CN102426396B - Testing apparatus for simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism - Google Patents

Testing apparatus for simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102426396B
CN102426396B CN 201110259238 CN201110259238A CN102426396B CN 102426396 B CN102426396 B CN 102426396B CN 201110259238 CN201110259238 CN 201110259238 CN 201110259238 A CN201110259238 A CN 201110259238A CN 102426396 B CN102426396 B CN 102426396B
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China
Prior art keywords
displacement
displacement meter
air bag
electrical measurement
strata
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CN 201110259238
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102426396A (en
Inventor
王建秀
隋东昌
田普卓
胡蒙蒙
汪沛
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同济大学
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Publication of CN102426396A publication Critical patent/CN102426396A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a testing apparatus for simulating a deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism. The testing apparatus comprises a model box, a strata similar material, a molding fixed boundary mold, an air bag and measuring equipment. The model box is a main carrier of a model test; the strata similar material is used for simulating actual strata and combinations thereof; the molding fixed boundary mold is used for simulating the deep displacement boundary conditions of strata and can achieve the purpose of simulating different displacement boundary conditions through replacing molds with different shapes and parameters; the air bag is combined with the fixed boundary mold and is used for simulating the deep displacement of the strata and can preciselycontrol the air pressure in the air bag through an air valve to achieve the purpose of controlling displacement boundary parameters; and the measuring equipment achieves the precise measurement of a stratified displacement, a surface displacement, a soil pressure, a pore water pressure and the like. The testing apparatus for simulating the deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism can be used for indoors simulating the influence of an underground deep continuous deformation process on an overlying strata deformation mechanism.

Description

A kind of test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism
Technical field
The invention belongs to Geological Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering and tunnel and underground engineering field, be specifically related to a kind of test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism.
Background technology
At present, at the simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism analysis field, there is no the correlation test device.Test unit related to the present invention mainly contains various simulation tunnel excavations to the test unit of surrounding soil impact, is mainly used in STRESS VARIATION and the deformation of surrounding soil in the centrifugal model test simulation Shield Tunneling process.For example Sun Bing and the enemy Culture Revolution are annotated the caused Stratum Loss of mode simulation tunnel shield tunneling that discharges water with water pocket in paper " research of diplopore shield tunnel surface displacement centrifugal machine model trial ".This type of test unit can only be simulated a kind of operating mode mostly, can not reuse, and in the time will changing boundary condition, whole experimental provision must redesign, and the time cycle is long and cause to a certain degree the wasting of resources.The place one's entire reliance upon compressibility of air bag of the accuracy of this type of test unit institute simulating boundary condition, and air bag is easy to occur the non-directional distortion in process of the test, the boundary condition that causes actual boundary condition and test to simulate differs too large.In a word, this type of test unit can accurately not simulated actual boundary condition, also causes the waste of time and resource, and many limitation are arranged in practice.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism, can solve the problem that causes stratum deformation and land subsidence in the displacement of desk research deep formation, the engineering that can simulate is actual to be mainly contained: deep formation precipitation causes top each soil layer distortion and surface subsidence problem, subway tunnel shield advance and the section of jurisdiction installation process in because Stratum Loss causes tunnel upper soil horizon deformation and land subsidence situation.
