CN101246094B - Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device - Google Patents

Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101246094B
CN101246094B CN2008101026821A CN200810102682A CN101246094B CN 101246094 B CN101246094 B CN 101246094B CN 2008101026821 A CN2008101026821 A CN 2008101026821A CN 200810102682 A CN200810102682 A CN 200810102682A CN 101246094 B CN101246094 B CN 101246094B
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China
Prior art keywords
leaching
dish
collector tube
pipe
leaching liquor
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN2008101026821A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101246094A (en
Inventor
任天志
刘宏斌
邹国元
刘孟朝
马忠明
张继宗
王玉峰
李志宏
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INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT HEBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES HAAS
INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND WATER-SAVING AGRICULTURE GANSU ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS
Original Assignee
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT HEBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES HAAS
INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND WATER-SAVING AGRICULTURE GANSU ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS
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Application filed by INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT HEBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES, INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES HAAS, INSTITUTE OF SOIL FERTILIZER AND WATER-SAVING AGRICULTURE GANSU ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS filed Critical INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT HEBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES
Priority to CN2008101026821A priority Critical patent/CN101246094B/en
Publication of CN101246094A publication Critical patent/CN101246094A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101246094B publication Critical patent/CN101246094B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a self-flowing farmland underground drenching solution collecting device which belongs to the field for researching the environment science, agrology and plant nutriology. The device of the invention comprises an eluviation disk, a water-discharging pipe, a liquid-collecting pipe, a breathing pipe, a liquid drawing pipe, a sampling bottle, a buffering bottle and a vacuum pump; the eluviation disk is used for collecting the drenching solution; the liquid-collecting pipe is connected to the water outlet of the eluviation disk through the water-discharging pipe, the drenching solution in the eluviation disc can automatically flow into the liquid collecting tube; and the vacuum pump is used for extracting the drenching solution collected by the liquid-collecting pipe to the sampling bottle through the liquid drawing pipe under the buffering of the buffering bottle. Comparing with the prior art the invention has the characters of reasonable structure, convenient manufacturing, easy actualizing and the like, and the invention is especially suitable for monitoring the influence of the soil solutes of nitrogen, phosphor, agriculture chemicals and the like to the groundwater.

Description

Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device, belong to environmental science, pedology and Plant Nutrition research field.This device is specially adapted to monitor the leaching of soil solutes such as nitrogen, phosphorus, agricultural chemicals to phreatic influence.
Background technology
The nitrogen leaching loss agricultural problem still unimportant in the soil to phreatic pollution, and be the major issue that threatens human health and existence.There are some researches show that the fertilizer during the whole world is manured into soil has 30%~50% to enter underground water (Bi Jingwei, Zhang Jiabao through the soil leaching loss approximately, Chen Xiaomin, etc.: " modeling effort of holard seepage and nitrate nitrogen leaching loss in the agricultural land soil ", " irrigation and drainage journal ", 2003,22[6]).It is generally acknowledged in the past that the phosphorus leaching loss amount in the soil was few, mainly loss approach is the rainwash and the soil erosion.But in recent years, many scholars report out agricultural land soil phosphorus element with the amount of leaching form loss with the amount of rainwash and the loss of soil erosion form quite or bigger (Lv Jialong, Fortune S, BrookesPC: " soil phophorus leaching situation and Olsen phosphorus ' catastrophe point ' research thereof ", " agricultural environment science journal ", 2003,22[2]).The residues of pesticides problem has become a worldwide problem.Agricultural chemicals not only remains in the topsoil, also can leaching in underground water.Even a very little part (institute's applying pesticides) leaching fat underground water, all may constitute a threat to phreatic safety (Tang Hao, Li Zhenhong: " underground waters agricultural chemicals being transformed the evaluation of quantivative approach ", " world's agricultural chemicals ", 2002,24[5]).In order to protect water resource and aquatic ecosystem, new approaches and methods is all being sought in countries in the world, with monitoring, improvement and solution environmental problem.Research method to nitrogen, phosphorus migration rule in the soil mainly contains indoor soil-column simulation, percolating filter method, field earth pillar method, potter's clay suction agar diffusion method and the channel process of catchmenting at present.There are the following problems for existing method:
(1) easy and simple to handle, the quick and control easily of indoor soil-column simulation, but can not reproduce actual field environment exactly.
