WO2019196771A1 - System and method for measuring deformation of foundation pit - Google Patents

System and method for measuring deformation of foundation pit Download PDF

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WO2019196771A1
WO2019196771A1 PCT/CN2019/081692 CN2019081692W WO2019196771A1 WO 2019196771 A1 WO2019196771 A1 WO 2019196771A1 CN 2019081692 W CN2019081692 W CN 2019081692W WO 2019196771 A1 WO2019196771 A1 WO 2019196771A1
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displacement
foundation pit
pit
deformation
measuring
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PCT/CN2019/081692
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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永远
贺正琦
高远瞩
张仲瑞
李盼召
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成都柏森松传感技术有限公司
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Priority to CN201810315449.5A priority Critical patent/CN108519044A/en
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Application filed by 成都柏森松传感技术有限公司 filed Critical 成都柏森松传感技术有限公司
Publication of WO2019196771A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019196771A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge
    • G01B7/22Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge using change in capacitance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge
    • G01B7/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge using change in magnetic properties

Abstract

Disclosed is a system and method for measuring the deformation of a foundation pit. The system for measuring the deformation of a foundation pit comprises a deformation measurement part (1.0) arranged on each foundation pit deformation measuring point and used for measuring the amount of deformation of the foundation pit at the measuring point. The deformation measurement part comprises a steel wire (1.1) and a sensor module (1.2); the bottom end of the steel wire (1.1) is fixed to the bottom of the foundation pit close to a side wall of the foundation pit, and the top end of the steel wire (1.1) is fixedly connected to an upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit; the sensor module (1.2) comprises an inclination angle sensor (1.2a) for measuring the inclination angle of the steel wire (1.1); the deformation measuring part (1.0) is installed before measurement starts; and during installation, the steel wire (1.1) is pre-tensioned such that the steel wire (1.1) is in a vertically stretched state. The measuring system and method can efficiently, precisely and stably monitor the deformation of the foundation pit.

Description

一种基坑变形的测量系统及测量方法Measuring system and measuring method for foundation pit deformation 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种可实时监测基坑变形的测量系统及测量方法,属于基坑变形测量领域。The invention relates to a measuring system and a measuring method capable of real-time monitoring deformation of a foundation pit, and belongs to the field of base pit deformation measurement.
背景技术Background technique
随着城市化进程的不断推进,现代城市的空间利用率越来越高,城市的拥堵现象越来越严重,城市地下空间的开发利用成为城市发展的必然趋势。地下停车场、地下商场和地下隧道等大量的地下空间利用出现了必不可少的地下深基坑的开挖现象。With the continuous advancement of urbanization, the space utilization rate of modern cities is getting higher and higher, the congestion of cities is becoming more and more serious, and the development and utilization of urban underground space has become an inevitable trend of urban development. The use of a large number of underground spaces such as underground parking lots, underground shopping malls and underground tunnels has led to the indispensable excavation of underground deep foundation pits.
基坑开挖后使土体的水平支撑力减小,基坑开挖的降水引起地下水位降低与坑外水位不平衡,产生水压差较大,使土中自重应力增大等诸多因素均可能导致周边重要建筑物及地面下沉、出现侧向变形、倾斜、位移,甚至开裂,影响重要建筑物和人员、施工安全;此外,考虑到现有基坑支护设计方法以及地质条件,支护方案不能完全保证基坑工程的绝对安全。因此,监测基坑施工对周边重要建筑物和人员以及基坑工程本身的安全是十分必要的。After the excavation of the foundation pit, the horizontal support force of the soil is reduced, and the precipitation caused by the excavation of the foundation pit causes the groundwater level to decrease and the water level outside the pit to be unbalanced, resulting in a large difference in water pressure and an increase in the self-weight stress in the soil. It may cause the surrounding important buildings and the ground to sink, lateral deformation, inclination, displacement, and even cracking, affecting important buildings and personnel, construction safety; in addition, considering the existing foundation pit support design method and geological conditions, support The protection program cannot completely guarantee the absolute safety of the foundation pit works. Therefore, monitoring the construction of foundation pits is necessary for the safety of important buildings and personnel in the surrounding area as well as the foundation pit works themselves.
目前基坑监测大部分使用的方法为全站仪坐标变化法。全站仪坐标变化法是在基坑施工影响外的任意稳定牢固的地方设置几个差分基准点,在差分基准点和变形监测点上安装永久性反射棱镜。根据基坑的形状任意设一测站用方向观测各点的三维坐标。采用多次观测的数据经差分和平差后,作为以后变形监测数据处理的基准。按每天一个或几个周期进行水平位移和垂直位移三维方向观测;从第二次观测开始,每次测站不要求和上一次重合,但必须利用差分基准点测量出本次测量的测站三维坐标。尔后,测量计算出该次各监测点坐标值。差分平差计算出每一监测点在水平位移两个方向的变形值和沉降方向变形值,即三维方向的变形值。再按不同基坑边缘形状,将3维方向的位移值中的,值换算成基坑边缘法线方向水平位移值和垂直沉降值。At present, most of the methods used for foundation pit monitoring are the total station coordinate change method. The total station coordinate change method is to set several differential reference points in any stable and firm place outside the influence of the foundation pit construction, and install a permanent reflection prism on the differential reference point and the deformation monitoring point. According to the shape of the foundation pit, a station is arbitrarily set to observe the three-dimensional coordinates of each point. Data from multiple observations are used as a benchmark for future deformation monitoring data processing after differential and flat difference. Three-dimensional observation of horizontal displacement and vertical displacement is performed one or several cycles per day; starting from the second observation, each station does not require the same coincidence with the previous one, but the differential reference point must be used to measure the three-dimensional measurement of the station. coordinate. Then, the coordinates of the respective monitoring points are calculated and measured. The difference adjustment calculates the deformation value and the settlement direction deformation value of each monitoring point in the horizontal direction, that is, the deformation value in the three-dimensional direction. According to the shape of the edge of different foundation pits, the value of the displacement value in the three-dimensional direction is converted into the horizontal displacement value and the vertical settlement value in the normal direction of the pit edge.
基坑监测对数据精度和监测频率的要求都较高,全站仪坐标变化法虽然操作简单,但是由于是人工操作,需要工作人员每天一个或几个周期进行观测,劳动量十分大,不能实现实时测量,且易产生测量误差。而且,全站仪坐标变化法只能测量基坑的水平位移,无法测量基坑的竖向沉降,而基坑的竖向沉降也是十分重要的安全指标。在现代化的城市建设中,这些缺点带来了深基坑施工的安全隐患,由于这些检测系统的不完善已经造成了很多工程事故。因此,研究、设计出一种高效、精确稳定、实时的基坑变形监测技术成为本领域技术人员迫切需要解决的技术难题。Foundation pit monitoring has high requirements on data accuracy and monitoring frequency. Although the total station coordinate change method is simple to operate, it is required to be observed by one or several cycles per day due to manual operation. The labor is very large and cannot be realized. Real-time measurement and easy to produce measurement error. Moreover, the total station coordinate change method can only measure the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, and can not measure the vertical settlement of the foundation pit, and the vertical settlement of the foundation pit is also a very important safety indicator. In the modern urban construction, these shortcomings have brought about the safety hazards of deep foundation pit construction. Due to the imperfection of these detection systems, many engineering accidents have been caused. Therefore, researching and designing an efficient, accurate and stable real-time foundation pit deformation monitoring technology has become a technical problem that technicians in the field urgently need to solve.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种基坑变形的测量系统及测量方法。该基坑测量系统及测量方法可高效、精确稳定、监测基坑的变形情况。It is an object of the present invention to provide a measurement system and a measurement method for deformation of a foundation pit. The foundation pit measuring system and measuring method can efficiently, accurately and stably monitor the deformation of the foundation pit.