For achieving the above object, solution of the present invention is:
A kind of test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism, comprise model casing 1, the stratum analog material, moulding fixed displacement border mould, air bag and measuring equipment, wherein: model casing 1 is the transparent cylinder structure, steelframe 5 is positioned at model casing 1 top, prefabricated the forming of displacement boundary conditions that described moulding fixed displacement border mould 22 requires according to model test, moulding fixed displacement border mould 22 is positioned at model casing 1 inner bottom part, air bag 16 is positioned at mould 22 tops, moulding fixed displacement border, air bag 16 tops are provided with the stratum analog material, and analog material top in stratum is provided with measuring equipment; Air bag 16 top center are provided with air bag interface 15, described air bag interface 15 connecting gas transmission pipes 10 1 ends, and gas piping 10 other ends connect pressure regulator valve 17 and barometer 18, are provided with barometer 14 in the air bag 16; Measuring equipment comprises contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2, pad 3, contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block 4, layering displacement meter 6, delaminating deposition mark 7, delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block 8 and sleeve pipe 9, contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 passes through contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block 4 in steelframe 5 bottoms, contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 connects computer 20 by contact electrical measurement displacement meter data line 19, the stratum analog material is close in the bottom surface of pad 3, end face contacts with contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 probes, pad 3 moves with the landing surface analog material and mobile, contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 probes are transferred to pad 3 displacements that detect and carry out the signal conversion in the computer 20, form displacement data; Layering displacement meter 6 is fixed in steelframe 5 bottoms by delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block 8, layering displacement meter 6 connects computer 20 by delaminating deposition displacement meter data line 21, delaminating deposition mark 7 bottoms are fixed on the pad 3, the top contacts with layering displacement meter 6, the layering position claims to count 6 probes and pad 3 displacements that detect are transferred to carry out signal in the computer 20 and transform, and forms displacement data; Sleeve pipe 9 is placed in outside the delaminating deposition mark 7, and sleeve pipe 9 bottoms contact with pad 3, top and a sheet metal with holes welding, and described sheet metal aperture with holes is greater than the diameter of delaminating deposition mark 7.
Among the present invention, the quantity of described contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 is determined on a case-by-case basis, and is generally 4-10.
Among the present invention, the quantity of described layering displacement meter 6 is determined on a case-by-case basis, and is generally 5-20, and is corresponding, and minute sedimentation mark 7 and sleeve pipe 9 are 5-20.
Among the present invention, the middle part of moulding fixed boundary mould 22 is provided with groove, and air bag 16 is positioned at described groove, and air bag 16 is complementary with the structure of groove.
The present invention can observe in test the situation of change of air bag and each soil layer.The stratum analog material is mixed with indoor for the front model test ratio of similitude of test.Moulding fixed boundary mould and air bag form a whole, and are used for simulating the deep formation displacement.Wherein moulding fixed boundary mould is front prefabricated for experiment, and shape and size are set on request.Air bag also for prefabricated before the test, is accurately controlled air pressure in the air bag by barostat, thereby reaches the purpose that changes the deep formation displacement.Measurement equipment comprises displacement meter, delaminating deposition mark, also can add soil pressure cell, pore pressure gauge etc. according to testing requirements.Among the present invention, the large I of the pressure in the air bag is accurately measured by the barometer that places inside air bag.
Among the present invention, the displacement of deep soil layer is accurately measured by delaminating deposition mark and displacement meter.
Among the present invention, the size of model casing is determined according to model test mesarcs, ratio of similitude etc.Model casing is that transparent organic glass is made, and accurately and timely the qualitative observation test is dynamically in four sides that can be by model casing in the test.
Among the present invention, the stratum analog material is that indoors artificial is formulated.Can prepare by the similarity criterion in the model test according to the behavior of mechanics of each soil layer in the engineering reality.
Among the present invention, moulding fixed boundary mould is front prefabricated for test.Different displacement boundary conditions can realize by replacing different moulds.The parameters such as the shape of mould, size are set according to the requirement of model test.
Among the present invention, air bag forms by elastomeric material is prefabricated, and preferably tensile strength is arranged, elasticity, flexibility and impermeability.Accurately measure the pressure of inner chamber by built-in barometer.The air bag inner chamber is connected with gas piping by the interface of top center, and the other end of gas piping is equipped with pressure regulator valve and barometer, but the pressure in the fine adjustment air bag.
