WO2022068081A1 - 发声器及包括该发声器的电子产品 - Google Patents

发声器及包括该发声器的电子产品 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2022068081A1
WO2022068081A1 PCT/CN2020/136681 CN2020136681W WO2022068081A1 WO 2022068081 A1 WO2022068081 A1 WO 2022068081A1 CN 2020136681 W CN2020136681 W CN 2020136681W WO 2022068081 A1 WO2022068081 A1 WO 2022068081A1
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Prior art keywords
magnetic
central
sound generator
short
support plate
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PCT/CN2020/136681
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
朱熹
周昌国
刘光磊
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歌尔股份有限公司
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Publication of WO2022068081A1 publication Critical patent/WO2022068081A1/zh

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R9/00Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip, or moving-wire type
    • H04R9/06Loudspeakers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R9/00Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip, or moving-wire type
    • H04R9/02Details
    • H04R9/025Magnetic circuit

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the technical field of electro-acoustic conversion. More specifically, it relates to a sound generator and an electronic product including the sound generator.
  • the sound generator has been widely used as an important component of a terminal with an audio playback function.
  • Some terminals, especially portable terminals, such as mobile phones, tablet computers, and earphones, can provide very limited installation space for sound generators. Therefore, the existing sound generators that can be applied to narrow installation spaces usually adopt a structure that emits sound from the front of a single diaphragm. .
  • an object of the present invention is to provide a sound generator to reduce the polarization generated when the double diaphragm vibrates in the bidirectional sound generator structure, reduce the distortion of the product, and improve the performance and stability of the product.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide an electronic product including the above-mentioned sound generator to optimize the overall performance of the electronic product.
  • the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
  • the present invention provides a sound generator, comprising:
  • Magnetic circuit system located in the housing
  • the magnetic circuit system includes a side magnetic part and a central magnetic part
  • the central magnetic part includes:
  • the central magnetic part is a central hollow structure
  • the edge magnetic parts surround the outside of the two central magnets; a magnetic gap is formed between the center magnets and the edge magnetic parts;
  • each group of vibration assemblies includes a diaphragm and a voice coil fixed on the diaphragm, and the two voice coils are respectively suspended in the magnetic gap;
  • the sound generator also includes a centering structure located on the inner side of the central hollow edge of the central magnetic portion.
  • the centering structure includes two short-circuit rings respectively connected and fixed on the central portions of the two diaphragms, and the two short-circuit rings are along the diaphragms.
  • the vibration direction is set, and the adjacent ends of the two short-circuit rings overlap in the radial direction to form a gap space, and the gap space includes magnetic fluid.
  • the two short-circuit rings include a large-diameter short-circuit ring and a small-diameter short-circuit ring; the two short-circuit rings are coaxially arranged in the vibration direction of the diaphragm.
  • the centering structure is coaxially disposed between the two diaphragms and the two voice coils.
  • a preferred solution is that the magnetic fluid is attracted by the magnetic fields of the two central magnets and is suspended at a position corresponding to the central hollow edge of the support plate.
  • the magnetic fluid is located near the inner edge of the central magnet and is flush with the support plate.
  • the width of the interstitial space is 0.2-0.3 mm.
  • the short-circuit ring is made of a material with low resistivity; the material of the short-circuit ring is any one of metal or metal alloy.
  • a reinforcing portion is included on the central portion of the diaphragm
  • the reinforcing part and the voice coil are located on the same side of the diaphragm, and the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid is combined and fixed on the reinforcing part; or the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid
  • the part is combined and fixed on the central part of the diaphragm, and the reinforcing part is located on the central part of the inner side of the edge of the short-circuit ring;
  • the reinforcing portion and the voice coil are located on opposite sides of the vibrating membrane, and the ends of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid are combined and fixed on the central portion of the vibrating membrane; The end of the magnetic fluid is combined and fixed on the reinforcing part through the central part of the diaphragm.
  • the side magnetic portion is a continuous annular magnetic conductive plate or a continuous segmented magnetic conductive plate
  • the side magnet portion includes two groups of side magnets, the two groups of side magnets are respectively arranged on the two side surfaces of the support plate, the magnetization directions of the two groups of the side magnets are perpendicular to the surface of the support plate, and the two groups of side magnets
  • the magnetic poles of the side magnets close to the support plate are of the same nature
  • the magnetic poles of each group of the side magnets that are far away from the support plate and the magnetic poles of the surrounding center magnets that are far away from the support plate are opposite magnetic poles.
  • the present invention also provides an electronic product, comprising:
  • the sound generator is combined and fixed in the product main body, and the product main body includes a sound outlet, and the sound outlet is used to transmit the sound generated by the sound generator.
  • the present invention provides a sound generator that uses a centering structure to act on two diaphragms at the same time, which can effectively improve the polarization state generated when the double diaphragms vibrate in the two-way sound generator structure, and through the centering structure.
  • the magnetic field lines of the central magnet can be corrected and optimized to improve the integrity and continuity of the magnetic field and the application efficiency of the magnetic field.
  • the frequency response characteristics of the sound generator are improved and the distortion is reduced.
  • FIG. 1 shows a schematic side sectional view of the sound generator provided by the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the effect of the magnetic field at one end of the magnetic circuit system of the sound generator provided by the present invention.
  • Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of five marking points for the polarization test of the diaphragm.
  • FIG. 4 shows the vibration effect diagram of the five marked points shown in FIG. 3 of the diaphragm of the traditional two-way sound generator.
  • FIG. 5 shows the vibration effect diagram of the five marked points of the sound generator diaphragm provided by the present invention as shown in FIG. 3 .
  • the present invention provides a sound generator, as shown in FIG. 1 , the sound generator includes:
  • the central magnetic part includes a supporting plate 2 in the middle position which is relatively fixedly connected with the casing 1, and two central magnets 3 respectively located on both sides of the supporting plate 2; the central magnetic part is a central hollow structure; described in this embodiment
  • the support plate 2 has a flat plate structure to support the center magnet.
