CN101903642B - 用于调节高压燃料存储器中压力的压力调节阀 - Google Patents

用于调节高压燃料存储器中压力的压力调节阀 Download PDF

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CN101903642B
CN101903642B CN2008801222859A CN200880122285A CN101903642B CN 101903642 B CN101903642 B CN 101903642B CN 2008801222859 A CN2008801222859 A CN 2008801222859A CN 200880122285 A CN200880122285 A CN 200880122285A CN 101903642 B CN101903642 B CN 101903642B
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pressure
fuel
electromagnet
combustion engine
internal
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CN101903642A (zh
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B·罗特
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罗伯特·博世有限公司
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/02Fuel-injection apparatus having several injectors fed by a common pumping element, or having several pumping elements feeding a common injector; Fuel-injection apparatus having provisions for cutting-out pumps, pumping elements, or injectors; Fuel-injection apparatus having provisions for variably interconnecting pumping elements and injectors alternatively
    • F02M63/0225Fuel-injection apparatus having a common rail feeding several injectors ; Means for varying pressure in common rails; Pumps feeding common rails
    • F02M63/023Means for varying pressure in common rails
    • F02M63/0235Means for varying pressure in common rails by bleeding fuel pressure
    • F02M63/025Means for varying pressure in common rails by bleeding fuel pressure from the common rail
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/0012Valves
    • F02M63/0014Valves characterised by the valve actuating means
    • F02M63/0015Valves characterised by the valve actuating means electrical, e.g. using solenoid
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/0012Valves
    • F02M63/0031Valves characterized by the type of valves, e.g. special valve member details, valve seat details, valve housing details
    • F02M63/0033Lift valves, i.e. having a valve member that moves perpendicularly to the plane of the valve seat
    • F02M63/0036Lift valves, i.e. having a valve member that moves perpendicularly to the plane of the valve seat with spherical or partly spherical shaped valve member ends
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/0012Valves
    • F02M63/0031Valves characterized by the type of valves, e.g. special valve member details, valve seat details, valve housing details
    • F02M63/005Pressure relief valves
    • F02M63/0052Pressure relief valves with means for adjusting the opening pressure, e.g. electrically controlled
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/0012Valves
    • F02M63/0059Arrangements of valve actuators
    • F02M63/0063Two or more actuators acting on a single valve body
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/02Fuel-injection apparatus having several injectors fed by a common pumping element, or having several pumping elements feeding a common injector; Fuel-injection apparatus having provisions for cutting-out pumps, pumping elements, or injectors; Fuel-injection apparatus having provisions for variably interconnecting pumping elements and injectors alternatively
    • F02M63/0225Fuel-injection apparatus having a common rail feeding several injectors ; Means for varying pressure in common rails; Pumps feeding common rails
    • F02M63/023Means for varying pressure in common rails
    • F02M63/026Means for reducing the pressure in common rails at power off
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16KVALVES; TAPS; COCKS; ACTUATING-FLOATS; DEVICES FOR VENTING OR AERATING
    • F16K31/00Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices
    • F16K31/02Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices electric; magnetic
    • F16K31/06Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices electric; magnetic using a magnet, e.g. diaphragm valves, cutting off by means of a liquid
    • F16K31/0644One-way valve
    • F16K31/0655Lift valves
    • F16K31/0665Lift valves with valve member being at least partially ball-shaped
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16KVALVES; TAPS; COCKS; ACTUATING-FLOATS; DEVICES FOR VENTING OR AERATING
    • F16K31/00Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices
    • F16K31/02Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices electric; magnetic
    • F16K31/06Actuating devices; Operating means; Releasing devices electric; magnetic using a magnet, e.g. diaphragm valves, cutting off by means of a liquid
    • F16K31/0675Electromagnet aspects, e.g. electric supply therefor
    • F16K31/0679Electromagnet aspects, e.g. electric supply therefor with more than one energising coil
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D16/00Control of fluid pressure
    • G05D16/20Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means
    • G05D16/2006Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means with direct action of electric energy on controlling means
    • G05D16/2013Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means with direct action of electric energy on controlling means using throttling means as controlling means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D16/00Control of fluid pressure
    • G05D16/20Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means
    • G05D16/2006Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means with direct action of electric energy on controlling means
    • G05D16/2013Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means with direct action of electric energy on controlling means using throttling means as controlling means
    • G05D16/2022Control of fluid pressure characterised by the use of electric means with direct action of electric energy on controlling means using throttling means as controlling means actuated by a proportional solenoid

