CN101723514A - Degraded lakeside wetland and restoration technology for ecological function thereof - Google Patents

Degraded lakeside wetland and restoration technology for ecological function thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101723514A
CN101723514A CN200810167643A CN200810167643A CN101723514A CN 101723514 A CN101723514 A CN 101723514A CN 200810167643 A CN200810167643 A CN 200810167643A CN 200810167643 A CN200810167643 A CN 200810167643A CN 101723514 A CN101723514 A CN 101723514A
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water
plant
wetland
timber
zone
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田自强
郑丙辉
张雷
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Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
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Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention discloses a degraded lakeside wetland and a restoration technology for the ecological function thereof, belonging to the field of environmental protection and biotechnology. On the basis of generally surveying the current situations of the natural wetland vegetation and plant community of the lakeside, the invention adopts the relative theories of vegetation ecology, restoration ecology and landscape ecology to construct the degraded wetland plant community; the water purification function of the plant is developed and the physical block function of the plant promotes the sediment of the suspended matter in water. Combined with the eco-engineering technology, the invention modifies the estuarine ecosystem by the interception function of the wave breaker, makes good use of the natural purification of the estuarine ecosystem and controls the nutrient input from the running water so as to restore the environmental value, ecology value and economic aesthetics value of the wetland. The restoration technology has the characteristics of strong operability, low cost, low maintenance cost, remarkable landscape value and economic value, and high water purification efficiency, and is suitable for the restoration and the water treatment of the natural wetland ecosystem of the lakeside in China.

Description

The recovery technology technology of degeneration lakeside wetland and ecological functions thereof
Technical field:
The invention belongs to environment protection and biological technical field; relate to and utilize plant ecology, ecology recovering and landscape ecology theory and practical experience to carry out the recovery of the inland lake natural wetland ecosystem, and bring into play the function of its environment, ecology, three aspects of economic aesthetic values by the natural wetland after recovering.
Background technology:
Wetland accounts for 6.4% of earth land area as being distributed widely in one of main view all over the world.As a class ecosystem, it is between unify transitional type between the aquatic ecosystem of terrestrial ecosystem, thereby have concurrently aquatic and characteristics Lu Sheng ecology, unique fringing effect makes its 26S Proteasome Structure and Function have more complicacy, it is one of ecosystem that productivity is the highest on the earth, also is one of most important ecosystem.
Make a general survey of domestic and international research course, mainly experienced three developmental stage the lake and marshland ecosystem restoration.The seventies in 20th century, research both at home and abroad mainly concentrates on by put a large amount of grass carps in a suitable place to breed to the lake eliminates waterplant, to prevent the lake aging; The eighties in 20th century, along with the generation of lake eutrophication and algal bloom, people destroyed hydrobiological behavior to the past and are familiar with to some extent; The nineties in 20th century, then carried out setting up and recover the research of waterplant in the eutrophication water, and attempted in the lake of having lost waterplant, to rebuild aquatic vegetation.
Because China is populous, area along the lake is densely populated, reclaims land from a lake and breed activity on a large scale, causes large-area lakeside wetland to be degenerated, even forfeiture; In addition, the fast development of regional chemical industry class along the lake township and village enterprises, a large amount of sanitary sewages, harmful, poisonous trade effluent is in line goes into the lake, ring lake natural wetland ecosystem havoc, go into going from bad to worse of lake water matter, directly have influence on ring lake area surroundings and economic Sustainable development and water safety.Wetlands ecosystems are destroyed serious, and it is more much bigger that it recovers difficulty.Though carried out a series of water environment treatment engineering, promptly administer and attach most importance to point-source pollution, the result is costly, produces little effect.And pollution of area source, for example sanitary sewage aggravates along with rolling up of population; A large amount of farmland-use waters that use chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, along with rainwash enters the lake body, body eutrophication increasingly sharpens.Therefore; by recovering or rebuilding and encircle lake wet land protection band; ring lake wetland can block, hold back the suspended substance that rainwash carries effectively; pollutent such as degraded and absorbed nitrogen, phosphorus and other organism; this is the last line of defense of going into the lake from the approach control rainwash and the undercurrent nutrition of migration and conversion, also is one of main means of control non-point pollution.
