WO2018218909A1 - 高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器 - Google Patents

高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器 Download PDF

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WO2018218909A1
WO2018218909A1 PCT/CN2017/113880 CN2017113880W WO2018218909A1 WO 2018218909 A1 WO2018218909 A1 WO 2018218909A1 CN 2017113880 W CN2017113880 W CN 2017113880W WO 2018218909 A1 WO2018218909 A1 WO 2018218909A1
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zone
reactor
main body
jet
gas
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PCT/CN2017/113880
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English (en)
French (fr)
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韦朝海
吴超飞
吴海珍
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华南理工大学
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • C02F3/2866Particular arrangements for anaerobic reactors
    • C02F3/2893Particular arrangements for anaerobic reactors with biogas recycling
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • C02F3/2833Anaerobic digestion processes using fluidized bed reactors
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/30Organic compounds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel

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  • the invention relates to the technical field of sewage treatment, in particular to a jet anaerobic bioreactor for treating high-concentration organic sewage.
  • the essence of the anaerobic treatment process of sewage is to use the metabolic characteristics of anaerobic microorganisms to reduce the organic matter in the sewage, and at the same time to produce an economical and effective treatment technology for biogas such as methane.
  • biogas such as methane.
  • Anaerobic treatment technology is no longer just a complementary process to the aerobic treatment process, and it is itself becoming a valuable treatment alternative to the aerobic process.
  • Anaerobic biological treatment technology can be developed as the core technology of comprehensive system combining environmental protection, energy recovery and ecological benign cycle, with good environmental and economic benefits.
  • the first generation of anaerobic reactors is an anaerobic digester, mainly using sludge and manure digestion;
  • the second generation of anaerobic reactors mainly include anaerobic filters (AF), anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and upflow Anaerobic sludge bed (UASB);
  • the third generation anaerobic reactor is designed to solve the problems of short-flow, dead angle and blockage of the second-generation reactor during operation, mainly including anaerobic granular sludge expansion bed ( EGSB), anaerobic internal circulation reactor (IC) and anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR).
  • EGSB anaerobic granular sludge expansion bed
  • IC anaerobic internal circulation reactor
  • ABR anaerobic baffled reactor
  • the object of the present invention is to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and provide a jet anaerobic bioreactor for treating high-concentration organic sewage, and simultaneously realize uniform mixing of sewage and sludge and dissolved gas, especially methane component, by gas lifting action.
  • the reactor solves the disadvantage of poor separation of the conventional fluidized bed sludge by realizing the heterogeneous flow of the sludge particles in the fluid and the treated sewage, and realizes efficient three-phase separation.
  • the technical scheme of the invention is: a jet anaerobic bioreactor for treating high-concentration organic sewage, wherein a reactor main body zone, a gas purification zone and a separation sedimentation zone are arranged in the reactor, and the gas purification zone and the separation sedimentation zone are respectively set On both sides of the main body of the reactor; the main body of the reactor is connected to the outlet end of the jet through an injection pipe, and the inlet end of the jet is connected to the separation and sedimentation zone through a circulating water pipe, and the intake end of the jet passes the biogas
  • the pipeline is connected with the gas purification zone; the middle portion of the main body of the reactor is provided with a mixed liquid connection hole communicating with the separation sedimentation zone, and the bottom of the separation sedimentation zone is provided with a sludge return hole communicating with the bottom of the main body of the reactor.
  • the main body area of the reactor is a casing structure (ie, the main body area of the reactor is composed of two tube bodies), and the gas purification area and the separation and sedimentation area are both arranged in a box structure outside the main body area of the reactor. .
  • the main body area of the reactor is provided with a lifting zone and a descending zone, the lifting zone is located in the middle of the main body of the reactor, the descending zone is located at the outer periphery of the main body of the reactor, the upper part of the lifting zone is connected with the upper part of the descending zone, and the bottom and the descending zone of the lifting zone are The bottom is connected, the injection pipe is arranged in the lifting zone, and the bottom end of the injection pipe is located at the bottom of the lifting zone.
  • the main structure of the main body of the reactor comprises an outer tube and an inner tube which are coaxially arranged.
  • the inner tube is arranged in the middle of the outer tube, the upper end and the lower end of the inner tube are open, and the inner end of the inner tube and the bottom surface of the outer tube are mixed.
  • the space in which the liquid descends flows, and a space flowing on the mixed liquid is left between the upper end of the inner tube and the top surface of the outer tube; the inner portion of the inner tube forms a lifting region, and the annular region between the outer tube and the outer tube forms a descending region.
  • the mixed liquid in the lifting zone flows upward
  • the mixed liquid in the falling zone flows downward
  • the mixed liquid upward flowing space and the mixed liquid downward flowing space realize the exchange movement of the mixed liquid flow direction.
  • the outer tube and the inner tube are square tubes or round tubes.
  • the gas purification area and the separation and sedimentation area are in a rectangular box structure disposed on both sides of the outer tube, and the descending area also corresponds to a rectangular ring shape.
  • the gas purification area and the separation and sedimentation area are respectively a semi-annular box structure disposed on the outer circumference of the outer tube, and the descending area also corresponds to a circular annular area.
