CN101113147B - Method for tea by-product resource utilization - Google Patents

Method for tea by-product resource utilization Download PDF

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CN101113147B
CN101113147B CN2007100181327A CN200710018132A CN101113147B CN 101113147 B CN101113147 B CN 101113147B CN 2007100181327 A CN2007100181327 A CN 2007100181327A CN 200710018132 A CN200710018132 A CN 200710018132A CN 101113147 B CN101113147 B CN 101113147B
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tea
water
essence
resin
product
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CN101113147A (en
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朱江
周张章
庄金侍
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Abstract

The invention relates to a materialized utilization method of a tea byproduct, which makes the best use of the tea byproduct as raw materials, and solves the problem of solid wastes discharge, and is of low cost, green and free of pollution and high effectiveness, and suitable for the industrialized production. The invention comprises operation steps: (1) selecting tea materials; (2) baking; (3) crushing; (4) extraction; (5) distillation; (6) concentration; (7) microwave extraction; (8) hyperfiltration; (9) stuffing, molding and packing; (10) resin absorption; (11) elution; (12) film concentration; (13) drying.

Description

The method that a kind of tea by-product resource utilizes
One, technical field:
The present invention relates to a kind of tealeaves deep-processing method, especially relate to the method that a kind of tea by-product resource utilizes, it is a kind of recycling and cleaner production method for processing that adopts tea by-product extraction separation tea-polyphenol.
Two, background technology:
China is that first finds tea tree and the country that utilizes tea tree in the world, has long tea history, and tea place cultivated area and tea yield are all at the forefront in the world at present.China is a large amount of low-grade tea of by-product when producing high-grade tea, and annual have the low and middle-grade tea about 100,000 tons unsalable and overstocked approximately; Famous green tea is made the bud head of often only adopting spring tea, and summer autumn tea and comparatively thick old tealeaves are not fully utilized; The regular pruning in tea place also can produce a large amount of discarded branches and leaves, by products such as remaining a large amount of tea ashes, muscle hair, stalk Piao in the Tea Production process, and tea processing factory has become the burden in tea processing factory's production to the bad processing of these tealeaves.If as the raw material of producing tea product series, make them obtain reasonable use and appreciation these tealeaves, then be expected to increase substantially the tealeaves industry gross output value, for the comprehensive utilization of tealeaves provides a rational approach.
Research along with tea natural product chemistry, people nutrition and efficacy component that constantly discovery is beneficial to man from tealeaves, especially the existence of physiologically active substances such as tea-polyphenol class, trimethyl-xanthine, tea polysaccharide makes tea leaf extract be widely used in fields such as food, medicine, chemical industry.At present, the research of effective constituent in the tealeaves has also been obtained considerable progress, existing division is as follows:
(1) tea-polyphenol.Tea-polyphenol is the general name of polyphenols in the tealeaves, has pharmacological functions such as significantly anti-ageing, fat-reducing slimming, preventing cardiovascular disease, inhibition tumour cell, is unique antioxidant from natural food in China's five kinds of food antioxidants permitting using.Tea-polyphenol has become medicine, food circle hot of research and development at present, except tea-polyphenol tablet, capsule etc., all be widely used in oil and foodstuffs, ready-to-eat, fishery products, meat product, seasonings, candy, beverage etc. as foodstuff additive, the powerful market requirement is arranged, and the development and application prospect is very wide.
The tea-polyphenol separating and extracting method mainly contains following 4 classes: solvent method, the precipitator method, supercritical fluid extraction, resin adsorption method.Organic solvent extractionprocess solvent for use amount is big, and common solvent has methyl alcohol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, be difficult at aspects such as product purity, securities being accepted by food, pharmaceutical industries, and the production cost height, effective component yield is low.Get tea-polyphenol with the precipitation by metallic ion legal system, though content of caffeine is low, the residual height of metal ion influences quality product, and its discharge is big for environment pollution, and the precipitation agent of meta-alkalescence easily causes the tea-polyphenol oxidation, influences the effective constituent of tea-polyphenol.Supercritical fluid technology is nearly separation method that grew up in 20 years, it have big to organism solubleness, rate of mass transfer is high, advantages such as operational condition gentleness, but the cost of supercritical fluid extraction great number also becomes its key in application factor in medium-sized and small enterprises that limits.Resin adsorption method separation and Extraction tea-polyphenol, technology is simple, energy consumption is lower, safely, help realizing scale operation, residual low, environmentally safe, resin can be regenerated, cost is low, therefore becomes new research focus.