本发明实现其发明目的首先提供了一种基坑变形的测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部,其结构特点是:所述变形测量部包括钢丝和传感器模块,所述钢丝底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝顶端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;所述传感器模块包括用于测量钢丝倾斜角度的倾角传感器;测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部;安装时,对钢丝进行预紧,并使钢丝处于竖直拉伸状态。The invention achieves the object of the invention. Firstly, a measuring system for deformation of a foundation pit is provided, which comprises a deformation measuring portion which is arranged at a deformation measuring point of each foundation pit to measure the deformation amount of the foundation pit, and the structural characteristic is: the deformation measurement The portion includes a wire and a sensor module, the bottom end of the wire is fixed to the bottom of the pit near the sidewall of the pit, and the top end of the wire is fixedly connected to the upper edge of the sidewall of the pit; the sensor module includes a tilt angle for measuring the tilt angle of the wire Sensor; before the start of measurement, the deformation measuring unit is installed; during installation, the steel wire is pre-tensioned and the steel wire is vertically stretched.
本发明还提供了两种上述基坑变形测量系统的测量方法,第一种测量方法是:实时监测倾角传感器所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°,其中,h为初始基坑深度。第二种测量方法是:实时监测倾角传感器所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=h*tanθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。The invention also provides two measuring methods for the above-mentioned foundation pit deformation measuring system. The first measuring method is: real-time monitoring the angle value θ measured by the inclination sensor, and determining the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit according to the measured angle value θ X, X = 2πh * θ / 360 °, where h is the initial pit depth. The second measurement method is: monitoring the angle value θ measured by the inclination sensor in real time, and determining the horizontal displacement X, X=h*tanθ of the foundation pit according to the measured angle value θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
当基坑发生水平位移时,基坑侧壁上边缘会带动钢丝顶端发生水平位移,而钢丝底端固定,所以钢丝会发生相对于竖直方向的偏转,倾角传感器显示的角度即为钢丝绕底部固定点的旋转角度θ。由于水平位移量与初始基坑深度h相比十分微小,所以可通过弧长公式X=2πh*θ/360°近似求得水平位移;也可以通过正弦公式X=h*tanθ近似求得水平位移。经计算,采用精度为0.01°的倾角传感器,当初始基坑深度为15米时,上述两种测量方法在水平位移上的测量精度为2.5mm左右。工程中15米基坑所需检测的预警值为3mm,因此,本测量系统及测量方法完全符合基坑测量要求。When the foundation pit is horizontally displaced, the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit will drive the horizontal displacement of the top end of the steel wire, and the bottom end of the steel wire is fixed, so the steel wire will deflect relative to the vertical direction, and the angle indicated by the inclination sensor is the wire around the bottom. The rotation angle θ of the fixed point. Since the horizontal displacement is very small compared with the initial pit depth h, the horizontal displacement can be approximated by the arc length formula X=2πh*θ/360°; the horizontal displacement can also be approximated by the sine formula X=h*tanθ . After calculation, the inclination sensor with an accuracy of 0.01° is used. When the initial pit depth is 15 meters, the measurement accuracy of the above two measurement methods on the horizontal displacement is about 2.5 mm. The warning value required for the detection of the 15-meter foundation pit in the project is 3mm. Therefore, the measurement system and measurement method are in full compliance with the foundation pit measurement requirements.
与现有技术相比,上述基坑变形测量及测量方法的有益效果是:Compared with the prior art, the above beneficial effects of the base pit deformation measurement and measurement method are:
一、该测量系统和测量方法可代替现有全站仪等测量方法,大大降低了工作人员的工作强度,节省了人力成本,通过倾角传感器测量可将数据直观展示给检测人员,对检测人员没有专业要求;且可开发形成远程自动监控,无需工作人员到现场监测。1. The measuring system and measuring method can replace the existing total station and other measuring methods, which greatly reduces the work intensity of the staff and saves the labor cost. The data can be visually displayed to the testing personnel through the inclination sensor measurement, and the detecting personnel are not Professional requirements; and can be developed to form remote automatic monitoring, without the need for staff to monitor the site.
二、该测量系统的一套变形测量部成本在700元以内,相比与全站仪成本也大大降低了。Second, the cost of a set of deformation measurement department of the measurement system is less than 700 yuan, which is greatly reduced compared with the total station cost.
三、该测量系统和测量方法可代替现有全站仪等测量方法,检测精度高。Third, the measurement system and measurement method can replace the existing total station and other measurement methods, and the detection accuracy is high.
四、整套测量系统的每个变形测量部可根据基坑实际测量需求,灵活布控。4. Each deformation measurement part of the whole set of measurement system can be flexibly controlled according to the actual measurement requirements of the foundation pit.
本发明实现其发明目的还提供了另一种基坑变形测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部,其结构特点是:所述变形测量部包括弹簧、钢丝和传感器模块,所述传感器模块包括用于测量钢丝倾斜角度的倾角传感器和用于测量弹簧伸缩量的位移传感器;所述钢丝底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝顶端与弹簧的一端相连,弹簧另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部;安装时,对弹簧和钢丝进行预紧,并使钢丝和弹簧处于竖直拉伸状态。The present invention achieves another object of the invention, and provides a deformation measuring system for a foundation pit, comprising a deformation measuring portion for measuring a deformation amount of a foundation pit at each of the deformation measuring points of the foundation pit, the structural feature of which is: the deformation measurement The portion includes a spring, a wire and a sensor module, the sensor module includes a tilt sensor for measuring the tilt angle of the wire and a displacement sensor for measuring the amount of spring expansion; the bottom end of the wire is fixed to the bottom of the pit near the side wall of the pit The top end of the wire is connected to one end of the spring, and the other end of the spring is fixedly connected to the upper edge of the side wall of the pit; before the measurement starts, the deformation measuring part is installed; when installing, the spring and the wire are pre-tensioned, and the wire and the spring are made It is in a vertical stretch state.
进一步,本发明所述弹簧的弹性系数为0.5~2N/mm。Further, the spring of the present invention has an elastic modulus of 0.5 to 2 N/mm.