  • two center magnets 3 are respectively arranged on the upper and lower sides of the edge of the central hollow 21 of the support plate 2.
  • the center magnet 3 has a ring structure. 2 is used to provide support and fixation to the central magnet 3.
  • the outer edge of the support plate 2 forms a fixed connection with the sounder housing 1 to provide support.
  • the support plate 2 can be made of magnetic conductive material, or can also be made of Made of non-magnetic material.
  • the magnetization directions of the two central magnets 3 are perpendicular to the surface of the support plate 2, that is, the direction of the magnetic poles is perpendicular to the surface of the support plate.
  • the support plate 2 is a magnetic conductive structure, and the magnetic poles of the two central magnets 3 close to the support plate 2 have the same magnetic poles.
  • the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet 3 located above the support plate 2 is up N and down S
  • the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet 3 located below the supporting plate 2 is up S and down N.
  • the two central magnets 3 are close to each other.
  • the magnetic poles of the support plate 2 are of the same polarity.
  • the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet located above the support plate may be up S and N below
  • the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet below the support plate may be up N and down S
  • the magnetic poles close to the supporting plate are of the same polarity.
  • the support plate 2 is a magnetically permeable structure. With reference to Figure 2, since the magnetic poles of the two center magnets close to the support plate have the same magnetic poles, the strength of the magnetic field acting on the inner edge of the support plate 2 is stronger, and the magnetic fluid can be adsorbed to the vicinity of the support plate 2.
  • the flush position with the support plate can make the best mutual inductance between the ferrofluid and the central magnet.
  • the upper and lower center magnets can be combined into a whole magnet, which improves the continuity and integrity of the magnetic circuit in the double-sided sound-emitting device, and can improve the magnetic field utilization rate in the double-sided sound-emitting device.
  • the magnetic poles of the two central magnets close to the support plate may also be mutually opposite magnetic poles. That is, the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet above the support plate is up N down S, the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet below the support plate is up N down S, the two central magnets are close to each other and the magnetic poles of the supporting plate are opposite poles.
  • the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet located above the support plate may be up S and N below, the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet below the supporting plate may be up S and N below, and the two central magnets are close to the supporting plate.
  • the magnetic poles are opposite to each other, which is not limited in the present invention.
  • the side magnets 4 surround the outer sides of the two central magnets 3 , and a magnetic gap is formed between the central magnets 3 and the side magnets 4 .
  • Each group of vibration components includes a diaphragm 5 and a voice coil 6 fixed on the diaphragm 5 in combination.
  • the voice coils 6 are respectively suspended in the magnetic gaps.
  • the size and shape of the two center magnets can be the same. Further, based on the same shape and size of the two center magnets, the magnetic gaps corresponding to the two center magnets also have the same shape and size. The size and shape of the two voice coils are the same, and the two voice coils are respectively suspended in the two magnetic gaps. A voice coil of equal size is adopted, which saves space and improves the space utilization in the double-sided sound-emitting device. Moreover, by arranging the magnetic pole direction of the central magnet, the utilization rate of the magnetic field in the double-sided sound generating device can be effectively improved, and a stronger magnetic field can be provided for the voice coil, thereby improving the vibration performance of the voice coil and the diaphragm.
  • the voice coil 6 and the diaphragm 5 of the two vibration assemblies are configured to vibrate in opposite directions simultaneously.
  • the voice coil 6 and the diaphragm 5 located above the support plate 2 vibrate upward
  • the voice coil 6 and the diaphragm 5 located below the support plate 2 vibrate downward.
  • This embodiment can increase the sound pressure of the sound generator.
  • the two sets of vibration components can generate the same amplitude, so that the sound pressure of the sound generator can be multiplied, and the loudness of the sound generator can be greatly increased.
  • the winding direction of the two voice coils assembled in the sound generator and the direction of the incoming current are matched with the direction of the magnetic field in the sound generator, so that the voice coil 6 and the diaphragm 5 of the two vibration components are configured.
  • the present invention is not limited thereto.
  • the sound generator provided by the present invention also includes a centering structure located on the inner side of the central hollow edge of the support plate. Using one centering structure to act on two diaphragms at the same time can effectively improve the double-diaphragm vibration in the two-way sound generator structure.
  • the centering structure described in the present invention includes two short-circuit rings 71, 72 that are respectively connected and fixed on the central parts of the two diaphragms 5, and the two short-circuit rings 71, 72 are both annular structures,
  • the two short-circuit rings 71 and 72 are arranged along the vibration direction of the diaphragm 5 , and the adjacent ends of the two short-circuit rings 71 and 72 overlap in the radial direction to form a gap space 8 .
  • the liquid 9 is evenly arranged along the circumference of the short-circuit ring.
  • the short-circuit ring is respectively arranged on the two diaphragms in the present invention, and the short-circuit ring can be used.
  • the mutual inductance with the magnetic field force of the magnetic circuit system can better solve the polarization problem between the two diaphragms, and this design also has the advantages of simple assembly process and good coordination between the two diaphragms.
  • the material of the short-circuit ring is any one of metal or metal alloy,
  • it may be an alloy material such as constantan or a nickel-chromium alloy, or a metal material such as gold, silver, and copper.
  • magnetic fluid also known as ferrofluid or magnetic fluid
  • ferrofluid is a brown-black liquid magnet, which is formed by uniformly suspending ultrafine magnetic particles with a diameter of about 10 nanometers in a synthetic oil carrier.
  • the magnetic fluid has a certain damping property.
  • the magnetic fluid is filled in the gap space formed by the overlap of the adjacent ends of the two short-circuit rings, and the two short-circuit rings can be used to form an integral centering structure connecting the two diaphragms by using the magnetic fluid.
  • ferrofluid is selected as a part of the centering structure, and the damping characteristics of the ferrofluid can be used to improve the frequency response characteristics of the sounder, make the frequency response curve of the sounder smooth at the lowest resonance frequency, and reduce the distortion caused by excessive vibration of the diaphragm.
