CN101777784A - Equalizing charge device and equalizing charge method - Google Patents

Equalizing charge device and equalizing charge method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101777784A
CN101777784A CN 201010127685 CN201010127685A CN101777784A CN 101777784 A CN101777784 A CN 101777784A CN 201010127685 CN201010127685 CN 201010127685 CN 201010127685 A CN201010127685 A CN 201010127685A CN 101777784 A CN101777784 A CN 101777784A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
value
charging
soc
cell
voltage
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CN 201010127685
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
马建新
杨重科
邓小明
李德伟
蔡文远
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北汽福田汽车股份有限公司
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Priority to CN 201010127685 priority Critical patent/CN101777784A/en
Publication of CN101777784A publication Critical patent/CN101777784A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0014Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0014Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries
    • H02J7/0019Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries using switched or multiplexed charge circuits

Abstract

The invention provides an equalizing charge device for a series battery pack, which comprises a plurality of charge branches. Each charge branch is used for charging corresponding single batteries in the series battery pack respectively. The equalizing charge device also comprises a controller (4); and the controller (4) is used for acquiring an SOC value of each single cell in real time, calculates and updates the SOC average value of the series battery pack according to the SOC values, compares the minimum SOC value in the acquired SOC values of the single batteries with the SOC average value, controls the charge branch charging the single battery corresponding to the minimum SOC value to be connected when the difference of the minimum SOC value and the SOC average value is greater than a first threshold value, and controls the charge branch charging the single battery to be disconnected when the difference of the SOC value of the single battery and the real-time updated SOC average value is smaller than a second threshold value. The equalizing charge device and an equalizing charge method provided by the invention solve the problem of un-equalized charge for the series battery pack.