Summary of the invention:
The objective of the invention is the scientific theory by introduced plant ecology, ecology recovering and landscape ecology, the bound fraction ecological engineering technology as the wave effect that disappears of wave eliminating band device, is rebuild and the aquatic higher plant of recovery loke shore group.Humidogene and terrestrial plant that the artificial growth native soil is resistant to pollution, big to the pollutent absorbed dose, good physics retardation and the cleaning action of performance plant, impel deposition by the wave that disappears, reduce sedimental resuspending, and can absorb inorganic salt and nutritive salt in the water body in a large number; By the interception function of the unrestrained device that disappears, transform the lake inlet mouth ecosystem simultaneously, give full play to the self cleaning of lake inlet mouth, go into the input of lake nutritive substance from footpath, waters current control.
To achieve these goals, the present invention has adopted following technical scheme:
1, carries out before the recovery of natural wetland, carry out the band natural wetland vegetation investigation of large-scale lakeside.
2, carry out the underwater topography exploration of study area, for reasonably select medicining wave structure pattern, type of foundation on selected place, design medicining wave structure and definite constructional method etc. provide engineering geological data.
3, by underground landform exploration, find out that lakebed exists thicker mud and mud matter silty clay, soil property is relatively poor.Seawall intends adopting " exposed throughout type " timber structure.
4, in order to tackle the blue-green algae in the Taihu Lake, at outer or inboard, the outer or inboard timber 8m of the distance place of exposed throughout type timber dike rubber oil boom is set, oil fence length is consistent with the timber device length.
5, be principle to plant species of one's native land, according to different hydraulic gradiants, on the basis that ring lake natural wetland vegetation is generally investigated, filter out the wetland plant group that forms different space structures from the land to radiation zone, water level change spoke district to the frequently seen plants of three kinds of different hydraulic gradiants of water level radiation zone.
When 6, on the degeneration wetland, carrying out Revegetation, keep already present wetland plant species of one's native land as much as possible.Needs according to making up plant community and view carry out after-culture to already present plant community species quantity, and the plant community of disappearance is introduced a fine variety structure.
7, the recovery of natural wetland is sociales with large-scale emergent group.
8, in order to ensure that plant does not remove with flowing water, need fix.
9, utilize the ecological functions of lakeside wetland aspect created land with silt, have the water of certain depth bed mud to plant submerged plant of one's native land in alluvial to radiation zone.
Embodiment:
According to above-mentioned design, the present invention is further illustrated.
1, carries out before the recovery of natural wetland, carry out the natural wetland vegetation investigation of large-scale ring lake.Promptly the species quantity in the type of plant communities in the wetland, floristics and the group is investigated.For the recovery of Wetlands ecosystems is carried out the screening of species of one's native land and the extensive cultivation of seedling lays the first stone.
2, carry out the underwater topography exploration of study area, to find out rock-soil layer character, the regularity of distribution, formation epoch, genetic type, rock stratum rate of decay and to have or not situation such as unfavorable geology phenomenon; Find out that the rock-soil layer in the medicining wave structure range of influence distributes and physico-mechanical properties; The suggestion of basic pattern and bearing stratum is proposed, the bearing capacity of bearing stratum is provided and point out to design and construct in the problem that should note etc.For reasonably select medicining wave structure pattern, type of foundation on selected place, design medicining wave structure and definite constructional method etc. provide engineering geological data.
3, by underground landform exploration, find out that lakebed exists thicker mud and mud matter silty clay, soil property is relatively poor.Seawall intends adopting " exposed throughout type " timber structure.Timber is longitudinally made a call to two rows, and the longitudinal pitch of every row's timber is 0.5 meter, 0.8 meter of the spacing of front and back two row's timbers; Front-seat timber is staggeredly arranged with back row's timber, offsets 0.25 meter, is " quincunx "; Respectively every row's timber is longitudinally connected into integral body with log, timber be connected connection between the log and adopt the bolt and nut of 8 millimeters of φ; With iron wire bamboo raft (specification is 1.5 meters * 1 meter) four limits are fixed on the timber then.