Abstract

本发明涉及压力调节阀(9),用于调节内燃机(2)的高压燃料存储器(7)中的压力,尤其用于调节共轨喷射系统中的压力.该压力调节阀(9)能与所述高压燃料存储器(7)连接及具有一个阀活塞(17),该阀活塞通过一个弹簧(18)的弹簧力抵抗所述高压燃料存储器(7)中的压力被加载在闭合位置中.设有一个可控制的第一电磁铁装置(19),该电磁铁装置的力与弹簧力反向地作用在所述阀活塞(17)上。还设有一个第二电磁铁装置(20),它的力支持所述弹簧力。

Description

用于调节高压燃料存储器中压力的压力调节阀
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及根据权利要求I的前序部分的用于调节内燃机的高压燃料存储器中的、尤其共轨喷射系统中的压力的压力调节阀。
[0002] 本发明还涉及根据权利要求10的前序部分的内燃机的、尤其共轨喷射系统的燃料系统。
背景技术
[0003] 由DE 10 2005 052 636 Al公知了一种燃料系统,它包括一个输送泵,该输送泵由一个燃料容器输送燃料。燃料由输送泵经过一个被称为计量单元的调节装置到达一个高压燃料泵,该高压燃料泵将燃料压缩及将其供给到一个高压燃料存储器(“轨”)。在高压燃 料存储器上连接了多个喷射器。高压燃料存储器中的压力主要借助一个压力调节阀(排出控制阀)来调节。由高压燃料存储器中排出的燃料通常导回到燃料容器中。
[0004] 压力调节阀的基本功能在于,高压燃料存储器中的压力调节或轨压力调节允许以不同的调节模式实现及保证作为安全功能的压力限制,以便消除人及环境的危险。这里即使在出现控制装置故障或电压供给故障的情况下也应保证高压燃料存储器中压力限制形式的安全功能。
[0005] 在一般的现有技术中,为了燃料由高压燃料存储器中的排出及由此调节高压燃料存储器中的压力,公知了两个不同类型的压力调节阀。这些压力调节阀的区别在于:它们或是无电流地打开或无电流地关闭。
[0006] 无电流地打开的压力调节阀通常使用在个人小汽车上,无电流地关闭的压力调节阀通常使用在载货汽车上。
[0007] 无电流地打开的压力调节阀被这样地构成,即它通过电磁铁线圈的控制来操作,以致通过燃料由高压燃料存储器中的排出使高压燃料存储器中的压力调节到一个所需值上。在控制装置中故障时或在电压供给故障时压力调节阀打开,以致控制燃料由高压燃料存储器排出。因此即使在故障情况下通过压力调节器来保证高压燃料存储器中压力限制的安全功能。但该结构的缺点在于,在电压失去后,例如当由于外皮损坏电缆断裂时,不再能建立轨压力及内燃机或发动机不再能工作。因此不能实现应急运行功能(所谓的Limphome功能)。
[0008] 对于用于共轨系统的无电流关闭的压力调节阀,其工作原理与无电流打开的压力调节阀相反。对于无电流关闭的压力调节阀考虑了 :压力调节阀在无电流状态中直至系统压力通过强弹簧来关闭(正容差)。压力调节、即压力调节阀的打开,由此燃料可由高压燃料存储器的排出将通过一个电磁铁了来实现,该电磁铁力与弹簧的闭合力反向地作用。通过电磁铁线圈的通电流使压力调节阀的闭合力减小或抵抗弹簧力地作用,由此可将高压燃料存储器中的压力或轨压力调节到所需的水准。在故障状态下,即在控制器故障或电压供给故障的情况下,由此可继续建立轨压并保证应急运行功能。
[0009] 在无电流关闭的压力调节阀上,压力限制的安全功能将通过弹簧力来实现。在此情况下弹簧力按照高压燃料存储器中的最大允许系统压力来调整并可能包括容差在内。但通过试验及仿真表明:在无电流状态下被调整的轨压或高压燃料存储器中的压力与流量有很强的关系。在控制器或电压供给故障时系统压力与流量相关地上升并超过允许的最大系统压力。这可导致部件的损坏及导致人身及周围环境的危险。此外压力调节器的燃料回流部中的温度将上升到200°C的值。
发明内容
[0010] 通过设有一个第二电磁铁装置,它的力支持弹簧力,则可使用较弱的弹簧。因此在失去电压或控制器故障的情况下,在高压燃料存储器中达到最大允许的系统压力前弹簧的闭合力将被上升的轨压或高压燃料存储器中上升的压力克服。因此可避免部件的损坏及人身及周围环境的危险。此外将避免压力调节器的燃料回流部中温度的过度升高。
[0011] 使用弹簧将允许:在压力调节阀上失去电压时可继续建立轨压及由此保证应急运行功能。 [0012] 通过使用两个反向作用的电磁铁装置与一个弱弹簧相结合来取代一个用于关闭压力调节阀或其阀活塞的电磁铁装置,则可以使两个迄今公知的压力调节阀类型的优点相互组合,而无需容忍它们的缺点。
[0013] 机械的打开力(无电流状态)优选可处于系统的平均压力范围中。第一电磁铁装置的力与弹簧力相反地作用,以致借助该压力调节阀可使轨压在O巴至弹簧的机械的打开压力之间调节。
[0014] 第二电磁铁装置的力支持弹簧力。因此优选可使轨压在弹簧的机械的打开压力至最大系统压力之间调节。
