CN102506904B - Spontaneous Brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer based on superconductive nanowire single-proton detector - Google Patents

Spontaneous Brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer based on superconductive nanowire single-proton detector Download PDF

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CN102506904B
CN102506904B CN201110314519.3A CN201110314519A CN102506904B CN 102506904 B CN102506904 B CN 102506904B CN 201110314519 A CN201110314519 A CN 201110314519A CN 102506904 B CN102506904 B CN 102506904B
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brillouin scattering
unit
detector
photon
light
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CN201110314519.3A
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CN102506904A (en
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张旭苹
胡君辉
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南京大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a spontaneous Brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) based on a superconductive nanowire single-proton detector, which is characterized in that an optical pulse emitted by an optical pulse generating unit is coupled to a sensing optical fiber through a circulator, backward scattered light scattered from the sensing optical fiber is subjected to filtration of rayleigh scattering light through an optical filter unit to obtain Brillouin scattering light, a back scattering light signal is detected by the superconductive nanowire single-proton detector, an electric signal output from the superconductive nanowire single-proton detector is acquired and processed by a data acquiring and processing unit, and finally, a result is obtained through a certain demodulation relation. Compared with the traditional BOTDR, the BOTDR provided by the invention is used for carrying out data acquisition and processing by adopting the noise equivalent power (NEP) low/no-bandwidth-limit superconductive nanowire single-proton detector as a detection unit and adopting a single-proton counting technology.

