CN102435510B - Assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus - Google Patents

Assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102435510B
CN102435510B CN 201110412228 CN201110412228A CN102435510B CN 102435510 B CN102435510 B CN 102435510B CN 201110412228 CN201110412228 CN 201110412228 CN 201110412228 A CN201110412228 A CN 201110412228A CN 102435510 B CN102435510 B CN 102435510B
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sample
box
ring
dress
stiff
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CN102435510A (en
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符文熹
郑星
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Sichuan University
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Sichuan University
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Abstract

The invention discloses an assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus for performing shearing test and compression test on multiple types of variable dimension rock soil samples. Each of the upper shearing box and the lower shearing box of the main body of the apparatus adopts an assembled variable dimension sample box suite consisting of at least two sets of sample box rigid components which can be connected with each other in a laminated mode, each set of sample box rigid component comprises a plurality of sample loading rings which are nested by one another, and each inner sample loading ring is axially limited by each outer sample loading ring in a single direction; the rigid components which form the upper shearing box and the lower shearing box respectively are anchored together, and one set of rigid component is arranged in each of the upper shearing box and the lower shearing box; and a rolling support matching structure is arranged on the outermost sample loading ring, water draining grooves are formed on the sample loading rings which are positioned at the bottom of the lower shearing box, and the water draining function can be closed according to a test requirement. The direct shearing test and the compression test of soil samples and soft rock, the direct shearing test of rock joints and the in-situ direct shearing test of soil bodies and the soft rock can be performed. The apparatus is easy to operation and convenient to maintain, dismount and assemble and has high environment adaptability.

Description

Assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of test unit, be mainly used in carrying out indoor or open-air Rock And Soil staight scissors compression test.
Background technology
In the Geotechnical Engineering field, the mechanics parameter index of obtaining Rock And Soil in target engineering zone by the test approach that usually is absolutely necessary.Mainly draw at present the intensity index of Rock And Soil by shop experiment.Shop experiment comprises large and small triaxial test, direct shear test, compression test etc.Indoor direct shear test comprises standard cutting ring staight scissors and large-sized square box staight scissors.These tests are all fixedly under specimen size, sample sheared or compressed, can not realize the variation on specimen size.
At present, also relatively lack and to carry out the instrument and equipment of direct shear test in the open air, such as the open-air original position direct shear apparatus that utilizes lever principle, lateral pressure applies with counterweight, horizontal thrust applies with manpower, the counter-force that can provide is all less, especially lacks to possess soil body sample to be become size combinations is sheared and the function of compression, and can also carry out the instrument and equipment of the compression test of the shearing of soft rock and rock.
in order to study the shearing strength relation of same Rock And Soil sample when the change in size, and realize the soil body, the soft rock shearing is comprehensive with the hard rock compression test, the size effect Changing Pattern of soil body mechanical characteristic can be studied and test can be carried out in the open air, it is anxious that to be developed to go out a cover function more complete, the shearing compressometer that the scope of application is wider, require this instrument to have the counter-force of applying larger, small volume, weight is lighter, the laying out apparatus of test has size variable, the characteristics of disassembly and assembly easily, thereby be easy to carry and carry out the shear test of different size (comprising different ratio of height to diameters and different aspect ratios) ground sample to the field.
Summary of the invention
Be only applicable to the deficiency of fixed measure sample in order to overcome existing direct shear apparatus, technical matters to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus, this instrument can carry out direct shear test and the compression test of soil sample and soft rock, and the direct shear test of rock joint.
the technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus, comprise reaction frame, sample box and be connected with reaction frame and be arranged on horizontal loading apparatus between reaction frame and sample box, the vertical loading device, described shear box comprises shear box, the down cut box and be arranged on shear box and the down cut box between rolling support, described upper shear box, the down cut box all adopts Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, described Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite by at least two covers can mutual stacked connection the sample box stiff member form, every suit sample box stiff member comprises at least two mutually nested dress sample rings, in each adjacent two dress sample rings, the outer rim that is positioned at inboard dress sample ring fits with the inner edge of the dress sample ring that is positioned at the outside, be positioned at inboard dress sample ring and be positioned at the dress sample annulate shaft in the outside to unidirectional spacing, be provided with the rolling support matching structure on outermost dress sample ring in a wherein cover sample box stiff member of composition Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite.