经实验,选用弹性系数为0.5~2N/mm的弹簧既可以保证初始状态时弹簧和钢丝可充分预紧,基坑侧壁上边缘处产生水平位移时钢丝和弹簧整体发生倾斜,以利用倾角传感器测得角度,计算基坑侧壁上边缘处的水平位移;又可以保证基坑发生竖向位移(基坑沉降)时,钢丝和弹簧整体在竖直方向的变形会集中在弹簧部分,可以通过位移传感器测量弹簧的伸缩量,得到基坑的竖向位移。Through experiments, the spring with elastic coefficient of 0.5~2N/mm can be used to ensure that the spring and the steel wire can be fully pre-tightened in the initial state. When the horizontal displacement occurs at the upper edge of the sidewall of the foundation pit, the steel wire and the spring are tilted as a whole to utilize the inclination sensor. Measuring the angle, calculating the horizontal displacement at the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit; and ensuring the vertical displacement of the foundation pit (base pit settlement), the deformation of the steel wire and the spring in the vertical direction will be concentrated in the spring portion, which can be passed The displacement sensor measures the amount of expansion and contraction of the spring to obtain the vertical displacement of the foundation pit.
进一步,本发明所述位移传感器测量弹簧伸缩量的具体方式是:位移传感器与弹簧并联,位移传感器一端与钢丝顶端相连,另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接。这样,就可以实现位移传感器的两个测量端分别与弹簧两端固定,以实现测量弹簧伸缩量的目的。Further, the displacement sensor of the present invention measures the amount of spring expansion and contraction in a specific manner: the displacement sensor is connected in parallel with the spring, and one end of the displacement sensor is connected to the top end of the steel wire, and the other end is fixedly connected to the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit. In this way, the two measuring ends of the displacement sensor can be respectively fixed with the two ends of the spring to achieve the purpose of measuring the amount of spring expansion and contraction.
进一步,本发明所述位移传感器包括磁致伸缩位移传感器、拉杆式直线位移传感器和电容式位移传感器。Further, the displacement sensor of the present invention comprises a magnetostrictive displacement sensor, a rod-type linear displacement sensor and a capacitive displacement sensor.
磁致伸缩传感器拥有高精度,能承受高温、高压和强振动;无磨损运行,稳定性好。拉杆式直线位移传感器,体积小,安装方便,输出信号多样化,精度高,响应速度快。电容式线性位移传感器,结构简单、耐高温、耐辐射、分辨率高、动态响应特性好,成本低廉。经实验,上述三种位移传感器应用于本测量系统中用于对竖向位移的测量测量结果精确,安装方便,适配性强。The magnetostrictive sensor has high precision and can withstand high temperature, high pressure and strong vibration; it has no wear and has good stability. The rod-type linear displacement sensor has small volume, convenient installation, diversified output signals, high precision and fast response. Capacitive linear displacement sensor has simple structure, high temperature resistance, radiation resistance, high resolution, good dynamic response and low cost. Through experiments, the above three displacement sensors are applied to the measurement system for accurate measurement and measurement of vertical displacement, convenient installation and strong adaptability.
本发明还提供了一种上述基坑变形测量系统的测量方法,包括实时监测倾角传感器所测得角度值θ和位移传感器所测得的位移值d,并根据所测得的角度值θ和位移值d判定基坑的水平位移X、竖向位移Y和综合位移L,其具体判定方法是:The invention also provides a measuring method for the above-mentioned foundation pit deformation measuring system, which comprises real-time monitoring the angle value θ measured by the tilt sensor and the displacement value d measured by the displacement sensor, and according to the measured angle value θ and the displacement The value d determines the horizontal displacement X, the vertical displacement Y and the integrated displacement L of the foundation pit, and the specific determination method is:
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d≥0,则判定基坑仅发生水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°或X=h*tanθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度;If the angle value θ ≠ 0, the displacement value d ≥ 0, it is determined that the base pit only has a horizontal displacement X, X = 2πh * θ / 360 ° or X = h * tan θ, where h is the initial pit depth;
如果角度值θ=0,位移值d≠0,则判定基坑仅发生竖向位移Y,Y=d;If the angle value θ = 0, the displacement value d ≠ 0, it is determined that the pit only has a vertical displacement Y, Y = d;
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d<0,则判定基坑既发生了水平位移X,又发生了竖向位移Y,水平位移X=2π(h-d)*θ/360°,竖向位移Y=d,综合位移L=h 2+(h-d) 2-2h*(h-d)*cosθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。 If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d < 0, it is determined that both the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y occur in the foundation pit, and the horizontal displacement X = 2π (hd) * θ / 360 °, the vertical displacement Y =d, the integrated displacement L = h 2 + (hd) 2 - 2h * (hd) * cos θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d≥0,则判定基坑仅发生水平位移X,因为当基坑仅发生水平位移时,基坑侧壁上边缘会带动钢丝顶端发生水平位移,而钢丝底端固定,所以钢丝会发生相对于竖直方向的偏转,倾角传感器显示的角度即为旋转角度θ。钢丝偏转过程可能会产生十分微小的拉伸,可忽略不计(d≥0)。由于水平位移量与基坑深度h相比十分微小,所以可通过弧长公式X=2πh*θ/360°近似求得水平位移。也可以通过正弦公式X=h*tanθ近似求得水平位移。If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d ≥ 0, it is determined that only the horizontal displacement X occurs in the foundation pit, because when the foundation pit only has a horizontal displacement, the upper edge of the sidewall of the foundation pit will drive the horizontal displacement of the wire tip, and the steel wire bottom The end is fixed, so the steel wire will deflect relative to the vertical direction, and the angle displayed by the tilt sensor is the rotation angle θ. The wire deflection process can produce very small stretches that are negligible (d ≥ 0). Since the horizontal displacement is very small compared to the pit depth h, the horizontal displacement can be approximated by the arc length formula X=2πh*θ/360°. The horizontal displacement can also be approximated by the sine formula X = h * tan θ.
基坑发生竖向位移(基坑沉降)时,钢丝和弹簧整体在竖直方向的变形会集中在弹簧部分,所以通过位移传感器测量弹簧的伸缩量,可得到基坑的竖向位移。如果角度值θ=0,位移值d≠0,则判定 基坑仅发生竖向位移,通过位移传感器测量弹簧的伸缩量,可得到基坑的竖向位移Y,Y=d;d为位移传感器的测量值。When the vertical displacement of the foundation pit (base pit settlement), the deformation of the steel wire and the spring in the vertical direction will be concentrated in the spring portion, so the displacement of the spring can be measured by the displacement sensor to obtain the vertical displacement of the foundation pit. If the angle value θ=0, the displacement value d≠0, it is determined that only the vertical displacement of the foundation pit occurs, and the displacement of the spring is measured by the displacement sensor, and the vertical displacement of the foundation pit is obtained, Y=d=d; Measured value.
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d<0,则判定基坑既发生了水平位移X,又发生了竖向位移Y。基坑的水平位移X通过弧长公式求得,X=2π(h-d)*θ/360°,竖向位移Y=d,其中,h为初始基坑深度。If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d < 0, it is determined that both the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y occur in the foundation pit. The horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit is obtained by the arc length formula, X = 2π(h - d) * θ / 360 °, and the vertical displacement Y = d, where h is the initial pit depth.