(2) tea polysaccharide. tea polysaccharide be by hundreds of to several thousand molecular macromolecular compounds of monose, tea polysaccharide content increases progressively with the thick old degree of tea raw material about about 1% in becoming to sample tea, thus slightly among the Lao Ye tea polysaccharide content higher.Tea polysaccharide has radioprotective, anticoagulation and anti thrombotic action, and effect such as hypoglycemic in addition, raise immunity can be used in protective foods, foodstuff additive and the medicine.The extraction of tea polysaccharide crude product is after normally tealeaves being ground, with the method for hot water lixiviate, ethanol sedimentation.
(3) caffeine. caffeine also claims trimethyl-xanthine, and bitter, odorless have effects such as excited human brain cortex, enhancing body immunologic function and cardiac stimulant diuresis, can be used for treating diseases such as neurasthenia and melancholia, are important medical materials.Contain 2%~4% caffeine in the tealeaves approximately, it is the important source of medical caffeine, therefore, extract the caffeine Study on Technology from tealeaves extremely payes attention to always, the research of caffeine extracting and purifying method has obtained remarkable break-throughs, main at present subliming method, solvent method and the supercritical fluid extraction etc. of adopting.The caffeine crystallization output height that adopts subliming method to produce, purity is good; The general purity of caffeine that adopts solvent method to obtain is lower.
Utilize the tealeaves extracting effective components to show vast potential for future development, but relate to a large amount of organic solvents, the utilization of heavy metal in the technology that present most enterprise adopts, cause residues of harmful substances easily, and mostly all be that mode with single extraction realizes, tea grounds behind the extracting effective components is not fully used, and becomes a useless contaminate environment on the contrary.
Three, summary of the invention:
The present invention provides a kind of method of tea by-product resource utilization in order to solve the weak point in the above-mentioned background technology, and it makes full use of tea by-product as raw material, with low cost, and solved waste sludge discharge problem, green non-pollution, the efficient height is applicable to suitability for industrialized production.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
The method that a kind of tea by-product resource utilizes is characterized in that comprising following operation steps:
1) selects tea raw material; 2) cure; 3) pulverize; 4) extract; 5) distillation; 6) concentrate; 7) microwave extraction; 8) ultrafiltration; 9) add filler, formed package; 10) resin absorption; 11) wash-out; 12) membrane concentration; 13) drying.
The aforesaid operations step comprises:
1) tea raw material: low-grade unsalable tea, coarse tea leaf, pruning tea stalk leaf, fannings end etc.
2) cure, 105 ℃, 2-3h.
3) pulverize about 80-120 order.
4) extract, tea-leaf power is added water (solid-liquid ratio 1: 8-1: 12) at room temperature stir, fully swelling tealeaves cell.
5) distillation, in 60 ℃ of-65 ℃ of following underpressure distillation of temperature, tea aroma composition and a part of water enter the fragrance retrieving arrangement, form elementary tea essence.
6) concentrate, the elementary tea essence that the fragrance retrieving arrangement is collected concentrates back essence and filtrate through reverse osmosis membrane thickening equipment difference output under 1-1.5Mpa, room temperature, cycles of concentration can be controlled according to adjusting concentrated essence reflux ratio, by the aseptic or non-sterile canned finished product that becomes; Filtrate can be recycled to the FEOL use or canned one-tenth corresponding package is directly drunk.
7) microwave extraction, it is 1: 10 that the extracting solution behind the extraction essence in the step (5) is added water to solid-liquid ratio, microwave power 800-1000w, extraction time 20-40min makes the effective constituent stripping in the tealeaves.
8) ultrafiltration at pressure 0.1-0.5Mpa, under 40 ℃ of the temperature, is adopted the ultra-filtration membrane of aperture 0.01um, with the insoluble solid composition and greatly molecular substance filter out.
9) add filler, formed package.In filter residue, add talcum powder, binding agent, stir, add an amount of water, stir into bulk, the moulding mould of going into to set, compression moulding, paint look, the outward appearance finishing, what obtain different modeling has that technology is worth or flavor product (as pen container, penholder, ink pad, ashtray, artificial hillock, lampshade etc.) is inhaled in the purifying air of practical value; Or auxiliary materials such as adding glycerine, cellulose sodium carboxymethyl are made the theine mask product.