In described each adjacent two dress sample rings, be positioned at inboard dress sample ring outer rim and be provided with positioning spigot, the dress sample ring inner edge that is positioned at the outside is provided with and the corresponding locating slot of corresponding positioning spigot.
Described sample box stiff member also comprises one group of part of filling up with locating slot coupling.
Described positioning spigot and/or the locating slot that respectively fills the sample ring has four, and the layout that is centrosymmetric.
All offer rhone on each dress sample ring of a described wherein cover sample box stiff member, when each dress sample ring is nested with setting means, rhone on each dress sample ring forms groove, otherwise wherein has at least two rhones on adjacent dress sample ring mutually to stagger.
The described outer rim that is provided with the dress sample ring of rolling support matching structure is square, and is provided with two fixedly ears on outer rim.
Described compressometer also comprises one group of force transmitting board, each piece plate in this group force transmitting board respectively from the sample box stiff member in the inner edge of different dress sample rings be complementary, the center of force transmitting board is provided with the counterbore with vertical loading device coupling.
Described force transmitting board is the porous disc that is laid with permeable hole.
Described reaction frame comprises the column of base plate, vertical reaction plate, horizontal reacting force post and four rectangular distribution, column and horizontal reacting force post are screw mandrel, base plate is parallel to each other with vertical reaction plate and is vertical with each column and be fixed on each column by nut, the horizontal reacting force seat that has been threaded on the horizontal reacting force post, the stiff end of horizontal loading apparatus contacts with the horizontal reacting force seat.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: can realize that rock, soil sample straighten combination staight scissors and the compression test of footpath, And of Varying Depth, lighter weight, be easy to carry, disassembly and assembly are convenient, are applicable to indoor and the field is carried out Rock And Soil and sheared compression test; Instrument is convenient to maintenance, and parts machining is easy, and the characteristics of have good environmental adaptability, simple to operate, cost is low, general personnel slightly just can operate through guidance are suitable for promoting the use of in on-the-spot original state ground staight scissors compression test in the open air.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the agent structure schematic diagram of assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of sample box stiff member (with drainage channels).
Fig. 3 is the vertical view of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of general sample box stiff member.
Fig. 5 is the vertical view of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is the front view of one of them dress sample ring of sample box stiff member in Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is the A-A cut-open view of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is the B-B cut-open view of Fig. 6.
Fig. 9 is the front view of one of them dress sample ring of sample box stiff member in Fig. 4.
Figure 10 is the front view of one of them dress sample ring of sample box stiff member in Fig. 4.
Figure 11 is the schematic diagram of outermost dress sample ring (band ball grooves).
Figure 12 is the C-C cut-open view of Figure 11.
Figure 13 is the schematic diagram of force transmitting board (being provided with permeable hole).
Figure 14 is the schematic diagram of force transmitting board (without permeable hole).
Figure 15 is the enlarged diagram of filling up part.
be labeled as in figure, the 1-reaction frame, the 2-horizontal loading apparatus, 3-vertical loading device, the 4-shear box, the upper shear box of 41-, 42-down cut box, 43-rigidity shear layer, the 5-rolling support, the 6-force transmitting board, the 11-base plate, the 12-column, the vertical reaction plate of 13-, 14-horizontal reacting force post, 15-horizontal reacting force seat, the 16-nut, 17-vertical loading device rolling support, the 18-steel plate, 40-sample box stiff member, the 61-counterbore, the 62-permeable hole, 400-dress sample ring 400, the outermost dress sample of 401-ring, the 402-positioning spigot, the 403-locating slot, 404-fills up part, the 405-ball grooves, the 406-rhone, 407-is ear fixedly, the 408-bolt hole.