基坑的综合位移L测量是通过余弦公式,综合位L=h 2+(h-d) 2-2h*(h-d)*cosθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。 The integrated displacement L of the foundation pit is measured by the cosine formula, and the integrated bit L = h 2 + (hd) 2 - 2h * (hd) * cos θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
经计算,采用精度为0.01°的倾角传感器,当基坑深度为15米时,上述两种测量方法在水平位移上的测量精度为2.5mm左右。工程中15米基坑所需检测的预警值为3mm,因此,本测量系统及测量方法完全符合基坑测量要求。竖向位移的测量精度取决于位移传感器,可根据需要选用。After calculation, the inclination sensor with an accuracy of 0.01° is used. When the depth of the foundation pit is 15 meters, the measurement accuracy of the above two measurement methods on the horizontal displacement is about 2.5 mm. The warning value required for the detection of the 15-meter foundation pit in the project is 3mm. Therefore, the measurement system and measurement method are in full compliance with the foundation pit measurement requirements. The measurement accuracy of the vertical displacement depends on the displacement sensor and can be selected as needed.
与现有技术相比,上述基坑变形测量及测量方法的有益效果是:Compared with the prior art, the above beneficial effects of the base pit deformation measurement and measurement method are:
一、该测量系统和测量方法可代替现有全站仪等测量方法,大大降低了工作人员的工作强度,节省了人力成本,通过倾角传感器测量可将数据直观展示给检测人员,对检测人员没有专业要求;且可开发形成远程自动监控,无需工作人员到现场监测。1. The measuring system and measuring method can replace the existing total station and other measuring methods, which greatly reduces the work intensity of the staff and saves the labor cost. The data can be visually displayed to the testing personnel through the inclination sensor measurement, and the detecting personnel are not Professional requirements; and can be developed to form remote automatic monitoring, without the need for staff to monitor the site.
二、该测量系统的一套变形测量部成本在700元以内,相比与全站仪成本也大大降低了。Second, the cost of a set of deformation measurement department of the measurement system is less than 700 yuan, which is greatly reduced compared with the total station cost.
三、通过配合使用倾角传感器和位移传感器,可实时测得水平、竖直和倾斜三种位移量,并可根据测量数据,判定位移类型以及位移数据,综合判定基坑在各个方向的变形量。Third, by using the inclination sensor and the displacement sensor, the three displacements of horizontal, vertical and oblique can be measured in real time, and the displacement type and displacement data can be determined according to the measurement data, and the deformation amount of the foundation pit in all directions can be comprehensively determined.
四、该测量系统和测量方法可代替现有全站仪等测量方法,检测精度高。Fourth, the measurement system and measurement method can replace the existing total station and other measurement methods, and the detection accuracy is high.
五、整套测量系统的每个变形测量部可根据基坑实际测量需求,灵活布控。5. Each deformation measurement department of the whole measurement system can be flexibly controlled according to the actual measurement requirements of the foundation pit.
进一步,本发明所述基坑变形测量系统还包括数据传输部和数据处理部,所述数据传输部包括与每个传感器模块电连接的RFID芯片和微处理器以及无线读取RFID芯片数据的RFID读写器;所述RFID读写器将读取的数据传给数据处理部,数据处理部根据RFID读写器传来的数据,计算每个变形测量部所测得的基坑变形量。Further, the base pit deformation measuring system of the present invention further includes a data transmission portion and a data processing portion, the data transmission portion including an RFID chip and a microprocessor electrically connected to each of the sensor modules, and an RFID that wirelessly reads the RFID chip data. The reader/writer; the RFID reader/writer transmits the read data to the data processing unit, and the data processing unit calculates the amount of deformation of the foundation pit measured by each deformation measuring unit based on the data transmitted from the RFID reader/writer.
这样,不仅可同时监测多处基坑变形测量点的基坑变形量,而且采用RFID射频技术成本低,耗能少,通过RFID芯片存储的数据和其本身的序列号,可以很容易确定RFID芯片所对应的基坑变形测量点的基坑变形量。采用上述方法无需工作人员一一观察传感器模块得到的数据,降低了工作人员的工作强度和人工成本,提高了工作效率。In this way, not only the deformation of the foundation pit of the plurality of pit deformation measurement points can be monitored at the same time, but also the RFID radio frequency technology has low cost and low energy consumption, and the RFID chip can be easily determined by the data stored by the RFID chip and its own serial number. The corresponding amount of deformation of the foundation pit at the measurement point of the foundation pit deformation. The above method does not require the staff to observe the data obtained by the sensor module one by one, which reduces the work intensity and labor cost of the staff and improves the work efficiency.
进一步,本发明所述基坑变形测量系统还包括与远程控制中心连接的集成控制部,所述集成控制部汇总所有数据处理部计算的基坑变形量数据并可向RFID读写器发送读取指令。Further, the base pit deformation measuring system of the present invention further includes an integrated control unit connected to the remote control center, and the integrated control unit summarizes all the base pit deformation amount data calculated by the data processing unit and can transmit and read to the RFID reader/writer. instruction.
这样,系统安装完成以后,所有的操作都通过远程控制中心完成,无需每次测量都经过人工安装,降低了工作人员的工作强度,降低了成本,提高了工作效率;而且在不需要采集数据时,前端变形测量部的传感器模块和数据传输部、数据处理部均处于“休眠”状态,不会造成电能的浪费,可保证系统长期运行,而不用频繁花费人力物力进行维护。In this way, after the system is installed, all operations are completed through the remote control center, and no manual installation is required for each measurement, which reduces the work intensity of the staff, reduces the cost, improves the work efficiency, and does not require data collection. The sensor module, the data transmission part, and the data processing part of the front end deformation measurement unit are all in a "sleep" state, which does not waste power, and can ensure long-term operation of the system without frequent manual and manual maintenance.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为本发明实施例一整体结构示意图。FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the overall structure of an embodiment of the present invention.
图2为本发明实施例一变形测量部的结构示意图。2 is a schematic structural view of a deformation measuring unit according to an embodiment of the present invention.
图3为本发明实施例一计算基坑水平位移X的原理示意图。FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram showing the principle of calculating the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit according to the embodiment of the present invention.
图4为本发明实施例二计算基坑水平位移X的原理示意图。FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing the principle of calculating the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit according to the second embodiment of the present invention.
图5为本发明实施例三整体结构示意图。FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of an overall structure of a third embodiment of the present invention.
图6为本发明实施例三变形测量部的结构示意图。FIG. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a deformation measuring unit according to a third embodiment of the present invention.
图7为本发明实施例三测量基坑竖向位移Y的原理示意图。FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram showing the principle of measuring the vertical displacement Y of the foundation pit according to the third embodiment of the present invention.
图8为本发明实施例三计算基坑水平位移X和竖向位移Y的原理示意图。FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram showing the principle of calculating the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y of the foundation pit according to the third embodiment of the present invention.
图9为本发明实施例三测量基坑综合位移L的原理示意图。FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram showing the principle of measuring the integrated displacement L of the foundation pit according to the third embodiment of the present invention.
图中,1.4表示上固定板,1.5表示下固定板,M表示基坑侧壁。In the figure, 1.4 denotes an upper fixing plate, 1.5 denotes a lower fixing plate, and M denotes a side wall of the foundation pit.