4, in order to tackle the blue-green algae in the Taihu Lake, at outer or inboard, 8 meters of the outer or inboard timber of distance of exposed throughout type timber dike rubber oil boom is set, oil fence length is consistent with the timber device length.Rubber oil boom is selected GFW-1200 type (400 millimeters of freeboards for use, absorb water 600 millimeters, cylindrical), per 5 meters spacings are connected rubber oil boom on the timber with 2.5 meters long caprone cables (20 millimeters of Φ), guarantee that simultaneously the oil fence fluctuates with change of level, bring into play the effect of its wave that disappears, or rubber oil boom is anchored in steel pipe piling (100 millimeters * 2000 millimeters of Φ), 2.0 meters of steel pipe piling buried depths.
5, be principle to plant species of one's native land, according to different hydraulic gradiants, on the basis that ring lake natural wetland vegetation present situation is generally investigated, filter out several large-scale emergents such as reed, cattail and form in the natural wetlands advantage group of land to radiation zone (land does not have the zone of the surface water when radiation zone often refers in low water season or lack of water) and water level change spoke district (ground cover water was less when water level change spoke district often referred to low water season or lack of water, and wet season be the zone of water covering); In the land to radiation zone plantation small-sized emergent based on arrowhead, Chinese celery, Herba Cyperi Glomerati, water pepper etc.; Plant floatingleaved plant at water to radiation zone (water refers to be the zone that water covered to radiation zone) throughout the year based on water lily, Gorgon fruit, wild water chestnut.Utilize the ecological functions of lakeside wetland aspect created land with silt, the water that the certain depth bed mud is arranged in alluvial is to the of one's native land submerged plant of radiation zone plantation through indoor group of training.
When 6, on the degeneration wetland, carrying out Revegetation, keep already present wetland plant species of one's native land as much as possible.Needs according to making up plant community and view carry out after-culture to already present plant community species quantity, and the plant community of disappearance is introduced a fine variety structure.
7, the recovery of natural wetland is sociales with large-scale emergent group.The planting density of its medium-and-large-sized emergent group is 2 pockets/square metre (3-5 strain/pocket); Small-sized emergent planting density is 6 clumps/square metre; Floatingleaved plant group planting density is 1 clump/square metre.
8, according to of the requirement of different muskeg normal growths to hydraulic gradiant, large-scale emergent zone depth of water 0.8-1 rice; Small-sized emergent zone depth of water 0.3-0.5 rice; Floatingleaved plant depth of water 1-1.5 rice; About 1.5 meters of the submerged plant zone depth of waters.
9, at the water surface of water level radiation zone, for example grow 80 meters, in the wide 10 meters scope, floating leaf waterplant such as plantation water lily, wild water chestnut, Gorgon fruit in 1: 1 ratio of plant, constitute Gorgon fruit-water lily group, wild water chestnut-Gorgon fruit group, wild water chestnut-water lily group, 2 meters of each group's diameters are transplanted plant 20 strains.6 coenotypes need be arranged by aesthetic of landscape requirement, and each coenotype repeats 10 times, make the fraction of coverage of floating leaf aquatic vegetation reach 180-185 square metre.
10, plant does not remove with flowing water, need fix.Stationary installation comprises spud pile (bamboo wood, diameter 5-10 centimetre, 2 meters of height, the top and the period when a river is at its normal level water surface flat), diameter is the annulus (5-7 centimetre of bamboo chip width) that surrounds of 2 meters bamboo chip, waste and old fishing net (at least 20 hole/each bamboos rings), static line (2 meters/root of length) and the buoy (plastics matter, 8/encircle) of macropore.
11, the plantation of floatingleaved plant in the highest safety stage radiation zone, avoid the disadvantageous effect of bringing for existing wetland plant growth simultaneously because of construction, in natural wetland, guaranteeing under the prerequisite minimum wetland plant destruction, with timber and batten is starting material, build a timber trestle bridge, bridge deck width is limited in 1.5 meters.On the other hand, the building of timber trestle bridge played certain convenience is provided for the visitor arrives the depths, lake region as much as possible, brings into play its certain amusement appreciation effect.
12, after the wetland plant end in vegetative period, the large-scale emergent over-ground part in the natural wetland after recovering is gathered in, the height for the stubble left is about 0.5 meter.

Claims (1)

1. technical matters that the rudimentary lakeside band natural wetland ecosystem is recovered is with the function of performance natural wetland to environment, ecology, three aspects of economic aesthetic values.Comprise following concrete steps:
(1) carries out before the recovery of natural wetland, carry out the band natural wetland vegetation investigation of large-scale lakeside.