Embodiment
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
as Fig. 1~shown in Figure 15, assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention comprises reaction frame 1, sample box 4 and be connected with reaction frame 1 and be arranged on horizontal loading apparatus 2 between reaction frame 1 and sample box 4, vertical loading device 3, described sample box 4 comprises shear box 41, down cut box 42 and be arranged on shear box 41 and down cut box 42 between rolling support 5, described upper shear box 41, down cut box 42 all adopts Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, described Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite by at least two covers can mutual stacked connection sample box stiff member 40 form, every suit sample box stiff member 40 comprises at least two mutually nested dress sample rings 400, in each adjacent two dress sample rings 400, the outer rim that is positioned at inboard dress sample ring 400 fits with the inner edge of the dress sample ring 400 that is positioned at the outside, being positioned at inboard dress sample ring 400, to be positioned at the dress sample ring 400 in the outside axially unidirectional spacing, after outermost dress sample ring 401 is mutually permanently connected, inboard dress sample ring 400 spacingly also is fixed simultaneously because of should be axial unidirectional, be provided with the rolling support matching structure on outermost dress sample ring 401 in a wherein cover sample box stiff member 40 of composition Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite.
upper shear box 41, down cut box 42 all adopts Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, described Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite by at least two covers can mutual stacked connection sample box stiff member 40 form, be for the During Geotechnical Tests standard in the requirement of sample ratio of height to diameter adapt, each dress sample ring 400 in sample box stiff member 40 has identical thickness, the sample box stiff member 40 that respectively overlaps that forms same set of Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite also has identical thickness, when the most inboard dress sample ring 400 of sample box stiff member 40 varies in size, the cross-sectional area of its inner chamber is corresponding to change, the number of plies of the sample box stiff member 40 of the stacked connection that Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite comprises also can correspondingly adjust, be the sectional area of laying out apparatus and highly all capable of regulating variations, sample box 4 and the sample of different size are complementary, thereby the shear test that same staight scissors compressometer is used for the different size sample.
obviously, consider placement location and convenient fixing after each Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite is assembled, in sample box stiff member 40, the rolling support matching structure of a cover sample box stiff member 40 wherein is arranged on end face when respectively filling sample ring 400 and can mutually nestedly support, and the rolling support matching structure of another set of sample box stiff member 40 is arranged on the bottom surface when respectively filling sample ring 400 and can be mutually nested supporting, alleged end face spindle is the end face of inboard dress sample ring 400 not limited sides upwards, alleged bottom surface spindle is the end face of inboard dress sample ring 400 limited sides upwards.
From testing requirements, usually upper shear box 41, down cut box 42 each sample box stiff members 40 by identical tricks consist of, to guarantee that shear surface is positioned at sample and hits exactly, and upper shear box 41, that one deck that down cut box 42 is relative should use that cover sample box stiff member 40 that is provided with the rolling support matching structure on outermost dress sample ring 401, with the convenient rolling support 5 of installing.In addition, usually requiring to fill in each layer sample ring 400 has higher right alignment, with the warranty test precision.
The intracavity section shape of dress sample ring 400 is generally circular or square according to the test needs, but keeps circular sectional area to equate with square sectional area, with the variation of the investigation sample cross sectional shape impact on test findings.Be preferably each compressometer and be equipped with circular hole sample box stiff member and each some covers of square hole sample box stiff member.When assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention is used for soil sample and the experiment of soft rock uniaxial compression, only uses down cut box 42 and do not need shear box 41, this moment can be by adding the height of sample box stiff member 40 corresponding increase down cut boxes 42.Its using method is: sample is put into down cut box 42, put lastblock force transmitting board 6 at the sample top, the vertical loading device forces on force transmitting board 6 until sample destroys.Because down cut box 42 adopts Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, same reason can be used for same staight scissors compressometer the uniaxial compression test of different size sample.
as Fig. 4~shown in Figure 10, because all connect by the outermost sample ring 401 that respectively fills during stacked installation, therefore in each adjacent two dress sample rings 400, be positioned at inboard dress sample ring 400 outer rims and be provided with positioning spigot 402, dress sample ring 400 inner edges that are positioned at the outside are provided with and the corresponding locating slot 403 of corresponding positioning spigot 402, to reduce the requirement on machining accuracy of dress sample ring 400, guarantee respectively to fill in sample box stiff member 40 right alignment of sample ring, and then avoid levels that sample eccentric so that pack into occurs between the dress sample ring 400 of same radial position and do not satisfy testing requirements.No matter fill sample ring 400 and be annulus or Fang Huan, positioning spigot 402 and locating slot 403 preferably all are set.