具体实施方式detailed description
实施例一Embodiment 1
图1示出,一种基坑变形测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部1.0,其结构特点是:如图2所示,所述变形测量部1.0包括钢丝1.1和传感器模块1.2,所述钢丝1.1底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝1.1顶端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;所述传感器模块1.2包括用于测量钢丝1.1倾斜角度的倾角传感器1.2a;测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部1.0;安装时,对钢丝1.1进行预紧,并使钢丝1.1处于竖直拉伸状态。1 shows a foundation pit deformation measuring system including a deformation measuring portion 1.0 of a measured measuring point base deformation amount disposed at each base pit deformation measuring point, and the structural feature is as follows: The deformation measuring portion 1.0 includes a wire 1.1 and a sensor module 1.2. The bottom end of the wire 1.1 is fixed to the bottom of the pit near the sidewall of the pit, and the top end of the wire 1.1 is fixedly connected to the upper edge of the sidewall of the pit; the sensor module 1.2 includes The inclination sensor 1.2a for measuring the inclination angle of the steel wire 1.1; before the start of measurement, the deformation measuring portion 1.0 is installed; at the time of installation, the steel wire 1.1 is pre-tensioned, and the steel wire 1.1 is placed in a vertically stretched state.
本例中所述基坑变形测量系统还包括数据传输部2.0和数据处理部3.0,所述数据传输部2.0包括与每个传感器模块1.2电连接的RFID芯片2.1和微处理器2.2以及无线读取RFID芯片2.1数据的RFID读写器2.3;所述RFID读写器2.3将读取的数据传给数据处理部3.0,数据处理部3.0根据RFID读写器2.3传来的数据,计算每个变形测量部1.0所测得的基坑变形量The pit deformation measurement system in this example further includes a data transmission section 2.0 and a data processing section 3.0, the data transmission section 2.0 including an RFID chip 2.1 and a microprocessor 2.2 electrically connected to each sensor module 1.2 and wireless reading The RFID chip reader 2.1 data RFID reader/writer 2.3; the RFID reader/writer 2.3 transmits the read data to the data processing unit 3.0, and the data processing unit 3.0 calculates each deformation measurement based on the data transmitted from the RFID reader/writer 2.3. The amount of deformation of the foundation pit measured in Section 1.0
本例中为了实现钢丝1.1顶端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接,基坑侧壁上边缘处设置有垂直于基坑侧壁的上固定板1.4,钢丝1.1顶端与上固定板1.4的下表面固定链接。In this example, in order to achieve a fixed connection between the top end of the steel wire 1.1 and the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit, the upper fixing side plate of the side wall of the foundation pit is provided with an upper fixing plate 1.4 perpendicular to the side wall of the foundation pit, the top end of the steel wire 1.1 and the upper fixing plate 1.4 Surface fixed link.
本例中所述倾角传感器1.2a固定于钢丝1.1顶端。In this example, the tilt sensor 1.2a is fixed to the top end of the wire 1.1.
本例中基坑变形测量系统的测量方法是实时监测倾角传感器1.2a所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°,其中,h为初始基坑深度。In this example, the measurement method of the foundation pit deformation measurement system is to monitor the angle value θ measured by the inclination sensor 1.2a in real time, and determine the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit according to the measured angle value θ, X=2πh*θ/360°. Where h is the initial pit depth.
图3为上述测量方法测量基坑的水平位移X的原理示意图。如图所示,初始状态时钢丝1.1顶端固定于基坑侧壁上边缘p点处,钢丝1.1底部固定于o点,此时op=h,h为基坑的初始深度。当基坑发生水平位移时,基坑侧壁上边缘会带动钢丝1.1顶端发生水平位移,钢丝1.1顶端移动到q点,而钢丝1.1底端固定,所以钢丝1.1会发生相对于竖直方向的偏转,倾角传感器1.2a显示的角度即为偏转角度θ。由于水平位移量与初始基坑深度h相比十分微小,所以可通过弧长公式X=2πh*θ/360°近似求得水平位移。Fig. 3 is a schematic view showing the principle of measuring the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit by the above measuring method. As shown in the figure, in the initial state, the top end of the wire 1.1 is fixed at the p point of the upper edge of the side wall of the pit, and the bottom of the wire 1.1 is fixed at the point o, where op=h, h is the initial depth of the pit. When the foundation pit is horizontally displaced, the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit will drive the horizontal displacement of the top end of the steel wire 1.1, the top end of the steel wire 1.1 moves to the q point, and the bottom end of the steel wire 1.1 is fixed, so the steel wire 1.1 will deflect relative to the vertical direction. The angle displayed by the tilt sensor 1.2a is the deflection angle θ. Since the horizontal displacement is very small compared to the initial pit depth h, the horizontal displacement can be approximated by the arc length formula X=2πh*θ/360°.
实施例二Embodiment 2
本例的基坑变形测量系统与实施例一相同,基坑变形测量系统的测量方法与实施例一不同。本例中基坑变形测量系统的测量方法是实时监测倾角传感器1.2a所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=h*tanθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。The foundation pit deformation measuring system of this example is the same as that of the first embodiment, and the measuring method of the foundation pit deformation measuring system is different from that of the first embodiment. In this example, the measurement method of the foundation pit deformation measurement system is to monitor the angle value θ measured by the inclination sensor 1.2a in real time, and determine the horizontal displacement X, X=h*tanθ of the foundation pit according to the measured angle value θ, wherein h is the initial pit depth.
图4为上述测量方法测量基坑的水平位移X的原理示意图。如图所示,初始状态时钢丝1.1顶端固定于基坑侧壁上边缘p点处,钢丝1.1底部固定于o点,此时op=h,h为基坑的初始深度。当基坑发生水平位移时,基坑侧壁上边缘会带动钢丝1.1顶端发生水平位移,钢丝1.1顶端移动到q点,而钢丝1.1底端固定,所以钢丝1.1会发生相对于竖直方向的偏转(钢丝1.1被拉伸),倾角传感器1.2a显示的角度即为偏转角度θ。如图4所示,通过正弦公式X=h*tanθ近似求得水平位移。Fig. 4 is a schematic view showing the principle of measuring the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit by the above measuring method. As shown in the figure, in the initial state, the top end of the wire 1.1 is fixed at the p point of the upper edge of the side wall of the pit, and the bottom of the wire 1.1 is fixed at the point o, where op=h, h is the initial depth of the pit. When the foundation pit is horizontally displaced, the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit will drive the horizontal displacement of the top end of the steel wire 1.1, the top end of the steel wire 1.1 moves to the q point, and the bottom end of the steel wire 1.1 is fixed, so the steel wire 1.1 will deflect relative to the vertical direction. (The wire 1.1 is stretched), and the angle indicated by the inclination sensor 1.2a is the deflection angle θ. As shown in Fig. 4, the horizontal displacement is approximated by the sine formula X = h * tan θ.