Description

Balanced charging device and balanced charging method
Technical field
The present invention relates to charging device, relate in particular to a kind of balanced charging device and balanced charging method that is used for series battery.
Background technology
Rechargeable power battery because of its preferably utilance be widely used in each electronic product, especially in electric automobile or the hybrid vehicle.For electric automobile or hybrid vehicle, be provided with the power battery pack that is connected in series and forms by a plurality of cells as supply unit.Because the otherness of rechargeable power battery manufacturing and environment for use, cause electrokinetic cell through after the charge and discharge cycle repeatedly, the battery cell otherness shows the trend that increases gradually, in charging process, cause the charging of series battery monomer unbalanced thus easily, directly influence the useful life and the performance of battery pack, this is the problem that can not be ignored for electric automobile and hybrid vehicle.
Available dynamic battery cell equalization methods comprises conductive discharge equalization, capacitive energy transfer method and inductance energy transfer method.The conductive discharge equalization is a kind of passive electric discharge of energy consumption, cell discharge that can only be high to electric weight, and cell charging that can not be low to electric weight; Capacitive energy transfer method and inductance energy transfer method all are active equalization methods that energy shifts, can realize the height that fills of cell is lowerd, but this method cost is very high, and because inductance, capacitor element technology is not mature enough, cause reliability relatively poor, therefore be difficult to be applied on a large scale on electric automobile and the hybrid vehicle.
Summary of the invention
To the objective of the invention is that series battery charge is unbalanced to cause that the battery pack available capacity is little, the problem of serviceability difference in order solving, a kind of cost is low, reliability is high balanced charging device that is used for series battery and balanced charging method to be provided.
The balanced charging device that is used for series battery provided by the invention, this balanced charging device comprises a plurality of charging paths, each charging paths is used for respectively the cell charging to the correspondence of series battery, this balanced charging device also comprises controller, the SOC mean value that described controller is used for obtaining the SOC value of each cell in real time and calculates and upgrade series battery according to described SOC value in real time, minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared, when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value during greater than first threshold control to the charging paths closure of the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value, until the charging paths disconnection that control is charged to this cell during less than second threshold value of the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update.
The balanced charging method that is used for series battery provided by the invention may further comprise the steps: obtain the SOC value of each cell in real time, and calculate and upgrade the SOC mean value of series battery according to described SOC value in real time; Minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared; And begin the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value during greater than first threshold when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value, stop this cell is charged during until the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update less than second threshold value.
The SOC mean value of this series battery is calculated and upgraded to the SOC value of balanced charging device that is used for series battery provided by the invention and balanced charging method each cell by obtaining series battery in real time, the SOC mean value of real-time update that adopts this series battery is as the series battery Rule of judgment of charge balancing whether, compare by minimum SOC value in the SOC value of the cell that will be obtained and SOC mean value and to judge the cell that need carry out equalizing charge, and then this cell is connected with charge power supply, realization replenishes electric weight to the minimum cell of electric weight, satisfy the equalizing charge condition until the SOC of this cell value and just disconnect being connected of this cell and charge power supply, realize the charge balancing of series battery thus.Adopt the balanced charging device of series battery and the battery cell that balanced charging method can need correctly select equalizing charge of being used for provided by the invention, and cost is low, reliability is high, solved the unbalanced problem of series battery charge, realize the electric voltage equalization of series battery fully, improved the serviceability of battery pack effectively.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation that is used for the balanced charging device of series battery provided by the invention;
Fig. 2 is the flow chart that is used for the balanced charging method of series battery provided by the invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing balanced charging device and the balanced charging method that is used for series battery provided by the invention is described in further detail.
Fig. 1 is the structural representation that is used for the balanced charging device of series battery provided by the invention.As shown in Figure 1, the balanced charging device that is used for series battery provided by the invention comprises a plurality of charging paths, each charging paths is used for respectively the cell charging to the correspondence of series battery, wherein, this balanced charging device also comprises controller 4, the SOC mean value that described controller 4 is used for obtaining the SOC value of each cell in real time and calculates and upgrade series battery according to described SOC value in real time, minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared, when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value during greater than first threshold control to the charging paths closure of the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value, until the charging paths disconnection that control is charged to this cell during less than second threshold value of the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update.
Battery charge state SOC (State Of Charge) is used to represent the dump energy of battery, is the important parameter of describing the battery charging and discharging performance, for conventionally known to one of skill in the art.In the electrokinetic cell use, the difference of cell SOC value has embodied the battery cell otherness.
As shown in Figure 1, described balanced charging device preferably also comprises a plurality of gate-controlled switches 2, each gate-controlled switch 2 lays respectively in each charging paths, described controller 4 has a plurality of outputs, each output is connected with the control end of each gate-controlled switch 2 respectively, and described controller 4 is by control gate-controlled switch 2 closures or disconnect the closed or disconnection of controlling charging paths.
Described gate-controlled switch 2 has the switch element of control end for any one, and its switching can be controlled by the signal of telecommunication, for example diode, triode or relay.Described gate-controlled switch 2 is in normally open when not receiving its closed or control signal of disconnecting of control that controller 4 sends.Under the preferable case, described gate-controlled switch 2 is MOSFET.MOSFET can bear the electric current greater than 5A, has the high voltage isolation features, can realize the cell equalizing charge of the highest 5A.Adopt MOSFET as gate-controlled switch 2, can reduce the cost of balanced charging device and the volume of minimizing balanced charging device, increased system reliability.