As Fig. 4~Figure 10 and shown in Figure 15, at this moment, for the complete Pass Test requirement of the sample that guarantees to pack into, improve test accuracy, described sample box stiff member 40 also comprise one group with locating slot 403 coupling fill up part 404, should adopt equal number and shape and big or small also identical locating slot 403 on described each cavity ring.
As shown in Figures 2 and 3, in order to realize draining shearing or undrained shear, can all offer rhone 406 on each dress sample ring 400 with a described wherein cover sample box stiff member 40, when each dress sample ring 400 is nested with setting means, each rhone 406 is interconnected, shear to be used for draining, when nested with the alternate manner beyond setting means, rhone 406 at least two adjacent dress sample rings 400 is staggered mutually, just can make rhone 406 sealings as long as there is wherein rhone 406 on two adjacent dress sample rings 400 mutually stagger.If need to do undrained shear when test of full-size sample, the bottommost that the sample box stiff member 40 that any one deck is not provided with rhone is placed in down cut box 42 gets final product.
As Fig. 4~shown in Figure 10, preferred described positioning spigot 402 and/or the locating slot 403 that respectively fills sample ring 400 has four, and the layout that is centrosymmetric, and the dress sample ring 400 of symmetrical structure is conducive to improve packaging efficiency, and has facilitated the setting of rhone 406.At this moment, the quantity of filling up part 404 of corresponding every cover sample box stiff member 40 is also four, and at this moment, when designing and arranging tank 406 is communicated with, two mutual out of plumb of straight line at place can realize that draining and undrained shear can share same set of sample box stiff member 40.
It should be noted that, that cover sample box stiff member 40 that is provided with rhone 406 should not be that cover sample box stiff member 40 that is provided with the rolling support matching structure, to improve versatility, because that cover sample box stiff member 40 that is provided with rhone 406 must be positioned at the bottom of down cut box 42, and the face at rhone 406 places is positioned at bottommost.The horizontal loading apparatus 2 of staight scissors compressometer is the upper shear box 41 that acts in sample box 4.In order to facilitate horizontal loading apparatus 2 to act on sample box 4, the described outer rim that is provided with the dress sample ring 401 of rolling support matching structure is square, and be provided with two fixedly ears 407 on outer rim, two groups in the up and down correspondence are fixedly inserted register pin in ear 407, the two groups of sample box stiff members 40 that belong to upper shear box 41, down cut box 42 are carried out radial location, guarantee right alignment, guarantee that specimen size satisfies testing requirements, improve test accuracy, after the dress sample is complete, the register pin extraction is got final product.
Respectively overlap the stacked connection of sample box stiff member 40 for convenience of what will consist of Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, can fill on sample ring 400 in each outermost of overlapping sample box stiff member 40 and process pin-and-hole or bolt hole 408, connect the stacked sample box stiff member 40 that respectively overlaps by pin or bolt, it should be noted that pin-and-hole or the bolt hole 408 on that cover sample box stiff member 40 that is provided with the rolling support matching structure should be processed as blind hole this moment.
Vertical loading device 3 positive pressure are in sample for convenience, described compressometer also comprises one group of force transmitting board 6, each piece plate in this group force transmitting board 6 is complementary with the inner edge that each fills sample ring 400 respectively, and the center of force transmitting board 6 is provided with the counterbore 61 with vertical loading device 3 couplings.
When needs were used for the draining shearing, described force transmitting board 6 was for being laid with the porous disc of permeable hole 62.In practice, preferably respectively configure one group of waterproof steel plate and permeable steel plate as force transmitting board 6.