  • the two short-circuit rings 71 and 72 are respectively arranged on the diaphragm 5 above the support plate 2 and on the diaphragm 5 below the support plate 2 , and the upper short-circuit ring and
  • the diameter of the lower short-circuit ring arranged on the diaphragm 5 under the support plate 2 can be the same or different, the material can be the same or different, and the lengths of the two short-circuit rings in the axial direction (ie the vibration direction of the diaphragm) can be the same or different. , which can be adjusted according to the overall structure and performance of the required sounder.
  • the two short-circuit rings are bound to be non-coaxially arranged, which will cause the two diaphragms to vibrate out of harmony, resulting in polarization.
  • the diameter of the upper short-circuit ring 71 arranged on the diaphragm 5 above the support plate 2 is larger than the diameter of the lower short-circuit ring 72 arranged on the diaphragm 5 below the support plate 2.
  • the upper short-circuit ring 71 and the lower The short-circuit ring 72 is arranged coaxially.
  • the diameter of the upper short-circuit ring 71 is larger than the diameter of the lower short-circuit ring 72, that is, the upper short-circuit ring 71 is sleeved outside the lower short-circuit ring 72.
  • the diameter of the lower short-circuit ring can also be set to be larger than the diameter of the upper short-circuit ring. , that is, the lower short-circuit ring is sleeved outside the upper short-circuit ring. At this time, the width of the gap space on the circumference of the centering structure is equal, and the magnetic fluid is filled evenly.
  • the centering structure is connected to the two diaphragms and the two voice coils. They are arranged coaxially, that is, the two short-circuit rings, the two diaphragms and the two voice coils are arranged coaxially.
  • the magnetic fluid 9 is subjected to the magnetic field of the two central magnets 3 .
  • the suction is suspended in a position corresponding to the edge of the central hollow 21 of the support plate 2 and flush with the support plate.
  • the edge position of the central hollow 21 of the support plate 2 is affected by the two central magnets.
  • the magnetic field strength is strong, and the best mutual inductance is generated between the magnetic fluid and the central magnet, which improves the frequency response characteristics of the sounder, so that the sounder has a frequency response at the lowest resonant frequency.
  • the curve is smooth, and the effect of reducing the distortion caused by the excessive vibration of the diaphragm is the best.
  • a certain filling space needs to be given to the magnetic fluid while ensuring the performance of the centering structure. If the width of the gap space is too large, the magnetic There is a risk of liquid overflow. If the width of the gap space is too small, the amount of magnetic fluid in the gap space is small, the damping force provided is also small, and the effect of the centering structure on improving polarization is not obvious.
  • the width of the space 8 is 0.2-0.3mm. At this time, the centering structure has the best effect of improving the polarization phenomenon of the two diaphragms of the sound generator and improving the frequency response characteristics of the sound generator to reduce distortion.
  • the center of the support plate 2 The area defined by the hollow 21 does not exceed 45% of the area defined by the outer edge of the central magnet 3 .
  • the lower the cross-sectional area size of the short-circuit ring the better the polarization effect will be, but it will be limited by the vibration space defined by the hollow edge in the center of the support plate. Structural performance adjustment.
  • the thickness of the short-circuit ring can also be selected according to the frequency range of different products. Usually, it is around 300hz, and the short-circuit ring with a thickness of about 1mm has the best effect of improving polarization and reducing distortion.
  • the bending directions of the folded ring portions 51 of the two diaphragms 5 are both toward the direction of the support plate, which can relatively increase the vibration space of the diaphragms in the front acoustic cavity.
  • the bending directions of the two diaphragm folded ring parts may also be directed away from the support plate, or the bending direction of one diaphragm folded ring part may be directed towards the support plate direction, and the other diaphragm folded ring
  • the bending direction of the part faces the direction away from the support plate, which is selected according to the requirements of the actual product obtained, and is not limited in the present invention.
  • a reinforcing part is usually fixed on the central part of the diaphragm, and the reinforcing part can also be referred to as DOME, dome top, and composite layer are used to adjust the acoustic performance of the sound generator.
  • the reinforcing part is made of a metal material with high rigidity and light weight, or a composite layer structure made of a variety of materials.
  • the strong part can be combined and fixed with the diaphragm as a separate component, and in some embodiments, the reinforcing part and the central part of the diaphragm can be integrally injection-molded.
  • the central portion of the diaphragm 5 includes a reinforcing portion 52; the reinforcing portion 52 and the voice coil are located on opposite sides of the diaphragm, that is, the reinforcing portion is located on the On the side of the diaphragm facing away from the voice coil, the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid can be fixed on the central portion of the diaphragm by means of adhesive bonding.
  • the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid is combined and fixed on the reinforcing part through the central part of the diaphragm.
  • the reinforcing portion may also be located on the same side of the diaphragm as the voice coil, and the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid may be bonded and fixed to the diaphragm by means of bonding. or the end of the short-circuit ring facing away from the magnetic fluid is bonded and fixed on the central portion of the diaphragm by means of bonding, and the reinforcing portion is located on the central portion inside the edge of the short-circuit ring.
  • the side magnet portion 4 is made of magnetically conductive material to correct the magnetic field lines of the center magnet, so that the side magnet portion 4 and the center magnet 3 are in the described position.
  • the magnetic field formed at the magnetic gap provides more magnetic field force.
  • the side magnetic part is an integral annular magnetic conductive side plate.
  • the height of the annular magnetic conductive side plate is at least equal to the sum of the thickness of the two central magnets and the thickness of the support plate.
  • the integral annular magnetic conductive side plate surrounds the two central magnets and forms magnetic gaps with the two central magnets respectively.
  • the annular magnetic conductive side plate can surround the part of the support plate for carrying the central magnet, and the annular magnetic conductive side plate can be provided with a notch or an opening for the partial structure of the support plate to protrude.
  • the support plate may also have a portion for projecting out of the space surrounded by the annular magnetic conductive side plate, so as to be fixedly connected with the casing to the partial structure. Since the two central magnets can form an integral magnet, the annular magnetic conductive side plates surrounding the central magnet can also form an integral magnet.
