufficient dissolved oxygen, makes microorganism active higher, also best to the removal effect of total nitrogen.And middle level and lower floor are the bigger gravel bed of particle diameter, and a little less than the ability of absorption, trapped particles thing is wanted than layer of sand, and the dissolved oxygen concentration of middle lower floor is lower, causes microbic activity will be lower than the upper strata generally.Total nitrogen concentration for lower floor is lower than the middle level, and possible reason is exactly the growth of the suitable denitrifying bacteria of oxygen environment of lower floor, so denitrification is stronger, becomes gaseous state from water body, thoroughly to remove the part nitrogen transformation.D figure and e figure are the concentration change situation of SRP and TP in the purification canal.As can be seen from the figure the upper strata will be better than middle level and lower floor far away to the removal effect of SRP and TP; The mean concns of SRP and TP is respectively 0.026mg/L and 0.17mg/L in this layer; And SRP in the middle level and TP mean concns are respectively 0.45mg/L and 0.67mg/L; SRP in the lower floor and the mean concns of TP are respectively 0.49mg/L and 0.68mg/L, but two-layer tp removal rate is all more than 40%.The removal of phosphorus is mainly removed through approach such as medium absorption, surface complexation reactions; The gravel of lower floor during the particle diameter of upper strata coarse sand will be far smaller than; Have bigger specific surface area and activated adsorption site; Simultaneously the reed root system also can absorption portion phosphorus, thus cause finally that the concentration of SRP and TP will be lower than middle lower floor in the water outlet of upper strata, but effect is all better generally.
2) the overall operation effect of river course cleaner simulator
The simulator continuous service has experienced a plurality of seasons, and reed has also experienced the complete procedure of accomplishing of taking root, germinateing, growing, wither.Table 1 is device removal effect to each pollutent in the whole service process.
The concrete clearance of table 1 water-quality guideline
Last tabular has gone out the concrete clearance numerical value of simulator in during whole service.Can find out that install very goodly to the removal effect of ammonia nitrogen, Schwellenwert is 45%, mxm. reaches 92%, and average removal rate is also all more than 70%.Removal effect to total nitrogen is also better, and minimum clearance is 30%, and average removal rate is between 40%~55%.When pay close attention to the river course cleaner to polluted river water in during the removal effect of nitrogen, find out that from last table the optimized operation operating mode is influent load 0.06m 3/ m 2D and the operation of maintenance high-water.Under this operating mode, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitric nitrogen, total nitrogen, SRP and TP is respectively 77%, 78%, 55%, 30% and 31%.
Summarize said; River course cleaner technology can be removed the nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in the polluted river water effectively; Fabrication cost is low, operation is easy because it has again, not consumption of power, do not influence plurality of advantages such as river course original function; So can be widely used in the biological and ecological reparation in various contaminated river courses, prospect is very extensive.

Claims (5)

1. cleaner technology in river course is the new technique that a kind of polluted river water quality reparation improves, and its characteristic comprises continent, the artificial middle of the river, ecological groynes and ecological purification system three parts.
2. according to right 1 requirement, the Yanhe River, continent, the artificial middle of the river flows away to construction, it is characterized in that top, continent, the artificial middle of the river exceeds the water surface, and with the river course dimidiation, a side normally keeps functions such as the original flood passage in river course, fish migration, and opposite side makes up ecological purification system.Continent, middle of the river side grade is 1: 3, adopts bulk gravel (particle diameter 20-50cm) spats around the bottom, exceeds the water surface and partly plants waterplant.
3. according to right 1 and right 2 requirements, ecological groynes is built perpendicular to continent, the middle of the river, and top exceeds the water surface and plants waterplant, and the gradient is 1: 3, and the bottom is all around with bulk gravel (particle diameter 20-50cm) spats.
4. according to right 1 requirement, ecological purification system comprises ecological purification canal and ecological aerobic pool two portions, and principal character is that the ecological aerobic pool connects the ecological purification canal, constitutes " purifying the canal-aerobic pool-purification canal " series system.
5. according to right 1 and right 4 requirements, the ecological purification canal is divided into two-layer up and down, and lower floor is that the thick particle diameter of 50cm is the 20-40cm gravel filling, and the upper strata is the thick layer of sand of 20cm, and in layer of sand, plants emergent; Separate with geotextile between gravel bed and the layer of sand.Water level both can be controlled at more than the layer of sand, also can be controlled at below the layer of sand.
CN 201110170786 2011-06-23 2011-06-23 River channel purifier technology for polluted river water quality improvement Pending CN102838208A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105174513A (en) * 2015-08-26 2015-12-23 高美芝 Fish-passing type sedimentation filtering basin
CN107935306A (en) * 2017-11-28 2018-04-20 中国市政工程中南设计研究总院有限公司 A kind of combined in-situ gravel bed sewage treatment facility
CN109857160A (en) * 2019-01-21 2019-06-07 常德天马电器股份有限公司 A kind of sponge city river water level control method
CN111056702A (en) * 2019-12-11 2020-04-24 安徽百和环保科技有限公司 A water clean system for river course tributary mouth

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105174513A (en) * 2015-08-26 2015-12-23 高美芝 Fish-passing type sedimentation filtering basin
CN107935306A (en) * 2017-11-28 2018-04-20 中国市政工程中南设计研究总院有限公司 A kind of combined in-situ gravel bed sewage treatment facility
CN109857160A (en) * 2019-01-21 2019-06-07 常德天马电器股份有限公司 A kind of sponge city river water level control method
CN111056702A (en) * 2019-12-11 2020-04-24 安徽百和环保科技有限公司 A water clean system for river course tributary mouth

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Application publication date: 20121226