For eliminating the impact of sliding friction on test findings between upper and lower shear box, need between upper and lower shear box relative surface, rolling support 5 be set, the general steel ball that adopts of described rolling support 5, therefore, the structure of described and rolling support 5 couplings is generally the ball grooves 405 that two row are parallel and arrange with respect to the Central Symmetry of dress sample ring 400.
shear test usually requires xsect with the sample middle as shear surface, when the laying out apparatus capable of regulating, obviously, relative position between laying out apparatus and horizontal loading apparatus 2 need to be adjusted accordingly, at this moment, can adjust by add the mode of adjusting cushion block below laying out apparatus, the mode of vertical height that also can be by adjusting horizontal loading apparatus 2 is adjusted, in order to alleviate the weight of equipment set, after preferred, a kind of mode is adjusted, as shown in Figure 1, described reaction frame 1 comprises base plate 11, vertical reaction plate 13, the column 12 of horizontal reacting force post 14 and four rectangular distribution, column 12 and horizontal reacting force post 14 are screw mandrel, base plate 11 is parallel to each other with vertical reaction plate 13 and is vertical with each column 12 and be fixed on each column 12 by nut 16, horizontal reacting force seat 15 has been threaded on horizontal reacting force post 14, the stiff end of horizontal loading apparatus 2 contacts with horizontal reacting force seat 15.
Need to prove, except reaction frame 1, horizontal loading apparatus 2, vertical loading device 3 etc., the requisite ingredient of boxshear apparatus or compressometer also comprises data acquisition and recording system, in these areas, assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention can be with reference to using prior art, main improvement of the present invention is sample box 4, and sample box 4 is also sometimes referred to as laying out apparatus.
Embodiment:
As Fig. 1~shown in Figure 15, assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention, it has comprised the standard size of laboratory direct shear test, after being provided with shear surface artificially, can apply several grades vertical loads to the soil body and soft rock sample and shear or compression test, also can carry out shear test to rock mass discontinuity.
at first utilize the steel plate of 2.5cm thickness, 1. making be numbered~8. eight cover sample box stiff members 40, namely be used for consisting of upper shear box 41, the thickness of the sample box stiff member 40 of down cut box 42 is 2.5cm, every cover sample box stiff member 40 is comprised of four concentric steel loops, wherein outermost one deck steel loop outer rim is square, length of side 27cm, thereby inside is drawn the cylinder of diameter as 20cm take its centre of form as the center of circle and is formed a cavity ring one, be provided with bolt hole 408 on cavity ring one, and then be an external diameter 20cm, the cavity ring two of internal diameter 15cm, institute is nested by square steel loop, then this encircles a nested external diameter 15cm, the cavity ring three of internal diameter 10cm, three nested external diameter 10cm of cavity ring, the cavity ring four of internal diameter diameter 6.18cm, for realizing the axial unidirectional spacing of each ring, so that the fixing sample ring that respectively fills, avoid the contraposition that relatively moves and facilitate rhone in shear history between each ring, the upper relative set positioning spigot 402 of each ring and locating slot 403, locating slot 403 is located on end face, thereby realize relative positioning and axially unidirectional spacing.In addition, make respectively one group of permeable and fluid-tight force transmitting board 6, every group of force transmitting board 6 has four blocks of plates, is plectane, and diameter is respectively 20cm, 15cm, 10cm, 6.18cm.
be shaped as square if respectively overlap dress sample ring 400 intracavity sections of sample box stiff member 40, corresponding cavity ring one is outer rim length of side 27cm, " returning " shape ring of inner edge length of side 17.72cm, cavity ring two is outer rim length of side 17.72cm, " returning " shape ring of inner edge length of side 13.29cm, cavity ring three is outer rim length of side 13.29cm, " returning " shape ring of inner edge length of side 8.86cm, cavity ring four is outer rim length of side 8.86cm, " returning " shape ring of inner edge length of side 5.475cm, the sectional area that is the sectional area of square sample and right cylinder sample is suitable, permeable or fluid-tight force transmitting board 6 is square plate accordingly, the length of side is respectively 17.72cm, 13.29cm, 8.86cm, 5.475cm.