  • the advantage of this embodiment is that the number of parts of the sound generator is small, which can simplify the assembly process and save space. The integrity and continuity of the magnetic circuit are better, and the application efficiency of the magnetic field is improved.
  • the side magnet portion may include two annular magnetic conductive side plates, and the two annular magnetic conductive side plates are respectively disposed on two side surfaces of the support plate.
  • the two annular magnetic conductive side plates correspond to the two central magnets one-to-one respectively, and surround the corresponding central magnets.
  • the advantage of this embodiment is that the two annular magnetic conductive side plates are arranged in a separate manner, and there is no need to provide a gap for the support plate to protrude. The processing difficulty of the annular magnetic conductive side plate is reduced, and the external leakage of the magnetic field of the central magnet can also be reduced.
  • the side magnet portion includes two groups of side magnets, the two groups of side magnets are respectively disposed on the two side surfaces of the support plate, and the magnetization directions of the two groups of side magnets are vertical
  • the magnetic poles of the two groups of the side magnets close to the support plate have the same magnetic poles; the magnetic poles of each group of the side magnets that are far away from the support plate are far away from the surrounding center magnet.
  • the magnetic poles of the support plate are opposite magnetic poles to each other.
  • This magnetic circuit distribution enables the side magnets and the central magnet to form an integral and complete magnetic circuit.
  • the side magnets located on the upper and lower sides of the support plate form an integral magnet that cooperates with the central magnet, thereby increasing the strength of the magnetic field and the area covered by the magnetic field, which can effectively improve the overall sensitivity and loudness of the speaker.
  • the side magnets may be annular side magnets or separate side magnets. With annular edge magnets, the assembly process is simpler and the magnetic gap is longer, which helps to improve the vibration sensitivity of the voice coil.
  • each set of side magnets shall include at least two side magnets.
  • a set of side magnets are arranged around the center magnet in a symmetrical, center-symmetrical fashion. The advantage of using a split side magnet is that it is convenient to extend the lead wire drawn from the voice coil to a position outside the side magnet portion, and it is also convenient to extend part of the structure of the support plate beyond the side magnet portion.
  • a center magnetic conductive plate 31 is further provided on the surface of the center magnet 3 away from the support plate 2 .
  • the central magnetic conducting plate 31 is configured to confine and concentrate the magnetic field generated by the central magnet 3, and guide the magnetic field to the magnetic gap and the position of the peripheral side magnetic parts.