[0015] 通过借助控制及调节装置或控制器的智能电流控制可实现持续的压力上升/压力下降。
[0016] 即使在“控制器故障”或“电源故障”的故障状态下,轨压也可保持在工作范围之内。
[0017] 在本发明的一个有利的构型中提出:电磁铁装置构造成电磁铁线圈。
[0018] 根据本发明的方案能实现共轨系统的压力调节,尤其在载货汽车中以不同的调节模式在整个调节范围内来调节。并且根据本发明的方案可保证载货汽车的应急运行功能,而最大系统压力不会超过允许的范围。
[0019] 以下参照附图从原理上来说明本发明的实施例。
附图说明
[0020] 附图中表示:
[0021] 图I :一个内燃机的燃料系统的原理图,及
[0022] 图2 :根据本发明的压力调节阀的一个截面图。
具体实施方式
[0023] 图I表示一个燃料系统1,该燃料系统用于内燃机2的燃料供给。图I中仅用虚线概要地表示内燃机2。[0024] 燃料系统I包括一个燃料容器3,一个通常用电驱动的输送泵4由该燃料容器将燃料输送给一个调节装置5,该调节装置也称为计量单元。燃料由调节装置5输送到一个由内燃机2机械地驱动的高压燃料泵6。该高压燃料泵6将燃料压缩到一个很高的压力及将其输送到一个高压燃料存储器7中,该高压燃料存储器也被称为“轨”。在高压燃料存储器7上连接了多个喷射器8,它们将燃料喷射到内燃机2的未示出的各燃烧室中。在高压燃料存储器7上连接着一个根据本发明的压力调节阀9,以下将参考图2来详细地描述该压力调节阀。由压力调节阀9导出一个排出管路10并返回到燃料容器3中。
[0025] 燃料系统I的工作由一个控制及调节装置11来控制或调节。该控制及调节装置11通常也被称为“控制器”。控制器11由压力传感器12得到信号,该压力传感器检测高压燃料存储器7中的压力。控制器主要根据压力传感器12的信号来控制或调节压力调节阀
9。
[0026] 图2中所示的压力调节阀9构造成用于调节内燃机2的高压燃料存储器7的压力的闻压调节阀。
[0027] 该压力调节阀9尤其适用于共轨喷射系统,尤其用于载货汽车。
[0028] 压力调节阀9为了调节燃料由高压燃料存储器7中的排出而与该高压燃料存储器连接(也参见图I)。
[0029] 压力调节阀9的基本结构已由现有技术公知,以下仅详细描述对于本发明重要的特征。
[0030] 压力调节阀9具有一个带有阀孔14的阀座13,为了燃料的排出控制,压力调节阀9通过该阀孔与高压燃料存储器7连接。阀孔14的开度受到一个可运动地支承在阀壳体16中的阀活塞17的影响(增大或缩小)以调节待排出的燃料量。
[0031] 阀活塞17通过一个弹簧18的弹簧力抵抗高压燃料存储器7中的压力被加载在闭合位置中。在该实施例中弹簧18构造成压簧。
[0032] 此外设有两个可通过控制器11控制的电磁铁装置19,20。第一电磁铁装置19产生一个与弹簧力相反地作用在阀活塞上的力。第二电磁铁装置20产生一个支持弹簧力的、即相应地作用在阀活塞17上的力。
[0033] 提出:弹簧18的弹簧力小于当高压燃料存储器7中达到允许的系统压力时反向地作用在阀活塞17上的力。
[0034] 在该实施例中这里弹簧18的弹簧力相当于高压燃料存储器7中平均压力范围中反向作用在阀活塞17上的力。
[0035] 还提出:通过第一电磁铁装置19可产生一个力,该力至少相当于弹簧力。并还提出:通过第二电磁铁装置20可产生一个力,该力与弹簧力一起相当于当高压燃料存储器7中达到允许的系统压力时反向地作用在阀活塞17上的力。
[0036] 在该实施例中还提出:为了调节高压燃料存储器中的压力或为了燃料由高压燃料存储器7中的排出,可通过控制器11控制或调节两个电磁铁装置19,20。
[0037] 如由图2可得到的,在该实施例中,阀活塞17构造成带有衔铁板17a的衔铁杆17。衔铁板17a(可移动地)设置在第一电磁铁装置19与第二电磁铁装置20之间。
[0038] 在该实施例中,电磁铁装置19,20构造成电磁铁线圈19,20。
[0039] 为了关闭阀孔14,衔铁杆17的顶端构造成球形顶端17b。[0040] 图2中还以公知方式表示出一个过滤器21 (在流动方向上设在阀孔14的前面),回流孔22 (它导向排出管路10),一个法兰螺钉23,一个阀盖24及一个连接器25,它们的功能已由现有技术充分地公知。
[0041] 根据本发明的方案不被限制在所述燃料系统及压力调节阀的所述实施形式上。而该压力调节阀也可在结构上具有其它的构造,在这些构造上可保证:第一电磁铁装置的力与通过弹簧产生的压力调节器的闭合力反向地作用,而第二电磁铁装置的力支持弹簧的闭合力。
[0042] 此外根据本发明的方案不被限制在载货汽车中的应用上,而也可使用在需要压力调节阀、尤其高压调节阀的个人小汽车或其它的系统中(例如发电机马达,个人小汽车,船舰应用,发电站应用等)。