Sample box stiff member 40 realizes that by nested mode the radial dimension of sample changes, each fills sample ring 400 can mutually nested support and interconnecting and fixing by outermost layer dress sample ring 401, when other dress sample ring beyond the Application standard internal diameter is the dress sample ring of 6.18cm contacts with sample, each locating slot 403 of the most inboard cavity ring of contact sample is interior correspondingly to be filled up to fill up part 404, in order to avoid dress during sample sample clamp-on in locating slot 403, thereby guarantee that specimen size is accurate.
Some sample box stiff member 40 local structure is slightly different:
Be numbered and be provided with symmetrical fixedly ear 407 on the cavity ring one of sample box stiff member 40 4., and be provided with ball grooves 405 in its bottom surface;
Be numbered and be provided with symmetrical fixedly ear 407 on the cavity ring one of sample box stiff member 40 5., and be provided with ball grooves 405 at its end face;
Each cavity ring bottom surface that is numbered 8. sample box stiff member 40 is carved with four rhones 406 symmetrically.When the rhone 406 rotation alignment of four cavity ring of this layer, sample can realize that the bottom surface draining shears; After any ring was rotary shifted, drainage channel was closed, and sample is realized undrained shear.
Be numbered 1., 2., 3., shear box 41 in 4. the stacked fixedly formation of sample box stiff member 40, be numbered 5., 6., 7., the stacked fixedly formation of sample box stiff member 40 down cut box 42 8..
Four angle points and the four limit mid points of the cavity ring one of every layer of sample box stiff member 40 all are drilled with bolt hole 408, realize sample variation in height thereby can be easily with the bolt of certain-length, the sample box stiff member 40 of certain tricks be fixed together.
For realizing the movement of vertical loading device 3 in the vertical directions, four root posts 12 on reaction frame 1 adopt four rhizoid bars, it is fixing that itself and vertical reaction plate 13, base plate 11 1 are reinstated nut 16, can realize that so vertical reaction plate 13 is in the location at column 12 arbitrary height places.
As Fig. 1~shown in Figure 15, assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of the present invention comprises by vertical reaction plate 13, four and is the reaction frame 1 that column 12, base plate 11, horizontal reacting force post 14, horizontal reacting force baffle plate 15 and some nuts 16 of square profile form, upper shear box 41 and down cut box 42 and the counter force system that is comprised of vertical loading device 3, horizontal loading apparatus 2 and vertical loading device rolling support 17.The height of upper shear box 41 and down cut box 42 determines by the number of plies of each self-contained sample box stiff member 40, and each is capable of being combined goes out 2.5cm, 5cm, 7.5cm, four height of 10cm.It should be noted that, 4. number sample box stiff member 40 in upper shear box 41 must be placed on the bottom, because which is provided with ball grooves 405,5. number sample box stiff member 40 in down cut box 42 must be placed on top simultaneously, be provided with equally ball grooves 405 on it, 8. number sample box stiff member 40 in down cut box 42 must be placed on the bottom, because which is provided with rhone 406.When the need sample that is 5cm to specimen height carries out draining and shears, upper shear box 41 only has 4. number sample box stiff member 40, down cut box 42 should with 5. 8. number sample box stiff member 40 be fixed together, and the 8. interior installation diameter of cavity ring four of number sample box stiff member 40 be 6.18cm, highly for the permeable stone of 2.5cm to realize draining.
During on-test, first assemble instrument.Column 12, horizontal reacting force post 14 use nuts 16 are fixed together with base plate 11, the down cut box 42 that assembles according to the sample blade diameter length ratio of standard defined is fixed together with base plate 11 use bolts, then put into the appropriate steel ball after lubricated as rolling support 5 in the ball grooves 405 of 5. number sample box stiff member 40, upper shear box 41 left-hand threads that are connected equally on down cut box 42, are noticed that steel ball should embed in the closed guide slot that upper and lower ball grooves 405 forms.For avoiding left-hand thread upper and lower shear box together ball row along shear surface when filling sample to slide, as shown in Figure 3, near shear surface 4., 5. insert pin in the fixedly ear 407 on the cavity ring one of number sample box stiff member 40, upper and lower shear box is fixed, and the complete rear extraction pin of dress sample gets final product.