(2) carry out the underwater topography exploration of study area, find out rock-soil layer character, the regularity of distribution, formation epoch, genetic type, rock stratum rate of decay and have or not situation such as unfavorable geology phenomenon.For reasonably select medicining wave structure pattern, type of foundation on selected place, design medicining wave structure and definite constructional method etc. provide engineering geological data.
(3) have thicker mud and mud matter silty clay at lakebed, soil property is relatively poor.Adopt " exposed throughout type " timber structure seawall.Timber is longitudinally made a call to two rows, and the longitudinal pitch of every row's timber is 0.5 meter, 0.8 meter of the spacing of front and back two row's timbers; Front-seat timber is staggeredly arranged with back row's timber, offsets 0.25 meter, is " quincunx "; Respectively every row's timber is longitudinally connected into integral body with log, timber be connected connection between the log and adopt the bolt and nut of 8 millimeters of φ; With iron wire bamboo raft (specification is 1.5 meters * 1 meter) four limits are fixed on the timber then.At last rubber oil boom is connected on the timber, guarantees that simultaneously the oil fence fluctuates with change of level.
(4) be principle to plant species of one's native land, according to different hydraulic gradiants, filtering out several large-scale emergents forms in the natural wetlands land (ground cover water was less when water level change spoke district often referred to low water season or lack of water to radiation zone (land does not have the zone of the surface water when radiation zone often refers in low water season or lack of water) and water level change spoke district, and wet season zone that to be water cover) advantage group, planting density is 2 pockets/square metre (3-5 strain/pocket); Plant small-sized emergent and hygrophyte in the land to radiation zone, planting density is 6 clumps/square metre; To radiation zone (water refers to be the zone that water covered to radiation zone) plantation floatingleaved plant throughout the year, planting density is 1 clump/square metre at water.Utilize the ecological functions of lakeside wetland aspect created land with silt, the water that the certain depth bed mud is arranged in alluvial is to the local submerged plant kind of radiation zone plantation through indoor group of training.
When (5) on the degeneration wetland, carrying out Revegetation, keep already present wetland plant species of one's native land as much as possible.Needs according to making up plant community and view carry out after-culture to already present plant community species quantity, and the plant community of disappearance is introduced a fine variety structure.
(6) according to of the requirement of different muskeg normal growths to hydraulic gradiant, large-scale emergent zone depth of water 0.8-1 rice; Small-sized emergent zone depth of water 0.3-0.5 rice or low water season are anhydrous; Floatingleaved plant depth of water 1-1.5 rice; About 1.5 meters of the submerged plant zone depth of waters.
(7) at the water surface of water level radiation zone, in 1: 1 ratio of plant, make up floatingleaved plant group, 2 meters of the diameters of each group's stationary installation are transplanted floatingleaved plant in it.6 coenotypes need be arranged by aesthetic of landscape requirement, and each coenotype repeats 10 times, and the fraction of coverage of floating leaf aquatic vegetation is reached more than 80%.
(8) stationary installation comprises spud pile (bamboo wood, diameter 5-10 centimetre, 2 meters of height, the top and the period when a river is at its normal level water surface flat), diameter is the annulus (5-7 centimetre of bamboo chip width) that surrounds of 2 meters bamboo chip, fishing net (20 hole/bamboos rings), static line (2 meters/root) and the buoy (plastics matter, 8/encircle) of macropore.
(9) after wetland plant end in vegetative period, the large-scale emergent over-ground part in the natural wetland after recovering is gathered in, the height for the stubble left is about 0.5 meter.