Measurement equipment comprises displacement meter, delaminating deposition mark.Also can add soil pressure cell and pore pressure gauge etc. according to testing requirements.Contact electrical measurement displacement meter is counted in displacement, and an end is installed on the fixedly steelframe of box top, and probe contacts with tested point.The delaminating deposition mark is used for measuring the land movement of the following certain depth in earth's surface, and its bottom is fixed on the pad, and the top contacts with the displacement meter probe, for eliminating the friction force impact of delaminating deposition mark surrounding soil, the sedimentation mark is enclosed within the aluminum mini diameter tube.
Generally speaking, this device is comprised of model casing, stratum analog material, moulding fixed displacement border mould, air bag, measurement equipment.Displacement boundary by moulding fixed boundary mould simulation Practical Project deep soil layer, control the distortion of air bag by the size of air pressure in the control air bag, thereby reach the purpose that changes deep soil layer displacement boundary conditions.
Owing to adopting technique scheme, the present invention can be used for the problem that simulation deep formation precipitation causes upper soil horizon distortion and land subsidence, also can be used for the compatibility of deformation of research subway tunnel shield progradation middle and upper part soil layer and the correlation test of land subsidence, have following beneficial effect:
1, can simulate upper soil horizon and ground settlement problem under the different displacement boundary conditions.
2, can comprehensively dynamically carry out qualitative, Quantitative Monitoring to testing.
3, equipment is simple and easy to use.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the test unit fundamental diagram of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is middle delaminating deposition target structural drawing embodiment illustrated in fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the structural drawing of middle capsule embodiment illustrated in fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is the structural drawing of middle fixed displacement mould embodiment illustrated in fig. 1.
Number in the figure: 1-model casing; 2-contact electrical measurement displacement meter; The 3-pad; 4-contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block; The 5-steelframe; 6-layering displacement meter; 7-delaminating deposition mark; 8-delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block; The 9-sleeve pipe; The 10-gas piping; 11-ground floor soil layer analog material; 12-second layer soil layer analog material; The 3rd layer of soil layer analog material of 13-; The 14-barometer; 15-air bag interface; The 16-air bag; The 17-pressure regulator valve; The 18-barometer; 19-contact electrical measurement displacement meter data line; The 20-computer; 21-delaminating deposition displacement meter data line; 22-moulding fixed displacement border mould.
Embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing illustrated embodiment.
Embodiment 1: see also Fig. 1-4, model casing 1 is rectangular structure, adopt transparent organic glass matter model casing, model casing 1 is the main carriers of cast material and measurement equipment in the model test, steelframe 5 is positioned at the top of model casing 1, is mainly used in fixed displacement meter and data line, and model casing 1 and steelframe 5 are fixed together by stationary installation, the node arrangement mode of steelframe 5 is relevant with the deployment scenarios of displacement measuring points, and the layout of displacement measuring points is arranged by the model test requirement.
Here be that to simulate three layers of soil layer be example, the stratum analog material comprises ground floor soil layer analog material 11, second layer soil layer analog material 12 and the 3rd layer of soil layer analog material 13.Deep displacement occurs in the bottom surface of the 3rd layer of soil layer analog material 13.Each similar soil layer is to be mixed with indoor by the model test ratio of similitude, and there are the guide relation in soil thickness, physical and mechanical parameter and Practical Project.
Moulding fixed displacement border mould 22 is to form irony by the displacement boundary conditions of model test requirement is prefabricated.Can reach the purpose that changes deep soil layer displacement boundary conditions by the different mould of conversion.
Air bag 16 forms by elastomeric material is prefabricated, and preferably tensile strength is arranged, elasticity, flexibility and impermeability.Can accurately measure the pressure of air bag 16 inner chambers by built-in barometer 14.Air bag 16 inner chambers are connected with gas piping 10 by the interface 15 of top center, and the other end of gas piping 10 is equipped with pressure regulator valve 17 and barometer 18, but the pressure in the fine adjustment air bag 16.Initial pressure in the air bag 16 and the deformation rule in the process of the test calculate through strict before experiment.