10) resin absorption will comprise that the material of tea-polyphenol is adsorbed on the resin Y700, and the part that resin can not adsorb flows out with solvent.
11) wash-out, the water with 0 ℃-15 ℃ of temperature elutes the trimethyl-xanthine that adsorbs on the Y700 resin earlier, and the water with 60 ℃-95 ℃ of temperature elutes the tea-polyphenol that adsorbs on the resin again.
12) membrane concentration concentrates with reverse osmosis membrane, concentrates pressure 1.5-3Mpa, and temperature below 40 ℃ is separated the moisture in the effluent liquid of collecting, and isolated water can be recycled to FEOL and use.
13) drying, concentrated solution adopt spray drying device to carry out drying, promptly get the finished product.
Compared with prior art, the advantage and the effect that have of the present invention is as follows:
(1) whole operational path adopts water as the unique extraction and the medium of wash-out, and has obtained ideal product performance parameter, this is the most characteristic bright spot of this technology, has realized green non-pollution, brief technical process, and this technology belongs to international and domestic initiative;
(2) because water is more cheap for other organic solvent prices, this is just from having reduced the running cost of this operational path to a great extent.In addition, water is recycled, also saved water resources greatly by membrane concentration equipment;
(3) systematically study and screened film, resin equipment and the technology that satisfies complete processing purpose and the requirement of suitable complete processing, effectively realized the reduction significantly of production process supplies consumption and energy consumption, this technology belongs to domestic initiation;
(4) the present invention has increased the output that flavor product, these three kinds of products of theine facial mask are inhaled in essence and purifying air initiatively, further enlarge the expanded range of product, both saved the environment input, increased income again, fundamentally realize comprehensive cleaner production, resource utilization is near 100%.This technology belongs to domestic initiation.
(5) utilize this invented technology and technology, the tea-polyphenol industry can be saved the several hundred million units of environmental protection investments, can save the more than one hundred million units of environmental protection facility working cost every year.
Four, description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is a process flow sheet of the present invention.
Five, embodiment:
Substep separates and extraction realizes that crucial separating technology and technology that recycling completely, tea resources utilization relate to comprise thereby the present invention carries out the tealeaves all the components according to material characteristic: the technology of the technology of microwave extraction effective content of tea, membrane sepn effective constituent, reverse osmosis membrane concentrate the Technology of feed liquid technology, resin absorption and water elution, recovery and membrane concentration technology, suction flavor product and the theine facial mask process for processing technology of essence.
Referring to Fig. 1, processing step of the present invention is:
1) tea raw material: low-grade unsalable tea, coarse tea leaf, pruning tea stalk leaf, fannings end etc.
2) cure, 105 ℃, 2-3h.
3) pulverize about 80-120 order.
4) extract, tea-leaf power is added water (solid-liquid ratio 1: 8-1: 12) at room temperature stir, fully swelling tealeaves cell.
5) distillation, in 60 ℃ of-65 ℃ of following underpressure distillation of temperature, tea aroma composition and a part of water enter the fragrance retrieving arrangement, form elementary tea essence.
6) concentrate, the elementary tea essence that the fragrance retrieving arrangement is collected concentrates back essence and filtrate through reverse osmosis membrane thickening equipment difference output under 1-1.5Mpa, room temperature, cycles of concentration can be controlled according to adjusting concentrated essence reflux ratio, by the aseptic or non-sterile canned finished product that becomes; Filtrate can be recycled to the FEOL use or canned one-tenth corresponding package is directly drunk.
7) microwave extraction, it is 1: 10 that the extracting solution behind the extraction essence in the step (5) is added water to solid-liquid ratio, microwave power 800-1000w, extraction time 20-40min makes the effective constituent stripping in the tealeaves.
8) ultrafiltration at pressure 0.1-0.5Mpa, under 40 ℃ of the temperature, is adopted the ultra-filtration membrane of aperture 0.01um, with the insoluble solid composition and greatly molecular substance filter out.
9) add filler, formed package.In filter residue, add talcum powder, binding agent, stir, add an amount of water, stir into bulk, the moulding mould of going into to set, compression moulding, paint look, the outward appearance finishing, what obtain different modeling has that technology is worth or flavor product (as pen container, penholder, ink pad, ashtray, artificial hillock, lampshade etc.) is inhaled in the purifying air of practical value; Or auxiliary materials such as adding glycerine, cellulose sodium carboxymethyl are made the theine mask product.