CN200810167643A 2008-10-22 2008-10-22 Degraded lakeside wetland and restoration technology for ecological function thereof Pending CN101723514A (en)

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101880088A (en) * 2010-07-07 2010-11-10 国家城市给水排水工程技术研究中心 Aquatic plant compositing technology used for reclaimed water and landscape waterbody eco-remediation
CN102139959A (en) * 2011-01-27 2011-08-03 中国科学院苏州纳米技术与纳米仿生研究所 Method for remediating phosphorus-polluted lake sediments
CN102273392A (en) * 2010-08-25 2011-12-14 河北农业大学 Method for restoring and improving Lithocarpus dealbatus degraded shrubs
CN102356722A (en) * 2011-08-10 2012-02-22 中国科学院测量与地球物理研究所 Method for improving diversity of plants in lakeside zone
CN102763549A (en) * 2012-07-11 2012-11-07 北京碧水天成湿地生态环保科技有限公司 Degraded wetland vegetation in-situ recovery method
CN103102013A (en) * 2011-11-11 2013-05-15 江苏美尚生态景观股份有限公司 Method for restoring water quality of ecological wetlands by using composition of aquatic plants
CN103314763A (en) * 2013-07-09 2013-09-25 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Micro-reformation and vegetation restoration method for degraded plateau and lake wetlands
CN105284339A (en) * 2015-09-11 2016-02-03 赵艳云 Wetland rejuvenation method for shell dikes of yellow river delta by utilizing plants
CN105409612A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-03-23 黑龙江省科学院自然与生态研究所 Method for screening dominant species of water purification plants for riparian wetlands
CN105638015A (en) * 2015-12-31 2016-06-08 华东师范大学 Method for recovering intertidal zone salt marsh wetland
CN110002705A (en) * 2019-04-10 2019-07-12 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所 The endogenous nitrogen load cutting method of lakeside zone bed mud based on water-level fluctuation
CN111295963A (en) * 2020-02-06 2020-06-19 哈尔滨学院 Method for restoring diversity of wetland plant communities in lakes in northeast cold regions
CN111592116A (en) * 2020-07-22 2020-08-28 微资源(上海)生物技术有限公司 Wetland with water absorption and filtration characteristics and construction method thereof

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101880088A (en) * 2010-07-07 2010-11-10 国家城市给水排水工程技术研究中心 Aquatic plant compositing technology used for reclaimed water and landscape waterbody eco-remediation
CN101880088B (en) * 2010-07-07 2012-02-01 国家城市给水排水工程技术研究中心 Aquatic plant compositing technology used for reclaimed water and landscape waterbody eco-remediation
CN102273392B (en) * 2010-08-25 2012-11-14 河北农业大学 Method for restoring and improving Lithocarpus dealbatus degraded shrubs
CN102273392A (en) * 2010-08-25 2011-12-14 河北农业大学 Method for restoring and improving Lithocarpus dealbatus degraded shrubs
CN102139959A (en) * 2011-01-27 2011-08-03 中国科学院苏州纳米技术与纳米仿生研究所 Method for remediating phosphorus-polluted lake sediments
CN102356722A (en) * 2011-08-10 2012-02-22 中国科学院测量与地球物理研究所 Method for improving diversity of plants in lakeside zone
CN103102013A (en) * 2011-11-11 2013-05-15 江苏美尚生态景观股份有限公司 Method for restoring water quality of ecological wetlands by using composition of aquatic plants
CN102763549A (en) * 2012-07-11 2012-11-07 北京碧水天成湿地生态环保科技有限公司 Degraded wetland vegetation in-situ recovery method
CN102763549B (en) * 2012-07-11 2013-11-06 北京碧水天成湿地生态环保科技有限公司 Degraded wetland vegetation in-situ recovery method
CN103314763B (en) * 2013-07-09 2015-04-29 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Micro-reformation and vegetation restoration method for degraded plateau and lake wetlands
CN103314763A (en) * 2013-07-09 2013-09-25 中国科学院城市环境研究所 Micro-reformation and vegetation restoration method for degraded plateau and lake wetlands
CN105284339A (en) * 2015-09-11 2016-02-03 赵艳云 Wetland rejuvenation method for shell dikes of yellow river delta by utilizing plants
CN105409612A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-03-23 黑龙江省科学院自然与生态研究所 Method for screening dominant species of water purification plants for riparian wetlands
CN105638015A (en) * 2015-12-31 2016-06-08 华东师范大学 Method for recovering intertidal zone salt marsh wetland
CN110002705A (en) * 2019-04-10 2019-07-12 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所 The endogenous nitrogen load cutting method of lakeside zone bed mud based on water-level fluctuation
CN111295963A (en) * 2020-02-06 2020-06-19 哈尔滨学院 Method for restoring diversity of wetland plant communities in lakes in northeast cold regions
CN111592116A (en) * 2020-07-22 2020-08-28 微资源(上海)生物技术有限公司 Wetland with water absorption and filtration characteristics and construction method thereof

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