Measuring equipment comprises contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2, pad 3, contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block 4, layering displacement meter 6, delaminating deposition mark post 7, delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block 8, sleeve pipe 9, contact electrical measurement displacement meter data line 19, computer 20 and delaminating deposition displacement meter data line 21.Contact electric displacement meter standing grain is fixed on steelframe 5 bottoms by contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block 4, and its arrangement mode is arranged by the requirement of model test image data.Ground floor soil layer analog material 11 surfaces are close in pad 3 bottom surfaces of metal, end face contacts with contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 probes, therefore the stratum analog material surface displacement of pad below 3 can be with mobile gasket 3 to move, contact electrical measurement displacement meter 2 probes are transferred to pad 3 displacements that detect and carry out the signal conversion in the computer 20, form displacement data.Layering displacement meter 6 is fixed on steelframe 5 belows by delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block 8, can measure the displacement of the following certain depth soil layer in analog material earth's surface, stratum, can be contact electrical measurement displacement meter, can also be the non-contact laser displacement meter.Pad 3 welding of delaminating deposition mark 7 bottoms and a metal, the top contacts (if the contactless displacement meter is counted in the layering displacement, then Ear Mucosa Treated by He Ne Laser Irradiation is on the displacement meter top) with layering displacement meter 6.For eliminating delaminating deposition mark 7 surrounding soils to its rubbing action, be enclosed within on the delaminating deposition mark 7 with a sleeve pipe 9, described sleeve pipe 9 bottoms contact with the pad 3 of metal but are unfixing, top and a sheet metal welding with holes, the aperture is a bit larger tham the diameter of delaminating deposition mark 7, lateral shift and rotation displacement that like this can operative constraint delaminating deposition mark 7 unlikelyly again produce constraint to the vertical displacement of delaminating deposition target.
Manufacturing process of the present invention is as follows:
A. model casing is made
According to prototype and the ratio of similitude of model test, and consider the impact of boundary effect, design the size of model casing, analogue formation case 1.
B. the preparation of stratum analog material
According to the ratio of similitude of model test, make the stratum analog material that how much, behavior of mechanics meet requirement of experiment.
C. the making of interchangeable moulding fixed boundary mould and air bag
Geometric parameter according to deep formation displacement boundary conditions in the model test, make corresponding moulding fixed boundary mould 22 and air bag 16, make volume after air bag 16 inflation just equal the volume of moulding fixed boundary mould 22 concave surfaces, also equal the volume that displacement boundary face and surface level surround.Moulding fixed boundary mould 22 is made for rigid material, and air bag 16 is made for flexible rubber material.
D. measuring equipment
Number by model test layering displacement measuring points and ground settlement measuring point is got corresponding measuring sensor and data acquisition system (DAS) in advance ready.
E. composition model
(1) the test earth material is just calculated weight by the volume of the model casing stratified soil of determining and unit weight and is weighed;
(2) moulding fixed boundary die horizontal is placed on the bottom of model casing;
(3) barometer is placed inside air bag, in the groove that valve and the gas piping of air bag placed mould;
(4) in air bag, be inflated to the design atmospheric pressure value;
(5) even constant speed is thrown soil in model casing, whenever finishes one and takes turns throwing soil, changes another direction and carries out next round throwing soil, like this to avoid local throwing soil too much or very few, guarantees that every native formed soil thickness each point of throwing of taking turns is roughly even;
(6) at the pre-buried heavy delaminating deposition mark of design attitude;
(7) repeat above-mentioned steps, until thrown whole soil layers;
(8) contact electrical measurement displacement meter and layering displacement meter are installed.
F. begin test
G. by the atmospheric pressure value in the pressure regulator valve change air bag, by the data acquisition system (DAS) record data.
Atmospheric pressure value in the air bag is down to 0 step by step, wait data acquisition complete after, stop experiment.