实施例三Embodiment 3
图5示出,一种基坑变形测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部1.0,其结构特点是:如图6和图6中A部分的放大图所示,所述变形测量部1.0包括弹簧1.3、钢丝1.1和传感器模块1.2,所述传感器模块1.2包括用于测量钢丝1.1倾斜角度的倾角传感器1.2a和用于测量弹簧1.3伸缩量的位移传感器1.2b;所述钢丝1.1底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝1.1顶端与弹簧1.3的一端相连,弹簧1.3另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部1.0;安装时,对弹簧1.3和钢丝1.1进行预紧,并使钢丝1.1和弹簧1.3处于竖直拉伸状态;FIG. 5 shows a foundation pit deformation measuring system including a deformation measuring portion 1.0 of a measured measuring point base deformation amount disposed at each base pit deformation measuring point, and its structural characteristics are as shown in FIG. 6 and FIG. As shown in a partially enlarged view, the deformation measuring portion 1.0 comprises a spring 1.3, a wire 1.1 and a sensor module 1.2, the sensor module 1.2 comprising a tilt sensor 1.2a for measuring the tilt angle of the wire 1.1 and a measuring amount of the spring 1.3. Displacement sensor 1.2b; the bottom end of the steel wire 1.1 is fixed to the bottom of the foundation pit near the side wall of the foundation pit, the top end of the steel wire 1.1 is connected to one end of the spring 1.3, and the other end of the spring 1.3 is fixedly connected with the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit; Before the start, the deformation measuring portion 1.0 is installed; when installing, the spring 1.3 and the steel wire 1.1 are pre-tensioned, and the steel wire 1.1 and the spring 1.3 are in a vertically stretched state;
为了实现弹簧1.3和位移传感器1.2b的固定,基坑侧壁上边缘处设置有垂直于基坑侧壁的上固定板1.4,钢丝1.1顶端还设置有下固定板1.5,位移传感器1.2b一端与上固定板1.4的下表面连接,另一端与下固定板1.5的上表面连接,位移传感器1.2b与弹簧1.3平行且并联连接。In order to realize the fixing of the spring 1.3 and the displacement sensor 1.2b, the upper fixing side plate of the side wall of the foundation pit is provided with an upper fixing plate 1.4 perpendicular to the side wall of the foundation pit, and the top end of the steel wire 1.1 is further provided with a lower fixing plate 1.5, and one end of the displacement sensor 1.2b is The lower surface of the upper fixing plate 1.4 is connected, the other end is connected to the upper surface of the lower fixing plate 1.5, and the displacement sensor 1.2b is connected in parallel with the spring 1.3 and in parallel.
本例中所述弹簧1.3的弹性系数为0.5~2N/mm。本例中弹簧1.3尺寸为:外径8mm,长度30mm,弹簧丝粗1mm。In this example, the spring 1.3 has a spring constant of 0.5 to 2 N/mm. In this example, the size of the spring 1.3 is 8 mm in outer diameter, 30 mm in length, and 1 mm in thickness of the spring wire.
本例中所述位移传感器1.2b测量弹簧1.3伸缩量的具体方式是:位移传感器1.2b与弹簧1.3并联,位移传感器1.2b一端与钢丝1.1顶端相连,另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接。The displacement sensor 1.2b in this example measures the amount of expansion and contraction of the spring 1.3. The displacement sensor 1.2b is connected in parallel with the spring 1.3. One end of the displacement sensor 1.2b is connected to the top end of the steel wire 1.1, and the other end is fixed to the upper edge of the side wall of the pit. connection.
本例中所述位移传感器1.2b包括磁致伸缩位移传感器、拉杆式直线位移传感器和电容式位移传感器。The displacement sensor 1.2b in this example includes a magnetostrictive displacement sensor, a rod-type linear displacement sensor, and a capacitive displacement sensor.
本例中所述基坑变形测量系统还包括数据传输部2.0和数据处理部3.0,所述数据传输部2.0包括与每个传感器模块1.2电连接的RFID芯片2.1和微处理器2.2以及无线读取RFID芯片2.1数据的RFID读写器2.3;所述RFID读写器2.3将读取的数据传给数据处理部3.0,数据处理部3.0根据RFID读写器2.3传来的数据,计算每个变形测量部1.0所测得的基坑变形量。The pit deformation measurement system in this example further includes a data transmission section 2.0 and a data processing section 3.0, the data transmission section 2.0 including an RFID chip 2.1 and a microprocessor 2.2 electrically connected to each sensor module 1.2 and wireless reading The RFID chip reader 2.1 data RFID reader/writer 2.3; the RFID reader/writer 2.3 transmits the read data to the data processing unit 3.0, and the data processing unit 3.0 calculates each deformation measurement based on the data transmitted from the RFID reader/writer 2.3. The amount of deformation of the foundation pit measured in Section 1.0.
本例中所述基坑变形测量系统还包括与远程控制中心连接的集成控制部4.0,所述集成控制部4.0汇总所有数据处理部3.0计算的基坑变形量数据并可向RFID读写器2.3发送读取指令。The base pit deformation measuring system in this example further includes an integrated control unit 4.0 connected to the remote control center, and the integrated control unit 4.0 summarizes all the base pit deformation amount data calculated by the data processing unit 3.0 and can be directed to the RFID reader/writer 2.3. Send a read command.
上述所述的基坑变形测量系统的测量方法是实时监测倾角传感器1.2a所测得角度值θ和位移传感器1.2b所测得的位移值d,并根据所测得的角度值θ和位移值d判定基坑的水平位移X、竖向位移Y和综合位移L,其具体判定方法是:The measuring method of the base pit deformation measuring system described above is to monitor the angle value θ measured by the tilt sensor 1.2a and the displacement value d measured by the displacement sensor 1.2b in real time, and according to the measured angle value θ and the displacement value. d Determine the horizontal displacement X, the vertical displacement Y and the comprehensive displacement L of the foundation pit, and the specific determination method is:
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d≥0,则判定基坑仅发生水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°,其中,h为初始基坑深度;If the angle value θ ≠ 0, the displacement value d ≥ 0, it is determined that the base pit only has a horizontal displacement X, X = 2πh * θ / 360 °, where h is the initial pit depth;
如果角度值θ=0,位移值d≠0,则判定基坑仅发生竖向位移Y,Y=d;If the angle value θ = 0, the displacement value d ≠ 0, it is determined that the pit only has a vertical displacement Y, Y = d;
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d<0,则判定基坑既发生了水平位移X,又发生了竖向位移Y,水平位移X=2π(h-d)*θ/360°,竖向位移Y=d,综合位移L=h 2+(h-d) 2-2h*(h-d)*cosθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。 If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d < 0, it is determined that both the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y occur in the foundation pit, and the horizontal displacement X = 2π (hd) * θ / 360 °, the vertical displacement Y =d, the integrated displacement L = h 2 + (hd) 2 - 2h * (hd) * cos θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
图7至图9为上述两种测量方法测量基坑的水平位移X、竖向位移Y和综合位移的原理示意图。初始状态钢丝1.1顶端通过弹簧1.3固定于基坑侧壁上边缘p点处,钢丝1.1底部固定于o点;此时op=h,h为基坑的初始深度。7 to 9 are schematic diagrams showing the principle of measuring the horizontal displacement X, the vertical displacement Y and the integrated displacement of the foundation pit by the above two measurement methods. In the initial state, the top end of the wire 1.1 is fixed by the spring 1.3 at the point p of the upper edge of the side wall of the pit, and the bottom of the wire 1.1 is fixed at the point o; at this time, op=h, h is the initial depth of the pit.