During the dress sample, for the soil sample of human configuration, will get final product in its sample box 4 of successively packing into by test standard.For undisturbed soil, should use special sampler barrel that getting undisturbed is put into the sample box 4 that assembles carefully and test.The size of soft rock sample also should conform to corresponding sample box inside dimension.
For the shear test of rock mass discontinuity, due to specimen shape possibility very irregular, the reply sample carries out certain processing before test.Be generally with concrete, sample to be wrapped up to become with the inner corresponding regular shape of instrument dress sample box in order to can put into sample box, the position at structural plane place will be placed in the shear surface position of instrument and can test.
For soil sample, after sample filling is complete, whether install the permeable or fluid-tight force transmitting board 6 of corresponding size additional at the sample top depending on the draining of test.For soft rock, need not consider drainage problem.
Vertical reaction plate 13 use nuts are fixed on position suitable on column 12 and it is adjusted into horizontality as far as possible.Be placed between vertical loading device 3 and vertical reaction plate 13 after the steel ball that is carved with two block plates of ball grooves and lubricated is assembled into vertical loading device rolling support 17, vertical loading device 3 can be interfixed between the lower floor's steel plate with itself and vertical loading device rolling support 17 after the sample application of force a little.Horizontal loading apparatus 2 is placed on the bearing made from certain thickness plancon, its rear end contacts with horizontal reacting force seat 15, horizontal reacting force seat 15 is threaded with horizontal reacting force post 14, thereby the height of capable of regulating horizontal loading apparatus 2, the front end of horizontal loading apparatus 2 contacts with the 4. number sample box stiff member 40 of upper shear box 41 near shear surfaces, when reducing the horizontal application of force as far as possible to the moment of torsion of shear surface.
Install and measure machinery or the digital display dial gauge of sample level and vertical deformation on upper shear box 41.Apply certain lateral pressure and can carry out shear test.Carry out quick shear test, consolidated quick shear test, slow shear test by " earthwork test rule ".Every group of test should prepare 4 to 5 samples, and its density difference must not be greater than 0.03g/cm 3, the water percentage difference must not be greater than 1%.Test under different pressures, pressure at right angles at different levels are differential roughly the same.The staight scissors mode of operation of the direct shear test of soft rock and soil sample is roughly the same, does not just need draining in process of the test.
During the soil sample compression test, by " earthwork test rule " regulation, this instrument is applicable to the coarse-grained soil that maximum particle diameter is 2.5cm, and this moment, specimen finish should be 20cm, highly should be 10cm.Also can test the sample of other sizes, but corresponding sample maximum particle diameter should reduce by standard is corresponding.Carry out sample preparation and test by undisturbed or the disturbance sample of this standard for other great soil groups equally.
Clock gauge is installed is measured the vertical distortion of sample.Apply lateral pressures at different levels, establishing the maximum actual pressure of soil layer is 200m level earth and rockfill dam, and maximum lateral pressure is the 4MPa left and right, and testing the afterbody pressure that applies is the 4200KPa left and right.Pressure rating is generally 50,100,200,400,800,1600,3200,4200KPa, and this moment, vertical loading device 3 minimum specified load capability was 15 tons.
During the Rock Under Uniaxial Compression compression test, according to test specification, the rock sample standard size is the cylinder of diameter 5cm, high 10cm.The dress sampling device of this moment need to form down cut box 42 by quadruplet sample box stiff member 40, and each grip assembly not need external diameter be the cavity ring four of 10cm.Sample is put into down cut box 42, adjust simultaneously the position of vertical reaction plate 13 and vertical loading device 3 according to aforementioned operation, no longer needing this moment to note vertical loading device rolling support 17, an available block plate replaces.Sillar collapses the bullet wound people when avoiding sample to destroy, and can install a special protective cover additional around sample.Put the force transmitting board 6 of size and specimen finish coupling at the sample top, vertical loading device 3 forces on force transmitting board 6 until sample destroys.Because the rock sample breakdown strength is many more than 100MPa, so this moment, vertical loading device 3 used should can provide the load of 30 tons at least.