  • side magnetic conductive plates may also be provided on the upper and lower end surfaces of the side magnets. The side magnetic conductive plate is configured to constrain and concentrate the magnetic field generated by the side magnets, guide the magnetic field to the magnetic gap and the position of the center magnet in the central area, increase the density of the magnetic lines of force in the magnetic gap, and enhance the magnetic field in the magnetic gap. Magnetic field strength perceived by the voice coil.
  • the advantage of using the central magnetic conductive plate and the side magnetic conductive plate is that it can effectively improve the magnetic field strength and the uniformity of the magnetic field in the magnetic gap, so that the voice coil can be subjected to a stronger Lorentz force, which is then converted into vibration amplitude.
  • the magnetic field generated by the magnet can be used more effectively by using the magnetic conductive plate.
  • the five points A, B, C, D, and E are The displacement is relatively small, and the degree of polarization p is about 16.2%.
  • the degree of polarization p is about 16.2%.
  • the present invention also provides an electronic product, and the electronic product may be a mobile phone, a tablet computer, etc., which is not limited.
  • the electronic product includes a product body, and the above-mentioned sound generator; the sound generator is combined and fixed in the product body, and the product body includes a sound outlet, and the sound outlet is used to transmit the sound generated by the sound generator.

Abstract

本发明公开了一种发声器及包括该发声器的电子产品,包括:壳体;位于壳体内的磁路系统;磁路系统包括边磁部以及中心磁部;中心磁部包括位于中间位置的支撑板;以及分别位于支撑板两侧的两块中心磁铁;中心磁部为中央镂空的结构;中心磁铁与边磁部之间形成磁间隙;两组分别位于支撑板两侧的振动组件,每组振动组件均包括振膜以及音圈;发声器还包括有位于中心磁部中央镂空边沿内侧的定心结构,定心结构包括分别连接固定于两个振膜中央部上的两个短路环,两个短路环的临近端在径向方向上重合形成间隙空间,该间隙空间内包括有磁液。本发明可减少双向发声器结构中双振膜振动时产生的偏振,降低产品失真,提高产品的性能和稳定性。

Description

发声器及包括该发声器的电子产品 技术领域
本发明涉及电声转换技术领域。更具体地,涉及一种发声器及包括该发声器的电子产品。
背景技术
目前,发声器作为具有音频播放功能的终端的重要部件,已得到广泛应用。一些终端,尤其是便携终端,如手机、平板电脑、耳机能够为发声器提供的安装空间非常有限,因此,现有的能够应用于狭小安装空间的发声器,通常采用单个振膜正面发声的结构。
近年来,随着电子产品相关技术的快速发展,为了达到更优的性能,本领域技术人员对电子产品的结构等特点进行了改进。
由此出现了采用两套振动系统及磁路系统构成的可双向发声的发声器,该种双向发声器由于其自身结构设计特点,工作时双振膜同时向不同方向振动,产品的偏振情况非常严重,并且发声器在其最低谐振频率附近的频响曲线上会有峰值,易因振膜振幅过大造成失真。
发明内容
鉴于上述问题,本发明的一个目的在于提供一种发声器,以减少双向发声器结构中双振膜振动时产生的偏振,降低产品失真,提高产品的性能和稳定性。
本发明的另一个目的在于提供一种包括如上所述发声器的电子产品,以优化电子产品的整体性能。
为达到上述目的,本发明采用下述技术方案:
根据本发明的一个方面,本发明提供一种发声器,包括:
壳体;
位于壳体内的磁路系统;
所述磁路系统包括边磁部以及中心磁部;
所述中心磁部包括:
与壳体形成相对固定连接的位于中间位置的支撑板;以及分别位于所述支撑板两侧的两块中心磁铁;所述中心磁部为中央镂空的结构;
所述边磁部围绕在两块中心磁铁外侧;中心磁铁与边磁部之间形成磁间隙;
两组分别位于所述支撑板两侧的振动组件,每组振动组件均包括振膜以及结合固定于振膜上的音圈,两个音圈分别悬置在所述磁间隙中;
所述发声器还包括有位于中心磁部中央镂空边沿内侧的定心结构,所述定心结构包括分别连接固定于两个振膜中央部上的两个短路环,两个短路环沿振膜振动方向设置,两个短路环的临近端在径向方向上重合形成间隙空间,该间隙空间内包括有磁液。
此外,优选地方案是,两个短路环包括大直径短路环以及小直径短路环;在振膜振动方向上两个短路环同轴设置。
此外,优选地方案是,定心结构与两个振膜以及两个音圈之间呈同轴设置。
此外,优选地方案是,所述磁液受两个所述中心磁铁磁场的吸引悬浮在与支撑板中央镂空边沿对应的位置。
此外,优选地方案是,所述磁液位于靠近中心磁铁内侧边沿与支撑板齐平的位置。
此外,优选地方案是,所述间隙空间的宽度为0.2-0.3mm。
此外,优选地方案是,所述短路环由低电阻率的材质制成;所述短路环的材质为金属或金属合金中的任意一种。
此外,优选地方案是,所述振膜中央部上包括有补强部;
所述补强部与所述音圈位于所述振膜同侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定于所述补强部上;或者所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定于振膜中央部上,补强部位于所述短路环边沿内侧的中央部上;