Description

A kind of spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector
Technical field
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer that the present invention relates to a kind of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is mainly used in optical fiber sensor network technical field.
Background technology
In current distributed optical fiber sensing technology, distributed optical fiber sensing technology based on Brillouin scattering can realize to be measured apart from continuous distribution formula the length of the temperature in optical fiber and strain, the monitoring and the measurement that can be applicable to the health status such as heavy construction, highway, tunnel, bridge, dam, communications optical cable, oil and gas pipes, have broad application prospects.With respect to other distributed fiberoptic sensors, there is the single-ended sensing measurement and can be to temperature and strain sensing simultaneously of carrying out based on spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR).Brillouin scattering in optical fiber is a kind of inelastic scattering, comes from the part photon of incident light and the acoustical phonon of fiber medium and interacts.The intensity of Brillouin scattering and frequency displacement are subject to temperature and the stress influence of optical fiber environment of living in, so just can obtain the temperature of optical fiber and the distribution situation of strain by measuring intensity or the frequency displacement of brillouin scattering signal dorsad.Two kinds of the detection method coherent detection of traditional B OTDR system to brillouin scattering signal and direct detections.The principle of direct detection is directly to have adopted optical time domain reflection (OTDR) technology by the demodulation BOTDR that brillouin scattering signal intensity is carried out sensing dorsad, in optical fiber, be coupled into a light pulse, determine locus by receiving mistiming between reflected signal and utilizing emitted light pulse, by direct measurement, the intensity of brillouin scattering signal or the strength ratio (Landau-Placzek ratio) of measuring Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering signal demodulate temperature, the strain information along optical fiber relevant position dorsad.P.C. Wait equals to have reported for 1996 the method (P.C. Wait, T.P. Newson, " Landau Placzek ratio applied to distributed fibre sensing ", Optics Communications, 1996,122:pp. 141-146).For BOTDR, although have advantages of single-ended measurement easily, because the spontaneous brillouin scattering light intensity of utilizing is faint, the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) that conventional detectors is measured is lower, detection difficult.The spatial resolution of BOTDR system is subject to the limit bandwidth of direct impulse width and detector, improve spatial resolution and must improve the bandwidth that reduces direct impulse width and increase detector, and analog prober bandwidth is wider, noise equivalent power value is larger, be that observable minimum power is larger, therefore the resolution of the spatial resolution of system and temperature, strain is difficult to improve simultaneously.
Traditional spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) is analog prober due to what adopt, be subject to the restriction of analog prober noise equivalent power (NEP) and bandwidth, detectivity to faint brillouin scattering signal is dorsad limited, therefore the BOTDR system of tradition based on analog prober is difficult to realize great dynamic range, the measurement of high spatial resolution and high strain/temperature measurement accuracy simultaneously.
At present, the external existing commercial product of BOTDR system that adopts analog prober, these products adopt the detection method of coherent detection, also have some relevant Patent datas, but do not find superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector to be applied to Patent data and the document of BOTDR system.Superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector is a kind of novel photodetector, and (representative value is NEP ≈ 10 to have low shake time (representative value is 50ps) and ultralow noise equivalent power -18wHz -1/2than the little 3-4 of an analog prober order of magnitude), therefore, in theory using superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector as the probe unit of BOTDR system and adopt photon counting technique, the sensitivity of system can be improved, spatial resolution and the measuring accuracy of BOTDR system can be improved simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
For problems of the prior art, the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, for improve spatial resolution and the measuring accuracy of BOTDR system simultaneously.
For realizing object of the present invention, the present invention takes following technical scheme: the light pulse of being sent by optical pulse generation unit is coupled into sensor fibre through circulator, after light filter unit filtering Rayleigh scattering light, obtain Brillouin scattering from the back scattered rear orientation light of sensor fibre, survey backscattering light signal by superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit, finally by data acquisition process unit, signal is carried out to acquisition and processing from the electric signal of probe unit output, provide result by certain demodulation relation.Be with the BOTDR system difference of existing research at present, BOTDR system of the present invention adopted noise equivalent power (NEP) low and without the superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector of limit bandwidth as probe unit, and adopted single photon counting technology to carry out data acquisition and processing (DAP).
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, it is characterized in that described optical pulse generation unit is by narrow linewidth laser emission detection light, after Polarization Controller, by the light pulse signal that is modulated into certain pulsewidth through the electrooptic modulator with High Extinction Ratio of pulse producer control, modulating frequency is depending on sensor fibre length.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that described optical pulse generation unit can be also to produce the narrow linewidth pulsed laser that pulse width meets the demands.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that for the optical fiber of sensing be generally the single-mode fiber of standard, can be also the single-mode fiber of other types.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that described circulator can be replaced by 3dB fiber coupler.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, it is characterized in that described filter cell can be to reach the reflection type optical fiber grating that Rayleigh scattering light is separated with Brillouin scattering, the double optical fiber grating wave filter of two fiber gratings and isolator composition, Fabry-Perot (Fabry-Perot) interferometer, Mach Zeng De (Mach-Zehnder) interferometer, the one in other optical filters of narrow bandwidth (three dB bandwidth is less than 0.09nm).
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit is made up of superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector and sensing circuit.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that described superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector take NbN superconducting nano-wire as sensitive material and is placed in described cooling system.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, it is characterized in that data acquisition process unit is by reaching and light pulse Transmission Time Interval by recording light electric signal, and the hardware that can add up surveyed photon number forms.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that data acquisition process unit comprises time interval analyzer and digital signal processor.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, it is characterized in that described data acquisition process unit can be made up of other hardware that can realize time correlation photon counting function, as photon counter and the combination of high-speed figure oscillograph, or capture card and computing machine combination, or MCA (Multichannel Analyzer).
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, is characterized in that pulse producer can carry out modulation and described data acquisition process unit is carried out to clock control described electrooptic modulator simultaneously.
The spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of described based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector has the following advantages:
1. superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector is applied to BOTDR sensor-based system, and has added a kind of acquisition of signal and disposal route of photon counting for BOTDR sensor-based system.
2. there is high spatial resolution and high measurement accuracy.Superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector has the two-fold advantage of low shake time (representative value is 50ps) and low dark count digit rate, compared with analog prober, approximately little 7 magnitudes of its minimum detectable power, compared with single-photon detector based on avalanche diode, approximately little 3 magnitudes of its minimum detectable power, therefore, the BOTDR system of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector has higher sensitivity, can improve spatial resolution and the measuring accuracy of BOTDR system simultaneously, solve the contradiction that spatial resolution and measuring accuracy improve simultaneously.
3. adopt sensor fibre is carried out to the method for areal survey, can break through detector and be subject to the restriction of saturation power, in keeping high spatial resolution and high measurement accuracy, can further improve the dynamic range of system, concrete scheme is as embodiment bis-.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing explanation is to further narration of the present invention, is the application's a part, but does not form limitation of the invention.