Claims (10)

1.内燃机的燃料系统,具有高压燃料存储器,燃料能由该高压燃料存储器排出回流到燃料容器,其特征在于:为了调节燃料由所述高压燃料存储器(7)的该排出,使用了压力调节阀(9),该压力调节阀用于调节内燃机的高压燃料存储器中的压力,其中该压力调节阀能与所述高压燃料存储器连接及具有一个阀活塞,该阀活塞通过一个弹簧的弹簧力抵抗所述高压燃料存储器中的压力被加载在闭合位置中,其中设有一个可控制的第一电磁铁装置,该电磁铁装置的力与弹簧力反向地作用在所述阀活塞上,其中,设有一个第二电磁铁装置(20),它的力支持所述弹簧力。
2.根据权利要求I的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:所述弹簧(18)的弹簧力小于当所述高压燃料存储器(7)中达到允许的系统压力时反向地作用在所述阀活塞(17)上的力。
3.根据权利要求2的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:所述弹簧(18)的弹簧力相当于所述高压燃料存储器(7)中平均压力范围中反向地作用在所述阀活塞(17)上的力。
4.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:通过所述第一电磁铁装置(19)能产生一个至少相当于所述弹簧力的力。
5.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:通过所述第二电磁铁装置(20)能产生一个力,该力与所述弹簧力一起相当于当所述高压燃料存储器(7)中达到允许的系统压力时反向地作用在所述阀活塞(17)上的力。
6.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:为了调节所述高压燃料存储器(7)中的压力,能借助一个控制及调节装置(11)控制或调节两个电磁铁装置(19,20)。
7.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:所述阀活塞(17)构造成带有衔铁板(17a)的衔铁杆,该衔铁板设置在所述第一电磁铁装置(19)与所述第二电磁铁装置(20)之间。
8.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:所述电磁铁装置(19,20)构造成电磁铁线圈。
9.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:所述弹簧(18)是一个压簧。
10.根据权利要求I至3之一的内燃机的燃料系统,其特征在于:该燃料系统是共轨喷射系统的燃料系统。
CN2008801222859A 2007-12-21 2008-11-24 用于调节高压燃料存储器中压力的压力调节阀 CN101903642B (zh)

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