As shown in Figure 1, series battery is connected in series by the more piece cell and forms, every joint cell positive and negative end all connects a charging paths, if the number of cell is N, then the number of charging paths is N+1, can realize only allowing a cell to be connected thus with charge power supply at every turn, realize that synchronization only carries out equalizing charge to a cell, therefore do not need to consider the voltage isolation problem of balanced charging device inside in the balancing procedure, reduce system complexity, reduced the cost of buffer circuit.The input of described controller 4 is connected with each cell by the CAN bus, is used to the SOC value of gathering the voltage of each cell and calculating each cell.Computational process to cell SOC value is conventionally known to one of skill in the art.Operator's each cell in guaranteeing series battery all carries out voltage acquisition can being set in proper order arbitrarily under the prerequisite of voltage acquisition with the SOC value of obtaining each cell.Under the preferable case, the voltage acquisition order is set at from the first segment cell that is connected in series begins successively each joint cell is carried out voltage acquisition until the final section cell.
Described controller 4 calculates and upgrades the SOC mean value of series battery in real time by the SOC value of each cell of getting access in real time, the SOC value sum of this SOC mean value by the cell that is connected in series with all obtains divided by the number of cell, and this computational process is conventionally known to one of skill in the art.The first threshold and second threshold value have been preestablished in the described controller 4, controller 4 also compares the minimum SOC value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained and the SOC mean value of series battery, when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value during greater than predefined first threshold, control is to the charging paths closure of the pairing cell charging of minimum SOC value, thus to this cell charging, until the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update during less than second threshold value, controller 4 controls disconnect the charging paths of this cell charging, finish the charging process to this cell thus.In order to keep the charge balancing of series battery constantly, controller 4 is after the charging process of finishing this cell, continue to carry out above-mentioned every step, promptly upgrade the SOC mean value of series battery in real time and continue the comparison step of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value, with the cell that determine to need charging constantly and to its charging, with the charge balancing of realizing that series battery continues.The described first threshold and second threshold value can be set in advance in controller 4 by the operator, and under the preferable case, described first threshold is any one value among the 4%-10%, and described second threshold value is any one value among the 0-3%.Under the situation about being more preferably, described first threshold is 5%, and described second threshold value is 2%, so that the harmony between each cell is better.
Described controller 4 is for obtaining the SOC mean value of the SOC value of each cell in the series battery and calculating in real time and renewal series battery arbitrarily according to the indication of program in real time, and, for example can be PLC or single-chip microcomputer according to the controller of the switching of the indication of program control gate-controlled switch 2.
In order to prevent generation to the overcharge conditions of cell, as shown in Figure 1, described balanced charging device also comprises voltage conversion device 3, the input of this voltage conversion device 3 is used for input charging voltage, output links to each other with a plurality of charging paths, the charging voltage that this voltage conversion device 3 is used for being imported converts the voltage in the cell range of nominal tension to, and the voltage after will changing outputs to each charging paths.
Can charge to cell by connecting external power source, described external power source can be AC power or DC power supply.Owing to need charge to cell under direct voltage, when external power source was AC power, described voltage conversion device was the AC/DC transducer, was used for the alternating voltage that power supply provides is converted to direct voltage in the cell range of nominal tension; When external power source was DC power supply, described voltage conversion device was the DC/DC transducer, was used for the direct voltage that power supply provides is converted to direct voltage in the cell range of nominal tension.
Described voltage conversion device 3 alternating voltage can be converted to the AC/DC transducer of the direct voltage in the required scope for any one or any one can be converted to direct voltage the DC/DC transducer of the direct voltage in the required scope, for example isolated voltage-dropping type AC/DC transducer, isolated voltage-dropping type DC/DC transducer.
In order to save the energy, under the preferable case, described voltage conversion device 3 is the DC/DC transducer, the charging voltage of being imported can be from any battery, preferably come from vehicle-mounted 12V lead-acid battery, can be converted to the DC low-voltage that satisfies the cell charging requirement by the 12V direct voltage that the DC/DC transducer will come from vehicle-mounted 12V lead-acid battery thus.
Fig. 2 is the flow chart that is used for the balanced charging method of series battery provided by the invention.The balanced charging method of series battery provided by the invention may further comprise the steps: obtain the SOC value of each cell in real time, and calculate and upgrade the SOC mean value of series battery according to described SOC value in real time; Minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared; And begin the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value during greater than first threshold when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value, stop this cell is charged during until the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update less than second threshold value.
In order to prevent generation to the overcharge conditions of cell, this method is further comprising the steps of: after will converting the voltage in the cell range of nominal tension to the charging voltage of described cell charging to, utilize the voltage after changing that described cell is charged again.
Can charge to cell by connecting external power source, for example the charging voltage that cell is charged can be from any battery, and under the preferable case, the charging voltage of being imported to described cell charging comes from vehicle-mounted 12V lead-acid battery.
According to method provided by the invention, as shown in Figure 2, obtain the SOC value of each cell in the series battery at first in real time, from the first segment cell that is connected in series, the SOC value of obtaining every joint cell successively is until the final section cell; The SOC mean value of series battery is calculated and upgraded to the SOC value of passing through the cell that obtained then in real time; Afterwards, minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared; When comparative result is that the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value is during greater than first threshold, determine that the corresponding cell of this minimum SOC value needs charging, control a pair of gate-controlled switch 2 closures that link to each other with the pairing cell of this minimum SOC value thus, the charging voltage that this cell is charged via voltage transitions after by closed gate-controlled switch 2 be incorporated in this cell so that it is charged; When the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell that is recharged value and real-time update during less than second threshold value, a pair of gate-controlled switch 2 that this cell connected is disconnected, stop this cell charging.