10) resin absorption will comprise that the material of tea-polyphenol is adsorbed on the resin Y700, and the part that resin can not adsorb flows out with solvent.
11) wash-out, the water with 0 ℃-15 ℃ of temperature elutes the trimethyl-xanthine that adsorbs on the Y700 resin earlier, and the water with 60 ℃-95 ℃ of temperature elutes the tea-polyphenol that adsorbs on the resin again.
12) membrane concentration concentrates with reverse osmosis membrane, concentrates pressure 1.5-3Mpa, and temperature below 40 ℃ is separated the moisture in the effluent liquid of collecting, and isolated water can be recycled to FEOL and use.
13) drying, concentrated solution adopt spray drying device to carry out drying, promptly get the finished product.
Embodiment:
1) tea raw material: low-grade unsalable tea, coarse tea leaf, pruning tea stalk leaf, fannings end etc.
2) cure, 105 ℃, 2-3h.
3) pulverize about 80-120 order.
4) extract, tea-leaf power is added water (solid-liquid ratio 1: 10) at room temperature stir, fully swelling tealeaves cell.
5) distillation, in 65 ℃ of following underpressure distillation of temperature, tea aroma composition and a part of water enter the fragrance retrieving arrangement, form elementary tea essence.
6) concentrate, the elementary tea essence that the fragrance retrieving arrangement is collected concentrates back essence and filtrate through reverse osmosis membrane thickening equipment difference output under 1.2Mpa, room temperature, cycles of concentration can be controlled according to adjusting concentrated essence reflux ratio, by the aseptic or non-sterile canned finished product that becomes; Filtrate can be recycled to the FEOL use or canned one-tenth corresponding package is directly drunk.
7) microwave extraction, it is 1: 10 that the extracting solution behind the extraction essence in the step (5) is added water to solid-liquid ratio, microwave power 800-1000w, extraction time 30min makes the effective constituent stripping in the tealeaves.
8) ultrafiltration at pressure 0.3Mpa, under 40 ℃ of the temperature, is adopted the ultra-filtration membrane of aperture 0.01um, with the insoluble solid composition and greatly molecular substance filter out.
9) add filler, formed package.In filter residue, add talcum powder, binding agent, stir, add an amount of water, stir into bulk, the moulding mould of going into to set, compression moulding, paint look, the outward appearance finishing, what obtain different modeling has that technology is worth or flavor product (as pen container, penholder, ink pad, ashtray, artificial hillock, lampshade etc.) is inhaled in the purifying air of practical value; Or auxiliary materials such as adding glycerine, cellulose sodium carboxymethyl are made the theine mask product.
10) resin absorption will comprise that the material of tea-polyphenol is adsorbed on the resin Y700, and the part that resin can not adsorb flows out with solvent.
11) wash-out, the water with 15 ℃ of temperature elutes the trimethyl-xanthine that adsorbs on the Y700 resin earlier, and the water with 75 ℃ of temperature elutes the tea-polyphenol that adsorbs on the resin again.
12) membrane concentration concentrates with reverse osmosis membrane, concentrates pressure 3Mpa, and 38 ℃ of temperature are separated the moisture in the effluent liquid of collecting, and isolated water can be recycled to FEOL and use.
13) drying, concentrated solution adopt spray drying device to carry out drying, promptly get the finished product.
The product the key technical indexes is as follows:
(1) the tea-polyphenol rate of recovery is more than 50%
(2) the tea-polyphenol product purity is greater than 80%, and quality product reaches the requirement of QB2154-1995
(3) the tea polysaccharide rate of recovery is more than 60%
(4) the trimethyl-xanthine rate of recovery is more than 60%
(5) the essence rate of recovery is more than 60%
(6) environment protection: meet national relevant environment standard
The present invention has proposed to make full use of resource in line with the aim that replaces terminal dependent response pattern with top comprehensive exploitation pattern, replaces roughing with precision work, replaces the technological line of single product with polynary product.At first, the raw material that the present invention adopts can be former in factory's depleted tea by-product part (low-grade unsalable tea, broken dust tea, coarse tea leaf, tea are pruned and obstructed leaf), makes every effort to make full use of resource, raising tea tree whole economic efficiency.The second, after raw material is used for suitably extracting, realize the collection of tea aroma composition obtaining the natural tea essence product by distillation.The 3rd, adopt efficient microwave extraction technology in short-term to extract effective content of tea, improved extraction efficiency on the one hand, also avoided effective constituent chemical transformation such as the oxidation under the high temperature, isomery when long in addition on the one hand.The 4th, use the separation that advanced Technology such as ultrafiltration, macroreticular resin absorbing method realizes solid substance, macromolecular substance, small-molecule substance, substep separates tea polysaccharide, tea-polyphenol and trimethyl-xanthine.The tea grounds that adopts this production technique to obtain, remain the product of environmental protection, add behind the suitable filler deodorant agent or theine facial mask base-material as places such as family, offices, without any potential safety hazard, and owing to be the secondary research and development production of waste, cost is extremely cheap, has solved the waste sludge discharge problem on the one hand, also can realize certain economic benefits simultaneously.Whole complete processing design is tight, planning is reasonable, green non-pollution, has reached the whole utilization of resources, and the efficient height, is applicable to suitability for industrialized production.