In the accompanying drawings: Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention one.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention two.
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention three.
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention four.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is described in further detail and is described.
Embodiment mono-.
The present embodiment provides a kind of spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector.As shown in Figure 1, the present embodiment comprises optical pulse generation unit 100, the light pulse producing is through circulator 200, be coupled into sensor fibre 300, after Rayleigh scattering signal, obtain brillouin scattering signal dorsad by the back scattered back-scattering light of sensor fibre dorsad through 400 filterings of light filter unit, survey this brillouin scattering signal by superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit 500, finally by data acquisition process unit 600, detector output signal is carried out to acquisition and processing, pulse producer 700 is for the pulsed modulation of optical pulse generation unit and the clock control of data acquisition process unit.Described optical pulse generation unit 100 comprises narrow-linewidth laser light source 101, Polarization Controller 102 and the electrooptic modulator 103 with High Extinction Ratio; Described superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit 500 comprises and is placed in temperature lower than the superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector 501 (SNSPD) of 4k cooling system and the sensing circuit 502 of detector; Described data acquisition process unit 600 comprises time interval analyzer 601 and digital signal processing unit 602.
Optical pulse generation unit 100 is for generation of the light pulse signal of required pulsewidth width.Generally launch continuous lights by the distributed feedback type semiconductor laser (DFB) 101 of narrow linewidth (representative value is: 1-5MHz), then produce light pulse by the electrooptic modulator 103 of controlling through pulse producer 700, because electrooptic modulator has dependence to polarisation of light state, so continuous light adopts Polarization Controller 102 to control polarisation of light state before entering electrooptic modulator, reduces the impact of polarization state; Survey superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector sensitivity used very high, the pulse of modulating requires its extinction ratio should be greater than 35dB, avoids the impact of continuous light substrate on detectable signal.
The light pulse of modulating through electrooptic modulator 103 is coupled into sensor fibre 300 by circulator 200, enter light filter unit 400 from the back scattered Rayleigh dorsad of sensor fibre 300 and Brillouin scattering through circulator 200, wherein circulator 200 also can be replaced by 3dB fiber coupler.
Brillouin scattering light signal dorsad to be separated from total backscatter signals, light filter unit can be reflection type optical fiber grating, the double optical fiber grating wave filter of two fiber gratings and isolator composition, Fabry-Perot (Fabry-Perot) interferometer, Mach Zeng De (Mach-Zehnder) interferometer, the one in other optical filters of narrow bandwidth (three dB bandwidth is less than 0.09nm).In standard single-mode fiber, Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering light differ the 0.088nm that only has an appointment dorsad, and Brillouin scattering light intensity is dorsad than little approximately 3 magnitudes of Rayleigh scattering light intensity dorsad, so the performance requirement of wave filter is higher.Wave filter filtering Rayleigh scattering light dorsad, the Brillouin scattering dorsad obtaining carries out Photoelectric Detection by superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector 501.
Superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit 500 comprises superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector 501 and sensing circuit 502; Detector 501 by NbN nano wire as sensitive material and be placed in lower than the cooling system of 4k cold.The light signal of incident detector is very faint, can regard photon one by one as, and photon forms electric impulse signal output after detector.
The electric impulse signal of being exported by detector sensing circuit carries out data acquisition and processing (DAP) by data acquisition process unit 600.Time interval analyzer 601 recording light direct impulses enter sensor fibre and detector and receive the time interval of rear scattered light, there is the position of scattering for calculating sensor fibre link, relevant statistics with histogram of 602 deadlines of digital information processor, draw along the brillouin scattering signal light intensity distribution dorsad of optical fiber diverse location, by the demodulation relation of Brillouin scattering light intensity and temperature, strain, draw along the temperature of fiber distribution and the information of strain, realize full distributed fiber-optic sensor.
Embodiment bis-.
The present embodiment provides a kind of spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of the based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector that can improve dynamic range, its structure as shown in Figure 2, compared with the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of the based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector of Fig. 1 structure, difference is: optical pulse generation unit 100 has increased Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (EDFA) 104 and fiber grating and circulator junction filter 105, has increased described pulse producer 700 sensing circuit of described detector is carried out to bias current control.
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (EDFA) the 104th, in order further to amplify detecting optical pulses, fiber grating and circulator junction filter 105 are the spontaneous emission noises (ASE noise) for filtering amplifier, the reflectivity of the fiber grating in junction filter requires to reach 99%, isolation is greater than 35dB, centre wavelength is different because of laser wavelength, and three dB bandwidth is about 1nm.
While pressing the present embodiment measurement, within a recurrence interval (recurrence interval is depending on sensor fibre 300 length), controlled the bias current of detector 500 by pulse producer 700, sensor fibre 300 is divided into some sections, while measuring each section of sensor fibre, the bias current of detector 500 is set to different value, when light intensity is larger, adopt little bias current, to prevent that detector is saturated.And then the measurement result of each section is carried out reasonably splicing the light distribution information that obtains whole section of sensor fibre 300 in order, can keep, under the prerequisite of high measurement accuracy, improving the dynamic range of measuring like this.
Embodiment tri-.
The present embodiment provides the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of the based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector that another kind can improve dynamic range, its structure as shown in Figure 3, compared with the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of the based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector of Fig. 1 structure, difference is: optical pulse generation unit 100 has increased Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (EDFA) 104 and fiber grating and circulator junction filter 105, between light filter unit 400 and superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit 500, increase an adjustable optical attenuator 400A.
What the present embodiment was different from embodiment bis-is within a recurrence interval, the bias current of detector 500 is constant, and the size of the brillouin scattering signal dorsad of detector is incided in control, sensor fibre 300 is divided into some sections, for preventing that detector is saturated, while measuring each section of sensor fibre, adjustable attenuator 400A, to brillouin scattering signal pad value is different dorsad, adopts large pad value during for Brillouin scattering light intensity dorsad, and Brillouin scattering light intensity is dorsad hour little pad value of employing.And then the measurement result of each section is carried out reasonably splicing the light distribution information that obtains whole section of sensor fibre 300 in order, can keep, under the prerequisite of high measurement accuracy, improving the dynamic range of measuring like this.
Embodiment tetra-.
The present embodiment provides the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of another kind of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, its structure as shown in Figure 4, compared with the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of the based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector of Fig. 1 structure, difference is: require Rayleigh scattering light dorsad to be separated with Brillouin scattering dorsad at light filter unit 400, and measure their luminous power by superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit 500 and data acquisition process unit 600 respectively, along the temperature of sensor fibre 300, strain information is by ratio (the Landau-Placzek ratio of Reyleith scanttering light power and Brillouin scattering luminous power, LPR) carry out demodulation, this method can reduce the bending loss of optical fiber, joint, coupling, the factors such as the fluctuation of entrant laser power and the fluctuation of pulse width cause the impact of the variation of scattered light power, obtain measurement result more accurately.
Although the present invention is described by specific embodiment, specific embodiments and the drawings are not used for limiting the present invention.Those skilled in the art can, in the scope of spirit of the present invention, make various distortion and improvement, and appended claim should comprise these distortion and improvement.