Claims (10)

1. balanced charging device that is used for series battery, this balanced charging device comprises a plurality of charging paths, each charging paths is used for respectively the cell charging to the correspondence of series battery, wherein, this balanced charging device also comprises controller (4), the SOC mean value that described controller (4) is used for obtaining the SOC value of each cell in real time and calculates and upgrade series battery according to described SOC value in real time, minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared, when the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value during greater than first threshold control to the charging paths closure of the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value, until the charging paths disconnection that control is charged to this cell during less than second threshold value of the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update.
2. balanced charging device according to claim 1, wherein, described first threshold is any one value among the 4%-10%, described second threshold value is any one value among the 0-3%.
3. balanced charging device according to claim 1, wherein, described balanced charging device also comprises voltage conversion device (3), the input of this voltage conversion device (3) is used for input charging voltage, output links to each other with described a plurality of charging paths, the charging voltage that this voltage conversion device (3) is used for being imported converts the voltage in the cell range of nominal tension to, and the voltage after will changing outputs to each charging paths.
4. balanced charging device according to claim 3, wherein, described voltage conversion device (3) is the DC/DC transducer, the charging voltage of being imported comes from vehicle-mounted 12V lead-acid battery.
5. according to the described balanced charging device of each claim among the claim 1-4, wherein, described balanced charging device also comprises a plurality of gate-controlled switches (2), each gate-controlled switch (2) lays respectively in each charging paths, described controller (4) has a plurality of outputs, each output is connected with the control end of each gate-controlled switch (2) respectively, and described controller (4) is controlled the closed of charging paths by control gate-controlled switch (2) closure or disconnection or disconnected.
6. balanced charging device according to claim 5, wherein, described gate-controlled switch (2) is MOSFET.
7. balanced charging method that is used for series battery, wherein, this method may further comprise the steps:
Obtain the SOC value of each cell in real time, and calculate and upgrade the SOC mean value of series battery according to described SOC value in real time;
Minimum SOC value and described SOC mean value in the SOC value of the cell that obtained are compared; And
When the difference of minimum SOC value and SOC mean value begins the pairing cell charging of this minimum SOC value during greater than first threshold, stop this cell is charged during less than second threshold value until the difference of the described SOC mean value of the SOC of this cell value and real-time update.
8. method according to claim 7, wherein, described first threshold is any one value among the 4%-10%, described second threshold value is any one value among the 0-3%.
9. according to claim 7 or 8 described methods, wherein, this method also comprises: after will converting the voltage in the cell range of nominal tension to the charging voltage of described cell charging to, utilize the voltage after changing that described cell is charged again.
10. balanced charging method according to claim 9, wherein, the charging voltage of being imported comes from vehicle-mounted 12V lead-acid battery.
CN 201010127685 2010-03-17 2010-03-17 Equalizing charge device and equalizing charge method CN101777784A (en)

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