或者,所述补强部与所述音圈位于所述振膜两相对侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定在所述振膜中央部上;或者所述短路环的背离磁液的端部穿过振膜中央部结合固定在所述补强部上。
此外,优选地方案是,所述边磁部为连续的环形导磁板或者连续的分段导磁板;
或者,所述边磁部包括两组边磁铁,两组边磁铁分别设置在所述支撑板的两侧表面上,两组所述边磁铁的充磁方向垂直于所述支撑板的表面,两组所述边磁铁的靠近所述支撑板的磁极为同性的磁极;
每一组所述边磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极与其所环绕的中心磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极互为异性磁极。
根据本发明的另一个方面,本发明还提供一种电子产品,包括:
产品主体,以及如上所述的发声器;
所述发声器结合固定在所述产品主体中,所述产品主体上包括有出声口,所述出声口供所述发声器产生的声音传出。
本发明的有益效果如下:
相较于现有双向发声器结构,本发明提供发声器利用一个定心结构同时作用于两个振膜可有效改善双向发声器结构中双振膜振动时产生的偏振情况,且通过定心结构与磁路系统的配合可对中心磁铁磁力线进行修正及优化,提高磁场的整体性、连贯性以及磁场的应用效率。结合定心结构中磁液的阻尼特性,改善发声器频响特征,减少失真。
附图说明
下面结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式作进一步详细的说明。
图1示出本发明所提供发声器的侧面剖视示意图。
图2示出本发明所提供发声器磁路系统一端的磁场效果图。
图3示出振膜偏振测试五个标记点示意图。
图4示出传统双向发声器振膜如图3所示五个标记点的振动效果图。
图5示出本发明所提供发声器振膜如图3所示的五个标记点的振动效果图。
具体实施方式
现在将参照附图来详细描述本发明的各种示例性实施例。应注意到:除非另外具体说明,否则在这些实施例中阐述的部件和步骤的相对布置、数字表达式和数值不限制本发明的范围。
以下对至少一个示例性实施例的描述实际上仅仅是说明性的,决不作为对本发明及其应用或使用的任何限制。
对于相关领域普通技术人员已知的技术和设备可能不作详细讨论,但在适当情况下,所述技术和设备应当被视为说明书的一部分。
在这里示出和讨论的所有例子中,任何具体值应被解释为仅仅是示例性的,而不是作为限制。因此,示例性实施例的其它例子可以具有不同的值。
应注意到:相似的标号和字母在下面的附图中表示类似项,因此,一旦某一项在一个附图中被定义,则在随后的附图中不需要对其进行进一步讨论。
本发明提供一种发声器,结合图1所示,该发声器包括:
壳体1;
位于壳体1内的磁路系统;所述磁路系统包括边磁部4以及中心磁部;
中心磁部包括与壳体1形成相对固定连接的位于中间位置的支撑板2,以及分别位于支撑板2两侧的两块中心磁铁3;中心磁部为中央镂空结构;本实施方式中所述支撑板2呈平板结构,用以支撑中心磁铁,图示结构中,两块中心磁铁3分别设置在支撑板2中央镂空21边缘的上侧和下侧,中心磁铁3呈环状结构,支撑板2用于对中心磁铁3提供支撑固定,可选地,支撑板2的外侧边缘与发声器壳体1形成固定连接,提供支撑作用,支撑板2可以为导磁材料制成,或者也可以由非导磁材料制成。特别的,两块中心磁铁3充磁方向垂直于所述支撑板2板面,也即磁极方向垂直于支撑板的板面。
支撑板2为导磁结构,两块中心磁铁3的靠近所述支撑板2的磁极为同性的磁极。如图1所示,位于支撑板2上方的中心磁铁3的磁极方向为上N下S,位于支撑板2下方的中心磁铁3的磁极方向为上S下N,两个中心磁铁3相互靠近与支撑板2的磁极为同性磁极。在其他实施方式中,也可以是,位于支撑板上方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上S下N,位于支撑板下方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上N下S,靠近支撑板的磁极为同性磁极,本发明对此不作限制。支撑板2为导磁结构,结合图2,由于靠近支撑板的两中心磁铁的磁极为同性磁极,作用于支撑板2内侧边缘位置的磁场强度较强,可把磁液吸附到支撑板2附近与支撑板齐平的位置,可使磁液与中心磁铁间产生最佳的互感作用。此外通过上述设计方式,可使得上下两块中心磁铁能够组合成一个整体磁体,提高双面发声器件中的磁路的连贯性和整体性,能够提高双面发声器件中的磁场利用率。可选地,在其它实施方式中,两块中心磁铁的靠近支撑板的磁极也可为相互异性的磁极。即位于支撑板上方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上N下S,位于支撑板下方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上N下S,两个中心磁铁相互靠近与支撑板的磁极为异性磁极。在其他实施方式中,也可以是,位于支撑板上方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上S下N,位于支撑板下方的中心磁铁的磁极方向为上S下N,两个中心磁铁的靠近支撑板的磁极为相互异性磁极,本发明对此不作限制。
边磁部4围绕在两块中心磁铁3外侧,中心磁铁3与边磁部4之间形成磁间隙。本发明所提供发声器结构中,包括有两组分别位于所述支撑板2两侧的振动组件,每组振动组件均包括振膜5以及结合固定于振膜5上的音圈6,两个音圈6分别悬置在所述磁间隙中。
本实施方式中,两块中心磁铁的尺寸、形状可以做到相同,进一步的,基 于两块中心磁铁的形状、尺寸相同,对应于两块中心磁铁形成的磁间隙也具有相同的形状和尺寸。两个所述音圈的尺寸、形状相同,两个所述音圈分别悬于两个所述磁间隙中。采用了等大设计的音圈,节省了空间,提高了双面发声器件中的空间利用率。而且,通过对中心磁铁的磁极方向的配置,能够有效提高双面发声器件中的磁场利用率,为音圈提供更强的磁场,进而提高音圈和振膜的振动性能。
可选地,两个振动组件的音圈6和振膜5被配置为能够同时向相反的方向振动。例如,位于支撑板2上方的音圈6和振膜5在向上振动的时候,位于支撑板2下方的音圈6和振膜5向下振动。该种实施方式能够提高发声器声压。在通入的两路用于产生声音的电流信号相同的情况下,两组振动组件能够产生相同的振幅,使得发声器的声压能够成倍叠加,大幅增加发声器的响度。
可选地,装配在发声器中的两个所述音圈的绕线方向以及通入的电流方向配合发声器中磁场方向以使两个所述振动组件的音圈6和振膜5被配置为能够同时向相反的方向振动,本发明对此不作限制。
如上所述的两个振膜在同时向不同方向振动时,虽然大幅增加了发声器的响度,但也同时出现了两个振膜振动时偏振现象严重的问题,为解决上述问题,结合图1所示,本发明所提供发声器还包括有位于支撑板中央镂空边沿内侧的定心结构,利用一个定心结构同时作用于两个振膜可有效改善双向发声器结构中双振膜振动时产生的偏振情况,具体地,本发明中所述定心结构包括分别连接固定于两个振膜5中央部上的两个短路环71、72,两个短路环71、72均呈环状结构,两个短路环71、72沿振膜5振动方向设置,两个短路环71、72的临近端在径向方向上重合形成间隙空间8,该间隙空间8内包括有磁液9,所述磁液9沿短路环周向均匀设置。