Claims (6)

1. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of a based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector, it is characterized in that: it comprises optical pulse generation unit (100), the light pulse producing is through circulator (200), be coupled into sensor fibre (300), after Rayleigh scattering signal, obtain brillouin scattering signal dorsad by the back scattered back-scattering light of sensor fibre dorsad through light filter unit (400) filtering, survey this brillouin scattering signal by probe unit (500), finally by data acquisition process unit (600), detector output signal is carried out to acquisition and processing, pulse producer (700) is for the pulsed modulation of optical pulse generation unit and the clock control of data acquisition process unit, described optical pulse generation unit (100) comprises narrow-linewidth laser light source (101), Polarization Controller (102) and electrooptic modulator (103), described probe unit (500) comprises and is placed in temperature lower than the superconducting nano-wire single-photon detector (501) of 4k cooling system (SNSPD) and the sensing circuit (502) of detector, described data acquisition process unit (600) comprises time interval analyzer (601) and digital signal processing unit (602).
2. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described probe unit (500) is superconducting nano-wire single-photon detecting measurement unit, and reflectometer has also adopted single photon counting technology to carry out data acquisition and processing (DAP).
3. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described optical pulse generation unit (100) is by narrow linewidth continuous light laser instrument, Polarization Controller and the electrooptic modulator composition with High Extinction Ratio, narrow linewidth laser emission detection light, after Polarization Controller (102), the light pulse signal that is modulated into certain pulsewidth by the electrooptic modulator with High Extinction Ratio (103) through pulse producer control, modulating frequency is depending on sensor fibre length.
4. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described filter cell (400) is to reach the reflection type optical fiber grating that Rayleigh scattering light dorsad and the bandwidth that Brillouin scattering separates is dorsad less than to 0.09nm, the double optical fiber grating wave filter of two fiber gratings and isolator composition, Fabry-Perot interferometer, Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
5. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described data acquisition process unit (600) comprises time interval analyzer and digital signal processing unit, there is the photon counting ability of time correlation, can add up surveyed photon number, and can record the time interval of detector output photoelectric signal and optical pulse generation unit LED pulse.
6. the spontaneous brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer of based superconductive nano wire single-photon detector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described data acquisition process unit (600) is combined by photon counter and the high-speed figure oscillograph with photon counting performance, or capture card and computing machine combination, or MCA.
CN201110314519.3A 2011-10-17 2011-10-17 Spontaneous Brillouin scattering optical time domain reflectometer based on superconductive nanowire single-proton detector CN102506904B (en)

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