It is the lifting jack of 15 tons that horizontal loading apparatus 2 and vertical loading device 3 can use minimum specified load capability.The intensity of vertical loading device 3 can be reached for the lateral pressure that compression test provides 4.2MPa.According to standard, the described compressometer of the present embodiment can be realized direct shear and the compression concretion test of the coarse-grained soil of maximum particle diameter 2.5cm.

Claims (9)

1. assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus, comprise reaction frame (1), sample box (4) and be connected with reaction frame (1) and be arranged on horizontal loading apparatus (2) between reaction frame (1) and sample box (4), vertical loading device (3), described sample box (4) comprises shear box (41), down cut box (42) and be arranged on shear box (41) and down cut box (42) between rolling support (5), it is characterized in that: described upper shear box (41), down cut box (42) all adopts Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite, described Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite by at least two covers can mutual stacked connection sample box stiff member (40) form, every suit sample box stiff member (40) comprises at least two mutually nested dress sample rings (400), in each adjacent two dress sample rings (400), the outer rim that is positioned at inboard dress sample ring (400) fits with the inner edge of the dress sample ring (400) that is positioned at the outside, being positioned at inboard dress sample ring (400), to be positioned at the dress sample ring (400) in the outside axially unidirectional spacing, be provided with the rolling support matching structure on outermost dress sample ring (401) in a wherein cover sample box stiff member (40) of composition Assembled variable-dimension sample box suite.
2. assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described each adjacent two dress sample rings (400), be positioned at inboard dress sample ring (400) outer rim and be provided with positioning spigot (402), dress sample ring (400) inner edge that is positioned at the outside is provided with and the corresponding locating slot (403) of corresponding positioning spigot (402).
3. assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that: described sample box stiff member (40) also comprise one group with the locating slot coupling fill up part (404).
4. assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that: described positioning spigot (402) and/or the locating slot (403) that respectively fills sample ring (400) has four, and the layout that is centrosymmetric.
5. as the described assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of any one claim in claim 1~4, it is characterized in that: all offer rhone (406) on each dress sample ring (400) of a described wherein cover sample box stiff member (40), when each dress sample ring (400) is nested with setting means, rhone (406) on each dress sample ring (400) forms groove, otherwise wherein has at least two rhones (406) on adjacent dress sample ring (400) mutually to stagger.
6. as the described assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of any one claim in claim 1~4, it is characterized in that: the described outer rim that is provided with the dress sample ring (401) of rolling support matching structure is square, and is provided with two fixedly ears (407) on outer rim.
7. as the described assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of any one claim in claim 1~4, it is characterized in that: described compressometer also comprises one group of force transmitting board (6), each piece plate in this group force transmitting board (6) respectively from sample box stiff member (40) in the inner edges of different dress sample rings (400) be complementary, the center of force transmitting board (6) is provided with the counterbore (61) with vertical loading device coupling.
8. assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that: described force transmitting board (6) is for being laid with the porous disc of permeable hole (62).
9. as the described assembled variable dimension direct shearing compression apparatus of any one claim in claim 1~4, it is characterized in that: described reaction frame (1) comprises base plate (11), vertical reaction plate (13), the column (12) of horizontal reacting force post (14) and four rectangular distribution, column (12) and horizontal reacting force post (14) are screw mandrel, base plate (11) is parallel to each other with vertical reaction plate (13) and is vertical with each column (12) and be fixed on each column (12) by nut (16), horizontal reacting force seat (15) has been threaded on horizontal reacting force post (14), the stiff end of horizontal loading apparatus (2) contacts with horizontal reacting force seat (15).
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