相较于传统的为解决振膜偏振问题,在音圈与磁路系统或壳体之间设置定心支片的设计相比较,本发明在两个振膜上分别设置短路环可利用短路环与磁路系统磁场作用力之间的互感作用更好的解决两个振膜间的偏振问题,且该种设计还具有装配工艺简单,两个振膜间协调性好等优势。特别的,短路环电阻率越低改善偏振效果越好,可有效地降低产品的失真,提高产品的性能,进而可选地,所述短路环的材质为金属或金属合金中的任意一种,例如可以为康铜或镍铬合金等合金材料,或者为金、银、铜等金属材料。
可知的,磁液(也被称为铁磁流体或磁性流体)是一种呈棕黑色的液态的磁体,它由直径约为10纳米左右的超细磁性微粒均匀悬浮于合成油载体中而 形成。磁液具有一定的阻尼性,本发明在两个短路环的临近端重合形成的间隙空间内填充磁液,利用磁液可使两个短路环构成一连接两个振膜的整体定心结构,且结合图2所示,通过调整短路环71、72、磁液9与中心磁铁3的位置对磁路系统磁力线进行修正及优化,提高磁场的整体性、连贯性以及磁场的应用效率,获得更好的改善偏振效果。并且选用磁液作为定心结构的一部分,利用磁液的阻尼特性,可改善发声器频率响应特性,使发声器在最低谐振频率处频响曲线平滑,减少振膜振幅过大造成的失真。
本实施方式中,两个短路环71、72分别配置在支撑板2上方的振膜5上以及支撑板2下方的振膜5上,配置在支撑板2上方振膜5上的上短路环和配置在支撑板2下方振膜5上的下短路环直径可以相同也可以不同,材质可以相同也可以不同,两个短路环轴向方向(即振膜振动方向)上的长度可以相同也可以不同,可根据所需发声器整体结构性能进行搭配调整。在上述方式中,当上短路环与下短路环等直径设置时,势必两个短路环非同轴设置,会引起两振膜振动时不相协调,产生偏振,进而优选地,参见图1,配置在支撑板2上方振膜5上的上短路环71的直径大于配置在支撑板2下方振膜5上的下短路环72的直径,在振膜5振动方向上,上短路环71与下短路环72同轴设置。本实施方式中,上短路环71的直径大于下短路环72直径,即上短路环71套设在下短路环72外侧,在其它实施方式中也可设置为下短路环的直径大于上短路环直径,即下短路环套设在上短路环外侧。此时定心结构周向上间隙空间的宽度相等,磁液填充均匀。此外考虑到发声器内两个振动系统间的平衡性,避免引入其它使两个振膜间产生偏振现象的额外因素,优选地,所述定心结构与两个振膜以及两个音圈之间呈同轴设置,即两个短路环与两个振膜以及两个音圈之间呈同轴设置。
为使磁液9能够在中心磁铁3磁力线最密集的部位充分感受到中心磁铁的磁场,并与中心磁铁间产生互感作用,可选地,所述磁液9受两个所述中心磁铁3磁场的吸引悬浮在与支撑板2中央镂空21边沿对应的且与支撑板齐平的位置。支撑板2中央镂空21边缘位置受两个中心磁铁的作用磁场强度较强,磁液与中心磁铁间产生最佳的互感作用,改善发声器频率响应特性,使发声器在最低谐振频率处频响曲线平滑,减少振膜振幅过大造成失真的效果最优。在一个实施方式中,由于磁液受两个所述中心磁铁磁场的吸引悬浮在间隙空间内,在保证定心结构性能的同时需要给磁液一定的灌注空间,如果间隙空间宽度过大,磁液存在溢出的风险,如果间隙空间宽度过小,则间隙空间内的磁液 量较小,所提供的阻尼作用力也较小,定心结构改善偏振的效果不明显,进而优选地,所述间隙空间8的宽度为0.2-0.3mm,此时定心结构改善发声器两振膜偏振现象,以及改善发声器频响特征减少失真的效果最佳。
在本发明所提供发声器结构中,短路环的直径越大越接近音圈直径,即磁液9位于靠近中心磁铁3内侧边沿的位置,定心结构减少偏振的效果越明显越好,但兼顾发声器磁路系统磁性能和支撑板中央镂空开孔的空间大小,支撑板2中央镂空21开孔越大意味会相对减少发声器磁路系统中心磁铁的面积,进而可选地,支撑板2中央镂空21所限定的面积不超过中心磁体3外侧边沿所限定的面积的45%。
在一个可选地实施方式中,短路环截面积尺寸越低改善偏振效果也会越好,但是会受支撑板中央镂空边沿所限定的振动空间的限制,实际应用时可根据所需发声器整体结构性能进行搭配调整。此外短路环的厚度尺寸按照不同产品的频率范围也可选择合适的厚度,通常情况下在300hz附近,选用厚度为1mm左右的短路环改善偏振减少失真的效果最佳。
需要说明的是,本发明所提供附图结构中,两个振膜5折环部51的弯折方向均朝向支撑板方向,可相对增加振膜在前声腔的振动空间。当然在其它实施方式中,两个振膜折环部的弯折方向也可均朝向背离支撑板的方向,或者一个振膜折环部的弯折方向朝向支撑板方向,另一个振膜折环部的弯折方向朝向背离支撑板的方向,根据实际所获得的产品的要求选择,本发明不作限制。
在一种可选地实施方式中,为了增加振膜的刚性,提高振膜的高频振动性能,通常会在振膜的中央部上结合固定有补强部,补强部又可被称作DOME、球顶部、复合层,其作用在于能够对发声器的声学性能进行调节,通常补强部采用刚性大,重量轻的金属材质,或者采用由多种材料复合制成的复合层结构,补强部可作为单独构件与振膜结合固定,在一些实施方式中补强部与振膜中央部可一体注塑成型。
具体地,本实施方式中,所述振膜5中央部上包括有补强部52;所述补强部52与所述音圈位于所述振膜两相对侧,即补强部位于所述振膜的背离音圈的一侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部可通过粘接的方式结合固定在所述振膜中央部上。可选的,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部穿过振膜中央部结合固定在所述补强部上。在其它可选的实施方式中,所述补强部也可与所述音圈位于所述振膜同侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部可通过粘接的方式结合固定于所述补强部上;或者所述短路环的背离磁液的端部通过粘接的方式结合固定于振膜 中央部上,补强部位于所述短路环边沿内侧的中央部上。
为了降低振动系统质量,本领域一般会在振膜中央部对应补强部的位置去料形成镂空,补强部覆盖该去料所形成的镂空,该种实施方式所体现的振膜结构,上述实施方式中体现的振膜与短路环之间的连接固定方式不产生影响,本领域技术人员可根据实际所获得的产品的要求选择,本发明不作限制。
不同的边磁部适用不同的产品结构,且具有不同的优势,对于所述边磁部的结构形式,本发明提供如下几种可选实施方式。
结合图1所示,本发明在边磁部4结构选用的方案中,所述边磁部4采用导磁材料制成,以修正中心磁铁磁力线,为边磁部4与中心磁铁3在所述磁间隙处形成的磁场提供更多的磁场力。本实施方式中,所述边磁部是一个整体的环形导磁侧板。该环形导磁侧板的高度至少相当于两块中心磁铁的厚度和支撑板的厚度之和。该一体的环形导磁侧板环绕在两个所述中心磁铁周围,分别与两个所述中心磁铁形成磁间隙。环形导磁侧板可将支撑板的用于承载中心磁铁的部分围绕其中,环形导磁侧板上可设置供支撑板的部分结构伸出的缺口或开口。相应地,所述支撑板上也可以具有用于伸出至环形导磁侧板所环绕的空间之外的,以便与壳体固定连接在部分结构。由于两个所述中心磁铁能够形成一个整体磁体,因此环绕于其周围的环形导磁侧板也能够形成一个整体磁体。这种实施方式的优点在于发声器的零部件数量少,能够简化装配工艺,节省空间。磁路的整体性、连贯性更好,提高磁场的应用效率。