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d≥0,则判定基坑仅发生水平位移X,因为当基坑仅发生水平位移时,基坑侧壁上边缘会带动钢丝1.1顶端发生水平位移,钢丝1.1顶端移动到q点,而钢丝1.1底端固定,所以钢丝1.1会发生相对于竖直方向的偏转,倾角传感器1.2a显示的角度即为偏转角度θ。钢丝1.1偏转过程可能会产生十分微小的拉伸,可忽略不计(d≥0)。由于水平位移量与基坑深度h相比十分 微小,所以可通过弧长公式X=2πh*θ/360°近似求得水平位移。也可以通过正弦公式X=h*tanθ近似求得水平位移。具体可参照实施例一和实施例二测量水平位移X的原理。If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d ≥ 0, it is determined that only the horizontal displacement X occurs in the foundation pit, because when the foundation pit only has horizontal displacement, the upper edge of the sidewall of the foundation pit will drive the horizontal displacement of the top end of the steel wire 1.1, the steel wire 1.1 The tip moves to the q point, and the bottom end of the wire 1.1 is fixed, so the wire 1.1 is deflected relative to the vertical direction, and the angle indicated by the tilt sensor 1.2a is the deflection angle θ. The deflection of the wire 1.1 may result in very slight stretching, negligible (d ≥ 0). Since the horizontal displacement is very small compared to the pit depth h, the horizontal displacement can be approximated by the arc length formula X=2πh*θ/360°. The horizontal displacement can also be approximated by the sine formula X = h * tan θ. For details, refer to the principles of measuring the horizontal displacement X in the first embodiment and the second embodiment.
基坑发生竖向位移(基坑沉降)时,钢丝1.1和弹簧1.3整体在竖直方向的变形会集中在弹簧1.3部分,所以通过位移传感器1.2b测量弹簧1.3的伸缩量,可得到基坑的竖向位移。如图7所示,如果角度值θ=0,位移值d≠0,则判定基坑仅发生竖向位移,通过位移传感器1.2b测量弹簧1.3的伸缩量,可得到基坑的竖向位移Y,Y=d;d为位移传感器1.2b的测量值。When the vertical displacement of the foundation pit (base subsidence) occurs, the deformation of the steel wire 1.1 and the spring 1.3 as a whole in the vertical direction will concentrate on the spring portion 1.3, so the amount of expansion and contraction of the spring 1.3 is measured by the displacement sensor 1.2b, and the foundation pit can be obtained. Vertical displacement. As shown in Fig. 7, if the angle value θ = 0 and the displacement value d ≠ 0, it is determined that only the vertical displacement of the foundation pit occurs, and the amount of expansion and contraction of the spring 1.3 is measured by the displacement sensor 1.2b, and the vertical displacement Y of the foundation pit can be obtained. , Y=d; d is the measured value of the displacement sensor 1.2b.
如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d<0,则判定基坑既发生了水平位移X,又发生了竖向位移Y。钢丝1.1顶端的竖向位移近似为位移传感器1.2b测得的弹簧伸缩量d,即忽略钢丝1.1的偏转,基坑变形后钢丝1.1的长度近似为基坑变形后的深度,基坑的竖向位移Y≈d,结合基坑的竖向位移量,如图8所示,基坑的水平位移X可通过弧长公式求得,X=2π(h-d)*θ/360°。If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d < 0, it is determined that both the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y occur in the foundation pit. The vertical displacement of the top end of the steel wire 1.1 is approximately the spring expansion and contraction d measured by the displacement sensor 1.2b, that is, the deflection of the steel wire 1.1 is ignored. The length of the steel wire 1.1 after the deformation of the foundation pit is approximately the depth after the deformation of the foundation pit, and the vertical direction of the foundation pit The displacement Y≈d, combined with the vertical displacement of the foundation pit, as shown in Fig. 8, the horizontal displacement X of the foundation pit can be obtained by the arc length formula, X = 2π(hd) * θ / 360 °.
基坑的综合位移L测量如图9所示,通过余弦公式,综合位L=h 2+(h-d) 2-2h*(h-d)*cosθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。 The comprehensive displacement L measurement of the foundation pit is shown in Fig. 9. Through the cosine formula, the integrated bit L = h 2 + (hd) 2 - 2h * (hd) * cos θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
基坑项目一般需要使用两年,用全站仪至少每周测量一次,而且需要两人配合,每次测量将近2小时,工作量很大;全站仪的价格一般在四五万左右。本例中的测量系统,一套价格(按照30个变形测量部计算)在30000元以内,而且本例测量系统远程即可控制测量,完全不需工作人员到场,大大节省了人力成本。The foundation pit project generally needs to be used for two years. It is measured at least once a week with the total station, and it requires two people to cooperate. Each measurement takes nearly 2 hours, and the workload is very large; the price of the total station is generally around 450,000. In the measurement system in this example, a set price (calculated according to 30 deformation measurement departments) is less than 30,000 yuan, and in this case, the measurement system can control the measurement remotely, and no need for the staff to be present, which greatly saves labor costs.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种基坑变形测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部(1.0),其特征在于:所述变形测量部(1.0)包括钢丝(1.1)和传感器模块(1.2),所述钢丝(1.1)底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝(1.1)顶端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;所述传感器模块(1.2)包括用于测量钢丝(1.1)倾斜角度的倾角传感器(1.2a);测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部(1.0);安装时,对钢丝(1.1)进行预紧,并使钢丝(1.1)处于竖直拉伸状态。A foundation pit deformation measuring system includes a deformation measuring portion (1.0) disposed at a measuring point of each base pit deformation measuring point for measuring a base pit deformation amount, wherein the deformation measuring portion (1.0) includes a steel wire (1.1) And the sensor module (1.2), the bottom end of the steel wire (1.1) is fixed to the bottom of the foundation pit near the side wall of the foundation pit, and the top end of the steel wire (1.1) is fixedly connected with the upper edge of the side wall of the foundation pit; the sensor module (1.2) ) includes a tilt sensor (1.2a) for measuring the tilt angle of the wire (1.1); before the measurement starts, the deformation measuring unit (1.0) is installed; when installing, the wire (1.1) is pre-tensioned and the wire is made (1.1) ) is in a vertical stretch state.