(2) the percolating filter method has overcome the shortcoming of indoor soil-column simulation, but needs the huge trench of excavation to carry out sample collecting, and is great in constructing amount, the cost height.
Need the outside to apply certain negative pressure when (3) earth pillar method in field is sampled, the moisture in the soil could be sucked cylindrical bottom space, suction sampling bottle then.Its major defect is that external pressure has changed holard flow field, can't accurately calculate actual leaching liquor flux in field and the actual solute transport process of soil.
(4) subject matter of potter's clay suction agar diffusion method is that sampling the time can only be gathered certain any soil liquid, need insert many collectors if understand the solution situation of whole soil profile, causes cost significantly to increase.
(5) channel process of catchmenting has overcome the shortcoming of potter's clay suction agar diffusion method, but need excavate the tank top soil body when water leg is installed, and has destroyed the soil water movement state under the state of nature.
Therefore, under the situation of the standard method of also not establishing the soil eluviation monitoring at present both at home and abroad, studying a kind of easy relatively, economic, accurate gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device will have development prospect widely in the soil eluviation research field.
Summary of the invention
The present invention has overcome the shortcoming that exists in the above-mentioned prior art, and a kind of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device that can accurately calculate soil eluviation liquid flux is provided, and has rational in infrastructure, characteristics such as manufacturing is easy, easy enforcement.
Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is mainly by the leaching dish, rising pipe, and collector tube, snorkel, liquid suction pipe, sampling bottle, surge flask and vacuum pump are formed.The leaching dish is a water-tight vessel, and upper opening is used to collect leaching liquor; Leaching dish bottom is provided with water delivering orifice; The leaching dish can have the geometry of rule, pushes up flat rectangular parallelepiped (no top box) such as the nothing that is rule, water delivering orifice can be arranged at the centre position on the long limit of trying to get to the heart of a matter; Water delivering orifice links to each other with rising pipe by the nut water nozzle; Rising pipe is a fluid-tight bilateral rising pipe, and an end connects the water delivering orifice of leaching dish, and the other end connects the water inlet of collector tube, and the leaching liquor in the leaching dish can flow into collector tube by rising pipe automatically; Collector tube is a waterproof tubular container, and the bottom is provided with water inlet, and leaching liquor from the leaching dish is used to collect; Upper opening, described opening have mobilizable pipe lid, and described pipe covers and is provided with snorkel and liquid suction pipe; The height of collector tube can guarantee that its opening is positioned at more than the ground; Snorkel is used to make collector tube to be communicated with air; Liquid suction pipe is used for extracting leaching liquor from collector tube.
During sampling, sampling bottle is linked to each other with liquid suction pipe, sampling bottle forms certain negative pressure by the vacuum pump suction, and the leaching liquor in the collector tube flows into sampling bottle under negative pressure.
Further, the leaching disc portion design feature of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is: the leaching disk shape pushes up flat rectangular parallelepiped for the nothing of rule, is welded by the PVC compressive plate, guarantees that each weld is close water-tight.A water delivering orifice, a PVC screw socket water nozzle and a rising pipe that has double-deck retainer nut are contained in the try to get to the heart of a matter centre position on a long limit of leaching dish.Water delivering orifice is embedded in the limit of trying to get to the heart of a matter, and has internal thread, is used to connect PVC screw socket water nozzle.The inwall minimum point of water nozzle is lower than the plane of trying to get to the heart of a matter is advisable, so that the smooth and easy inflow collector tube of leaching liquor, not residual liquid storage.PVC screw socket water nozzle is " L " shape or " one " shape, and two ends all have screw socket, and wherein an end links to each other with leaching dish water delivering orifice, the double-deck retainer nut that other end connecting band is supporting.The leaching dish links to each other with rising pipe by retainer nut, and the external diameter of rising pipe and retainer nut internal diameter are supporting, can guarantee behind the fastening nut that rising pipe is connected closely with the leaching dish.The leaching dish links to each other with collector tube by rising pipe.