The above-mentioned description to embodiment is can understand and apply the invention for ease of those skilled in the art.The person skilled in the art obviously can easily make various modifications to these embodiment, and needn't pass through performing creative labour being applied in the General Principle of this explanation among other embodiment.Therefore, the invention is not restricted to the embodiment here, those skilled in the art are according to announcement of the present invention, and not breaking away from the improvement that category of the present invention makes and revise all should be within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the test unit of a simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism, comprise model casing, the stratum analog material, moulding fixed displacement border mould, air bag and measuring equipment, it is characterized in that: model casing (1) is the transparent cylinder structure, steelframe (5) is positioned at model casing (1) top, prefabricated the forming of displacement boundary conditions that described moulding fixed displacement border mould (22) requires according to model test, moulding fixed displacement border mould (22) is positioned at model casing (1) inner bottom part, air bag (16) is positioned at moulding fixed displacement border mould (22) groove, air bag (16) top is provided with the stratum analog material, and analog material top in stratum is provided with measuring equipment; Air bag (16) top center is provided with air bag interface (15), described air bag interface (15) connecting gas transmission pipe (10) one ends, gas piping (10) other end connects pressure regulator valve (17) and barometer (18), is provided with barometer (14) in the air bag (16); Measuring equipment comprises contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2), pad (3), contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block (4), layering displacement meter (6), delaminating deposition mark (7), delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block (8) and sleeve pipe (9), contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2) is fixed in steelframe (5) bottom by contact electrical measurement displacement meter fixed block (4), contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2) connects computer (20) by contact electrical measurement displacement meter data line (19), the stratum analog material is close in the bottom surface of pad (3), end face contacts with contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2) probe, pad (3) moves with the landing surface analog material and mobile, contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2) probe is transferred to pad (3) displacement that detects and carries out the signal conversion in the computer (20), forms displacement data; Layering displacement meter (6) is fixed in steelframe (5) bottom by delaminating deposition displacement meter fixed block (8), layering displacement meter (6) connects computer (20) by delaminating deposition displacement meter data line (21), delaminating deposition mark (7) bottom is fixed on the pad (3), the top contacts with layering displacement meter (6), layering displacement meter (6) probe is transferred to pad (3) displacement that detects and carries out the signal conversion in the computer (20), forms displacement data; Sleeve pipe (9) is placed in outside the delaminating deposition mark (7), and sleeve pipe (9) bottom contacts with pad (3), and top and a sheet metal with holes weld, and described sheet metal aperture with holes is greater than the diameter of delaminating deposition mark (7).
2. the test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that described contact electrical measurement displacement meter (2) is 4-10.
3. the test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism according to claim 1 is characterized in that described layering displacement meter (6) is 5-20, and corresponding, delaminating deposition mark (7) and sleeve pipe (9) are 5-20.
4. the test unit of simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism according to claim 1, the middle part that it is characterized in that moulding fixed displacement border mould (22) is provided with groove, air bag (16) is positioned at described groove, and air bag (16) is complementary with the structure of groove.
CN 201110259238 2011-09-05 2011-09-05 Testing apparatus for simulating deep-displacement-initiated strata deformation coordination mechanism CN102426396B (en)

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CN105604104A (en) * 2016-03-02 2016-05-25 山东交通学院 Experiment model and method for simulating differential settlement of foundation based on air bag method
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CN105604105A (en) * 2016-03-02 2016-05-25 山东交通学院 Experiment model and method for simulating differential settlement of foundation based on water bag method
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CN101893617B (en) * 2010-06-24 2013-04-17 同济大学 Tester for testing discount rule of water pressure of grouting circle of anti-water pressure emission-limiting tunnel
CN102168562B (en) * 2010-08-13 2013-05-01 同济大学 Control system for tunnel stratum loss and grouting simulation in centrifugal field
CN102094432B (en) * 2011-03-07 2013-06-05 同济大学 Model for causing ground setting due to engineering environment effect and test method thereof

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