  2. 一种基坑变形测量系统,包括布置于每个基坑变形测量点的测量测量点基坑变形量的变形测量部(1.0),其特征在于:所述变形测量部(1.0)包括弹簧(1.3)、钢丝(1.1)和传感器模块(1.2),所述传感器模块(1.2)包括用于测量钢丝(1.1)倾斜角度的倾角传感器(1.2a)和用于测量弹簧(1.3)伸缩量的位移传感器(1.2b);所述钢筋(1.1)底端固定于靠近基坑侧壁的基坑底部,钢丝(1.1)顶端与弹簧(1.3)的一端相连,弹簧(1.3)另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接;测量开始前,安装所述变形测量部(1.0);安装时,对弹簧(1.3)和钢丝(1.1)进行预紧,并使钢丝(1.1)和弹簧(1.3)处于竖直拉伸状态。A foundation pit deformation measuring system comprising a deformation measuring portion (1.0) for measuring a deformation amount of a base of a measuring point at each base deformation detecting point, wherein the deformation measuring portion (1.0) includes a spring (1.3) ), wire (1.1) and sensor module (1.2), the sensor module (1.2) comprises a tilt sensor (1.2a) for measuring the tilt angle of the wire (1.1) and a displacement sensor for measuring the amount of spring (1.3) expansion and contraction (1.2b); the bottom end of the reinforcing bar (1.1) is fixed to the bottom of the foundation pit near the side wall of the foundation pit, the top end of the steel wire (1.1) is connected to one end of the spring (1.3), and the other end of the spring (1.3) and the side wall of the foundation pit Fixed connection at the upper edge; before the measurement starts, install the deformation measuring part (1.0); when installing, pre-tension the spring (1.3) and the wire (1.1) and make the wire (1.1) and the spring (1.3) vertical Straight stretched state.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种基坑变形测量系统,其特征在于:所述弹簧(1.3)的弹性系数为0.5~2N/mm。A base pit deformation measuring system according to claim 1, wherein said spring (1.3) has a spring constant of 0.5 to 2 N/mm.
  4. 根据权利要求2所述的一种基坑变形测量系统,其特征在于:所述位移传感器(1.2b)测量弹簧(1.3)伸缩量的具体方式是:位移传感器(1.2b)与弹簧(1.3)并联,位移传感器(1.2b)一端与钢丝(1.1)顶端相连,另一端与基坑侧壁上边缘处固定连接。A foundation pit deformation measuring system according to claim 2, characterized in that: the displacement sensor (1.2b) measures the amount of expansion and contraction of the spring (1.3) in a specific manner: displacement sensor (1.2b) and spring (1.3) In parallel, the displacement sensor (1.2b) is connected at one end to the top end of the wire (1.1) and at the other end to the upper edge of the side wall of the pit.
  5. 根据权利要求2所述的一种基坑变形测量系统,其特征在于:所述位移传感器(1.2b)包括磁致伸缩位移传感器、拉杆式直线位移传感器和电容式位移传感器。A base pit deformation measuring system according to claim 2, wherein said displacement sensor (1.2b) comprises a magnetostrictive displacement sensor, a rod type linear displacement sensor and a capacitive displacement sensor.
  6. 根据权利要求1-5任一所述的一种基坑变形测量系统,其特征在于:所述基坑变形测量系统还包括数据传输部(2.0)和数据处理部(3.0),所述数据传输部(2.0)包括与每个传感器模块(1.2)电连接的RFID芯片(2.1)和微处理器(2.2)以及无线读取RFID芯片(2.1)数据的RFID读写器(2.3);所述RFID读写器(2.3)将读取的数据传给数据处理部(3.0),数据处理部(3.0)根据RFID读写器(2.3)传来的数据,计算每个变形测量部(1.0)所测得的基坑变形量。A foundation pit deformation measuring system according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said base pit deformation measuring system further comprises a data transmission portion (2.0) and a data processing portion (3.0), said data transmission Department (2.0) includes an RFID chip (2.1) and a microprocessor (2.2) electrically connected to each sensor module (1.2) and an RFID reader (2.3) for wirelessly reading RFID chip (2.1) data; the RFID The reader/writer (2.3) transmits the read data to the data processing unit (3.0), and the data processing unit (3.0) calculates the measured value of each deformation measuring unit (1.0) based on the data transmitted from the RFID reader/writer (2.3). The amount of deformation of the foundation pit obtained.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的一种基坑变形测量系统,其特征在于:所述基坑变形测量系统还包括与远程控制中心连接的集成控制部(4.0),所述集成控制部(4.0)汇总所有数据处理部(3.0)计算的基坑变形量数据并可向RFID读写器(2.3)发送读取指令。A foundation pit deformation measuring system according to claim 6, wherein said base pit deformation measuring system further comprises an integrated control unit (4.0) connected to the remote control center, said integrated control unit (4.0) All the base deformation amount data calculated by the data processing unit (3.0) and can send a read command to the RFID reader/writer (2.3).
  8. 一种权利要求1所述的基坑变形测量系统的测量方法,其特征在于:实时监测倾角传感器(1.2a)所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°,其中,h为初始基坑深度。A measuring method for a foundation pit deformation measuring system according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle value θ measured by the tilt sensor (1.2a) is monitored in real time, and the level of the pit is determined based on the measured angle value θ The displacement X, X = 2πh * θ / 360 °, where h is the initial pit depth.
  9. 一种权利要求1所述的基坑变形测量系统的测量方法,其特征在于:实时监测倾角传感器(1.2a)所测得角度值θ,并根据所测得的角度值θ判定基坑的水平位移X,X=h*tanθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。A measuring method for a foundation pit deformation measuring system according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle value θ measured by the tilt sensor (1.2a) is monitored in real time, and the level of the pit is determined based on the measured angle value θ The displacement X, X = h * tan θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
  10. 一种权利要求2-5任一项所述的基坑变形测量系统的测量方法,其特征在于:实时监测倾角传感器(1.2a)所测得角度值θ和位移传感器(1.2b)所测得的位移值d,并根据所测得的角度值θ和位移值d判定基坑的水平位移X、竖向位移Y和综合位移L,其具体判定方法是:A method for measuring a foundation pit deformation measuring system according to any one of claims 2 to 5, characterized in that: the angle value θ measured by the inclination sensor (1.2a) and the displacement sensor (1.2b) are measured in real time. The displacement value d, and the horizontal displacement X, the vertical displacement Y and the integrated displacement L of the foundation pit are determined according to the measured angle value θ and the displacement value d, and the specific determination method is:
    如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d≥0,则判定基坑仅发生水平位移X,X=2πh*θ/360°或X=h*tanθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度;If the angle value θ ≠ 0, the displacement value d ≥ 0, it is determined that the base pit only has a horizontal displacement X, X = 2πh * θ / 360 ° or X = h * tan θ, where h is the initial pit depth;
    如果角度值θ=0,位移值d≠0,则判定基坑仅发生竖向位移Y,Y=d;If the angle value θ = 0, the displacement value d ≠ 0, it is determined that the pit only has a vertical displacement Y, Y = d;
    如果角度值θ≠0,位移值d<0,则判定基坑既发生了水平位移X,又发生了竖向位移Y,水平位移X=2π(h-d)*θ/360°,竖向位移Y=d,综合位移L=h 2+(h-d) 2-2h*(h-d)*cosθ,其中,h为初始基坑深度。 If the angle value θ ≠ 0 and the displacement value d < 0, it is determined that both the horizontal displacement X and the vertical displacement Y occur in the foundation pit, and the horizontal displacement X = 2π (hd) * θ / 360 °, the vertical displacement Y =d, the integrated displacement L = h 2 + (hd) 2 - 2h * (hd) * cos θ, where h is the initial pit depth.
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