The leaching dish can also contain filter layer of cloth and sand filter blanket, and the ground floor filter cloth is located at the water delivering orifice place, and second layer filter cloth is located at Pan Kou, between the two-layer filter cloth silica sand is set, and the thickness of silica sand is for to be advisable apart from about leaching dish dish mouth 3mm.
The collector tube partial design characteristics of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention are: liquid collecting piping pvc pipe material, the pipe bottom interior surface is designed to circular cone or semicircle is tapered, but outer bottom is designed to flat, is beneficial to horizontal positioned, each interface PVC plate welded seal; Tubing string is unitary closed except that connecting rising pipe; The pipe top is provided with the supporting lid of adjustable pipe closely, and pipe covers and is provided with snorkel and liquid suction pipe.Rising pipe links to each other with collector tube by rubber plug, and the rising pipe inlet of collector tube is lower than leaching dish water delivering orifice height, so that leaching liquor flows into collector tube smoothly under the action of gravity of state of nature.Collector tube also contains snorkel and liquid suction pipe.Snorkel links to each other with collector tube pipe lid by rubber plug, upper end protruded tube lid, and elbow, mouth down, the about 5cm of rubber plug is exposed in the lower end; Liquid suction pipe links to each other with pipe lid by rubber plug, upper end protruded tube lid, and have activity and seal, and the lower end is whittled into wedge shape, in case silt stops up, and extends the bottom of collector tube, apart from managing the about 5mm in the end.The diameter of collector tube, height and buried depth can be adjusted as the case may be, are lower than leaching dish water delivering orifice to manage the end, and the pipe lid elevates above the soil, and the following volume at the bottom of the collector tube pipe of collector tube water inlet is advisable can hold leaching dish top soil single maximum leaching amount.
The sampling bottle design feature of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is: sampling bottle is the ground wide-necked bottle, and bottle stopper is a rubber plug; Bottle stopper closely links to each other with wide-necked bottle, and is air tight; The sampling bottle volume is advisable can hold the leaching dish top maximum leaching amount of soil single.
Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention, each interface are all used PVC glue or other marine glue sealing and fixing, in case leak, leak gas.
The prioritization scheme of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is: one or more leaching dishes can or be set on every side in the both sides of collector tube, and the design specification of each leaching dish and install identically and is provided with at grade.This design characteristic is to monitor by the while multiple spot and reduces the sampling error that causes because of local fertility difference.
The beneficial effect of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is:
(1) gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention can guarantee to detect the soil eluviation situation under state of nature.
(2) the leaching dish of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention is the no top of a flat rule rectangular parallelepiped, the leaching dish is convenient to bury slotting the installation from the side direction of soil profile on the one hand, thereby not only can avoid disturbance to top monitoring soil, guarantee the true and reliable property of the sample gathered, can also reduce the workload when installing; The fitting depth of leaching dish is unrestricted on the other hand, therefore can gather the different depth of soil leaching liquor, realizes, more fully monitoring more accurate to soil solute leaching situation.
(3) leaching liquor in the leaching dish of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention does not need external pressure, under state of nature, flow into collector tube, can simulate field soil solute leaching situation process more realistically, calculate the leaching liquor flux more accurately and reach phreatic influence.
(4) collector tube of gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device of the present invention, not only configuration design is simple, and it is convenient to install, bury underground, but also can intuitively check the utilization and operation situation of package unit.Collector tube also contains the adjustable pipe lid in addition, and adjustable pipe is covered foreign objects such as can preventing rainwater on the one hand and entered collector tube; Can also needing how much determine whether sampling and sample frequency by directly watching leaching liquor on the other hand.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1. embodiment of the invention apparatus structure sketch; Wherein,
1-leaching dish, 2-collector tube, 3-rising pipe, 4-snorkel, 5-liquid suction pipe, 6-square brick base, 7-adjustable pipe lid, 8-sampling bottle, 9-surge flask, 10-vacuum pump.
Embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
Present embodiment is gathered the soil eluviation liquid at below ground 90cm place.
As shown in Figure 1, gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device embodiment of the present invention mainly comprises: leaching dish, rising pipe, collector tube, snorkel, liquid suction pipe, sampling bottle, surge flask and vacuum pump.
The leaching dish is the rectangular parallelepiped of a rule, and useful volume is in the dish: 40cm * 50cm * 5cm (wide * dish height of grow * trying to get to the heart of a matter of trying to get to the heart of a matter), and dish wall PVC thickness of slab 6mm, PVC thickness of slab 10mm tries to get to the heart of a matter;
Leaching dish water delivering orifice is positioned at the centre position on the long limit of trying to get to the heart of a matter, and the water delivering orifice diameter is 12mm; Water delivering orifice has internal thread, is used to connect L shaped PVC screw socket water nozzle, and its two ends all have screw socket; PVC screw socket water nozzle screw socket external diameter 12mm, its double-deck retainer nut internal diameter 12mm; The supporting retainer nut of other end connecting band of this screw socket water nozzle; Rising pipe links to each other with the leaching dish by this retainer nut, and the external diameter of rising pipe and retainer nut internal diameter are supporting, can guarantee behind the fastening nut that aqueduct is connected closely with the leaching dish, rising pipe external diameter 12mm, internal diameter 10mm.
Collector tube links to each other with the leaching dish by rising pipe, high 170cm, diameter 20cm.Leaching dish water delivering orifice to the height between the collector tube water inlet is about 60cm;
Snorkel external diameter 12mm, internal diameter 10mm, long 10cm;
Liquid suction pipe external diameter 12mm, internal diameter 10mm, long 180cm.
Each interface is all used PVC glue or other marine glue sealing and fixing, in case leak, leak gas.
The use step of embodiment of the invention device is:
(1) select the centre position of two sub-districts of field experiment, the level that marks the soil profile that is used to install the leaching dish on the face of land is taken up an area of scope, and the excavation groove.Excavate the soil profile of long 150cm, a wide 100m, dark 120m, two cover leaching dishes respectively are installed at the two ends of each section.Will guarantee that in mining process soil profile does not neatly cave in, the soil layering that digs out (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm, 60-80cm......) is stacked, so that can back-filling in layers.
(2) (guarantee that leaching dish upper surface is in subsurface 90cm depths) in the longitudinal profile of monitoring sub-district one side far from 95cm depths, the face of land and dig dark 55cm towards the horizontal direction of monitored soil, wide 55cm, the square hole about high 5.5cm, and guarantee that as far as possible the upper surface in hole is smooth.
(3) leaching dish water delivering orifice is connected with aqueduct closely, try to get to the heart of a matter at leaching then and cover two-layer 100 order nylon gauzes, and with nylon gauze with silica gel or other marine glues fixing a little after, in dish, fill the coarse sand of cleaning with clear water again, dress coarse sand amount is advisable with distance leaching dish dish mouth 2~3mm, cover one deck 100 order nylon gauzes at last on the coarse sand top layer, and the thick mud of modulating with the soil of taking from the 90cm depths is layered on the gauze, the PVC dish is put into the hole of digging, level side, and its outer side edges is about 15-20cm apart from the hole.Mud is closely contacted as far as possible, with simulation native soil matric potential, at last with the hole backfill compacting with the last plane in hole.
(4) at horizontal hole with the thick thick mud hole of obturaging, and arrange that one is slightly larger than the Polypropylence Sheet at hole, the rising pipe that only will be connected in the leaching dish exposes another termination collector tube of rising pipe.Collector tube place underlay one deck square brick is installed in the section bottom, and cement is built, to ensure the steadiness of collector tube.After collector tube is placed on the square brick that cement builds, back-filling in layers soil, compacting successively, and repeatedly irrigate soil is restored to the original state as far as possible.The process of backfill guarantees that collector tube pipe lid elevates above the soil.