Especially what deserves to be mentioned is, by theoretical analysis to influencing each other and restrict between the characteristic of the characteristic of the characteristic of each composition in the material, resin, water and this three, creatively proposed with the water of differing temps to have filtered out a kind of resin that can only adopt water just can remove trimethyl-xanthine as extracting and the medium of wash-out.On this basis, obtained the product performance parameter of definite processing parameter and stable ideal by a large amount of experimental studies.Only adopt water as unique extraction separation medium, it is core key technology of the present invention, it means need not any solvent recuperation and sewage disposal, mean shorter operational path, more economic production cost and the production theory of environmental protection more, realized a property the changed breakthrough in the deep processing field of tea, also provide more wide thinking simultaneously for the other industry product separation.

Claims (1)

1. the method utilized of a tea by-product resource is characterized in that comprising following operation steps:
1) tea raw material: low-grade unsalable tea, coarse tea leaf, pruning tea stalk leaf, fannings end;
2) cure, 105 ℃, 2-3h;
3) pulverize, to the 80-120 order;
4) extract, tea-leaf power is added water, solid-liquid ratio 1:8-1:12 at room temperature stirs, fully swelling tealeaves cell;
5) distillation, in 60 ℃ of-65 ℃ of following underpressure distillation of temperature, tea aroma composition and a part of water enter the fragrance retrieving arrangement, form elementary tea essence;
6) concentrate, the elementary tea essence that the fragrance retrieving arrangement is collected concentrates back essence and filtrate through reverse osmosis membrane thickening equipment difference output under 1-1.5Mpa, room temperature, cycles of concentration can be controlled according to adjusting concentrated essence reflux ratio, by the aseptic or non-sterile canned finished product that becomes; Filtrate can be recycled to the FEOL use or canned one-tenth corresponding package is directly drunk;
7) microwave extraction, it is 1:10 that the extracting solution behind the extraction essence in the step (5) is added water to solid-liquid ratio, microwave power 800-1000w, extraction time 20-40min makes the effective constituent stripping in the tealeaves;
8) ultrafiltration at pressure 0.1-0.5Mpa, under 40 ℃ of the temperature, is adopted the ultra-filtration membrane of aperture 0.01um, with the insoluble solid composition and greatly molecular substance filter out;
9) add filler, formed package; Known quantities adds talcum powder, binding agent routinely in filter residue, stirs, and adds an amount of water, stir into bulk, the moulding mould of go into setting, is painted look at compression moulding, the outward appearance finishing, the flavor product is inhaled in the purifying air with technology value or practical value that obtains different modeling; Or add glycerine, the cellulose sodium carboxymethyl auxiliary material is made the theine mask product;
10) resin absorption will comprise that the material of tea-polyphenol is adsorbed on the resin Y700, and the part that resin can not adsorb flows out with solvent;
11) wash-out, the water with 0 ℃-15 ℃ of temperature elutes the trimethyl-xanthine that adsorbs on the Y700 resin earlier, and the water with 60 ℃-95 ℃ of temperature elutes the tea-polyphenol that adsorbs on the resin again;
12) membrane concentration concentrates with reverse osmosis membrane, concentrates pressure 1.5-3 Mpa, and temperature below 40 ℃ is separated the moisture in the effluent liquid of collecting, and isolated water can be recycled to FEOL and use;
13) drying, concentrated solution adopt spray drying device to carry out drying, can obtain tea polysaccharide.
CN2007100181327A 2007-06-26 2007-06-26 Method for tea by-product resource utilization Active CN101113147B (en)

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