在另一种可选的实施方式中,所述边磁部可以包括两个环形导磁侧板,两个环形导磁侧板分别设置在所述支撑板的两侧表面上。两个环形导磁侧板分别与两个中心磁铁一一对应,将对应的中心磁铁环绕与其中。这种实施方式的优点在于,两个环形导磁侧板分体式设置,无需为支撑板开设供其伸出的缺口。降低了环形导磁侧板的加工难度,而且也能够降低中心磁铁的磁场向外泄露的情况。
在另一种可选的实施方式中,所述边磁部包括两组边磁铁,两组边磁铁分别设置在所述支撑板的两侧表面上,两组所述边磁铁的充磁方向垂直于所述支撑板的表面,两组所述边磁铁的靠近所述支撑板的磁极为同性的磁极;每一组所述边磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极与其所环绕的中心磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极互为异性磁极。这种磁路分布能够使得所述边磁铁与中心磁铁形成整体的、完整的磁回路。位于支撑板上下两侧的边磁铁形成一个整体磁体与中心磁铁形成配合,从而使磁场强度增大,磁场覆盖的区域增大,能够有效提高发 声器的整体灵敏度和响度。
对于上述采用边磁铁的实施方式,所述边磁铁可以是环形边磁铁,也可以是分体式的边磁铁。采用环形边磁铁,则装配工艺更简单,磁间隙更长,有助于提高音圈的振动灵敏度。如果采用分体式的边磁铁,则每组边磁铁至少包括两块边磁铁。一组边磁铁以对称、中心对称的形式环绕设置在所述中心磁铁的周围。采用分体式边磁铁的优点在于便于将音圈上引出的引线延伸至边磁部之外的位置,也便于将支撑板的部分结构伸出至边磁部之外。
作为一种可选的实施方式,参见本发明图1所示,所述中心磁铁3的远离所述支撑板2的表面上还设有中心导磁板31。所述中心导磁板31被配置为用于对中心磁铁3产生的磁场起到约束、集中的作用,将磁场导向磁间隙以及外围的边磁部的位置。可选地,在采用边磁铁的实施方式中,所述边磁铁的上下两个端面上还可以设置边导磁板。边导磁板被配置为用于对边磁铁产生的磁场起到约束、集中的作用,将磁场导向磁间隙以及中心区域的中心磁铁的位置,增加磁间隙中磁力线的密集度,增强磁间隙内音圈感知的磁场强度。采用中心导磁板和边导磁板的优点在于,能够有效提高磁间隙中的磁场强度和磁场均匀程度,使得音圈能够受到更强的洛伦兹力,进而转化成振动的振幅。利用导磁板可以更有效的利用磁铁产生的磁场。
结合图3至图5所示,定义如图所示振膜A、B、C、D、E五点位移的
Figure PCTCN2020136681-appb-000001
为偏振程度P,对于传统双向发声器结构中振膜在如图3所示的五个标记点进行偏振程度P的测试结果如图4所示,可见,在250hz附近,B、C、D、E四个点的位移与A点的位移相差很大,偏振程度p大约为38.8%左右。而在250hz附近,本发明所提供发声器振膜在如图3所示的五个标记点进行偏振程度P的测试结果如图5所示,可见,A、B、C、D、E五点位移量相对较小,偏振程度p大约为16.2%左右,通过对比传统技术方案与本发明所提供技术方案对产品偏振情况影响可知,采用本发明所提供发声器,产品偏振情况具有明显的改善,偏振程度减少达到50%以上。
根据本发明的另一个方面,本发明还提供一种电子产品,该电子产品可以是手机、平板电脑等,对此不进行限制。电子产品包括产品主体,以及如上所述的发声器;发声器结合固定在所述产品主体中,产品主体上包括有出声口,出声口供所述发声器产生的声音传出。
显然,本发明的上述实施例仅仅是为清楚地说明本发明所作的举例,而并 非是对本发明的实施方式的限定,对于所属领域的普通技术人员来说,在上述说明的基础上还可以做出其它不同形式的变化或变动,这里无法对所有的实施方式予以穷举,凡是属于本发明的技术方案所引伸出的显而易见的变化或变动仍处于本发明的保护范围之列。

Claims (10)

  1. 一种发声器,其特征在于,包括:
    壳体;
    位于壳体内的磁路系统;
    所述磁路系统包括边磁部以及中心磁部;
    所述中心磁部包括:
    与壳体形成相对固定连接的位于中间位置的支撑板;以及分别位于所述支撑板两侧的两块中心磁铁;所述中心磁部为中央镂空的结构;
    所述边磁部围绕在两块中心磁铁外侧;中心磁铁与边磁部之间形成磁间隙;
    两组分别位于所述支撑板两侧的振动组件,每组振动组件均包括振膜以及结合固定于振膜上的音圈,两个音圈分别悬置在所述磁间隙中;
    所述发声器还包括有位于中心磁部中央镂空边沿内侧的定心结构,所述定心结构包括分别连接固定于两个振膜中央部上的两个短路环,两个短路环沿振膜振动方向设置,两个短路环的临近端在径向方向上重合形成间隙空间,该间隙空间内包括有磁液。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,两个短路环包括大直径短路环以及小直径短路环;在振膜振动方向上两个短路环同轴设置。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,定心结构与两个振膜以及两个音圈之间呈同轴设置。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述磁液受两个所述中心磁铁磁场的吸引悬浮在与支撑板中央镂空边沿对应的位置。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述磁液位于靠近中心磁铁内侧边沿与支撑板齐平的位置。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述间隙空间的宽度为0.2-0.3mm。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述短路环由低电阻率的材质制成;所述短路环的材质为金属或金属合金中的任意一种。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述振膜中央部上包括有补强部;
    所述补强部与所述音圈位于所述振膜同侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定于所述补强部上;或者所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定于振膜中央部上,补强部位于所述短路环边沿内侧的中央部上;
    或者,所述补强部与所述音圈位于所述振膜两相对侧,所述短路环的背离磁液的端部结合固定在所述振膜中央部上;或者所述短路环的背离磁液的端部穿过振膜中央部结合固定在所述补强部上。
  9. 根据权利要求1所述的发声器,其特征在于,所述边磁部为连续的环形导磁板或者连续的分段导磁板;
    或者,所述边磁部包括两组边磁铁,两组边磁铁分别设置在所述支撑板的两侧表面上,两组所述边磁铁的充磁方向垂直于所述支撑板的表面,两组所述边磁铁的靠近所述支撑板的磁极为同性的磁极;
    每一组所述边磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极与其所环绕的中心磁铁的远离所述支撑板的磁极互为异性磁极。
  10. 一种电子产品,其特征在于,包括:
    产品主体,以及如权利要求1-9任意之一所述的发声器;
    所述发声器结合固定在所述产品主体中,所述产品主体上包括有出声口,所述出声口供所述发声器产生的声音传出。
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