(5) liquid suction pipe is linked to each other with the pipe lid of collector tube by rubber plug with snorkel.Snorkel upper end protruded tube lid, elbow, mouth down, the about 5cm of rubber plug is exposed in the lower end; Liquid suction pipe upper end protruded tube lid, and have activity and seal, the lower end is whittled into wedge shape, in case silt stops up, and extends the bottom of collector tube, apart from the pipe about 5mm in the end.
When (6) sampling, open the liquid suction pipe activity and seal, liquid suction pipe is communicated with sampling bottle, sampling bottle forms certain negative pressure down by the vacuum pump suction, and the leaching liquor in the collector tube flows into sampling bottle under negative pressure.

Claims (7)

1. a gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device is characterized in that, it comprises the leaching dish, rising pipe, collector tube, snorkel, liquid suction pipe, sampling bottle, surge flask and vacuum pump;
The leaching dish is a water-tight vessel, and upper opening is used to collect leaching liquor; The leaching face of trying to get to the heart of a matter is provided with water delivering orifice;
Rising pipe is a fluid-tight bilateral aqueduct, and an end connects the water delivering orifice of leaching dish, and the other end connects the water inlet of collector tube, and the leaching liquor in the leaching dish can flow into collector tube by rising pipe automatically;
Collector tube is a waterproof tubular container, and the bottom is provided with water inlet, and leaching liquor from the leaching dish is used to collect; Upper opening, described opening have mobilizable pipe lid, and described pipe covers and is provided with snorkel and liquid suction pipe; Snorkel is used to make collector tube to be communicated with air; The height of collector tube can guarantee that its opening is positioned at more than the ground;
Vacuum pump is used for the leaching liquor that collector tube is collected is extracted into sampling bottle by liquid suction pipe under the buffering of surge flask.
2. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, water delivering orifice top in described leaching dish bottom is provided with filtering layer, and described filtering layer is respectively filter layer of cloth, quartz sand layer and filter layer of cloth from bottom to top.
3. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described leaching dish has the geometric configuration of rule.
4. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that, described leaching dish is the rectangular parallelepiped of rule.
5. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, described leaching dish water delivering orifice is arranged at the try to get to the heart of a matter centre position on face length limit of leaching.
6. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the water delivering orifice of described leaching dish is positioned at the lowest part of leaching dish.
7. gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described collector tube bottom interior surface is shaped as half-conical or pyramid type; Described collector tube outer bottom is designed to flat.
CN2008101026821A 2008-03-25 2008-03-25 Gravity flow type farmland underground leaching liquor collecting device Expired - Fee Related CN101246094B (en)

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CN101881707B (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-04-11 福建省农业科学院农业生态研究所 Layered continuous collecting device for soil solution
CN102175833A (en) * 2011-01-19 2011-09-07 南昌大学 Vertical soil-column rain-controlling leaching system
CN102183383A (en) * 2011-01-30 2011-09-14 中国环境科学研究院 Collecting device of farmland shallow groundwater
CN103033397B (en) * 2012-12-12 2016-02-24 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 One field portable sampling apparatus and using method thereof
CN104034558A (en) * 2014-05-12 2014-09-10 南通中天精密仪器有限公司 Novel soil-solution sampler
CN104990767A (en) * 2015-07-23 2015-10-21 贵州师范大学 Device for collecting and extracting soil solutions in karst mountain areas and using method thereof
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CN105277389A (en) * 2015-12-06 2016-01-27 北京工业大学 Water wash sampling method for deposited pollutants on urban impermeable ground surface
CN105675350B (en) * 2016-01-14 2018-08-28 河海大学 A kind of passive type percolate collector of the detections of the POPs suitable for soil
CN108106916A (en) * 2016-12-02 2018-06-01 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 A kind of fertilizer nitrogen nutrient earth pillar direction quick leaching and real-time pretreatment unit
CN107449635A (en) * 2017-09-06 2017-12-08 重庆市涪陵页岩气环保研发与技术服务中心 A kind of topsoil seepage flow liquor collecting device and preparation method
CN108037269B (en) * 2017-12-21 2020-08-04 西北农林科技大学 A collection device that is used for monitoring of arid land soil nitrate eluviation
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