  • the main structure of the gas purification zone comprises a lye porous nozzle, a porous filler, a gas release tube and an alkali storage tank which are arranged in order from top to bottom, and the lye and gas release tube sprayed by the lye porous nozzle Reverse flow of gas to achieve countercurrent contact, gas purification at the porous filler, removal of acidic components such as hydrogen sulfide in the gas, and the purified biogas is sent from the biogas pipeline to the jet.
  • a gas storage zone is further disposed in the main body of the reactor, the gas storage zone is located above the lifting zone and the descending zone, and the gas storage zone is connected with the upper part of the gas purification zone; the gas storage zone is provided with a perforated gas absorption pipe, and the perforated gas
  • the absorber tube is connected to the gas release tube by a suction pump.
  • the gas is forcibly pumped into the bottom of the gas purification zone by the suction pump, and the gas countercurrent is contacted with the lye sprayed at the top.
  • the water-filling filler significantly increases the contact area and strengthens the acid harmful gas such as hydrogen sulfide in the biogas.
  • the absorbed, purified gas re-enters the top of the main body of the reactor under the driving of the circulating flow, and then enters the jet through the biogas pipeline to participate in the biogas jet circulation.
  • the lye storage tank is connected with the lye porous nozzle through the lye circulating pump, and the lye in the lye storage tank is extracted by the lye circulating pump, and sent to the lye porous nozzle for spraying, so that the lye is recycled. Utilize to achieve the goal of saving resources.
  • the separation and sedimentation zone comprises a lower sludge zone, a middle buffer zone, an upper sloping plate sedimentation zone and a water discharge gutter arranged in order from bottom to top, and the lower sludge zone communicates with the bottom of the reactor main zone through the sludge return hole, the middle part
  • the buffer zone communicates with the central portion of the reactor main body through the mixed liquid connection hole, and the mixed liquid outlet is provided on the outer side wall of the middle buffer zone, and the mixed liquid outlet is connected to the jet through the mixed liquid circulation pump, and the water outlet is externally connected to the water outlet. groove.
  • a certain proportion of the mixed liquid flows into the middle buffer zone from the main body area of the reactor through the mixture liquid outlet.
  • the sludge After buffering and sedimentation, the sludge is trapped in the lower sludge zone, and the mixed liquid changes direction to move upward, and further precipitates through the upper inclined plate.
  • the area is separated by mud and water, and the effluent is discharged to the later stage through the effluent sump, and the sludge is appropriately concentrated at the bottom of the lower sedimentation zone and then re-entered along the wall to re-enter the main reaction zone, realizing automatic recirculation of the sludge. No secondary sinking is required.
  • the mixed liquid reflux pump extracts the mixed liquid circulation from the sloping plate below the separation sedimentation zone, which can effectively reduce the surface load of the inclined plate sedimentation zone and better realize the muddy water separation.
  • the gas pipeline is provided on the biogas pipeline, and the reactor main body area and the gas net can be detected in real time.
  • the pressure situation in the zone The top of the main body of the reactor is provided with a pressure gauge and a water-sealed bottle. The pressure is stabilized by the water-sealed bottle. When the pressure exceeds the equilibrium pressure of the water-sealed bottle, the excess gas can be automatically released and decompressed.
  • the bottom of the main body of the reactor is provided with an inlet pipe for evenly distributing the introduced high-concentration organic sewage.
  • the principle of the above jet anaerobic bioreactor is that the jet anaerobic bioreactor uses a jet method to reflux the biogas (Biogas) generated in the anaerobic bioreactor to the bottom of the reactor together with the reflux liquid to fluidize the reactor.
  • the driving force is transformed from a single liquid flow to a gas flow turbulence and liquid flow push coupling, which greatly improves the fluidization effect and mass transfer performance of the reactor while reducing the liquid reflux ratio, and develops a jet anaerobic new biological fluidization.
  • the bed reactor treats high concentrations of organic sewage.
  • the gas generated by anaerobic fermentation promotes the circulating flow inside the reactor liquid, solves the problem of poor fluidization of the conventional fluidized bed, overcomes the shortcomings of the conventional fluidized bed sludge separation, and realizes efficient three-phase separation in the province.
  • the concentration of anaerobic sludge in the reactor is greatly increased under the condition of going to the secondary sedimentation tank; low C/N anaerobic operation and low concentration anaerobic process are implemented, and high-efficiency low-concentration anaerobic is implemented in the anaerobic fluidized bed.
  • the ammoxidation process can remove 90% of COD and ammonia nitrogen after anaerobic treatment of high-concentration sewage, reduce the aerobic load, and make the aerobic effluent completely discharge.
  • the invention has the following beneficial effects:
  • the jet anaerobic bioreactor realizes the fluidization in the reactor and the complete uniform mixing of the water phase and the sludge through the biogas generated by the reactor itself in the form of the anaerobic mixture jet, because the biogas is in a closed loop state.
  • the fluidization effect is less affected by the biogas production and can be applied to the treatment of high-concentration organic sewage with poor biochemical properties.
  • the jet anaerobic bioreactor utilizes the biogas generated by the anaerobic reaction process and the effluent from the top of the separation zone to carry out the jet flow, strengthens the mass transfer performance and reduces the energy consumption, and the liquid flow rate can be controlled to be 10-30 m 3 /h. It is not easy to block.
  • the jet anaerobic bioreactor uses the biogas generated by the anaerobic reaction process to drive the fluidization process. Due to the separation of some toxic gases, the kinetics of the reaction process can be promoted, and the purification and yield of the separation gas can be improved. .
  • the jet anaerobic bioreactor realizes the complete fluidization of the gas-liquid two phases in the reactor by changing the fluid characteristics. It is proved by experiments that the load is 6kg COD/(m 3 ⁇ d) for food sewage and papermaking sewage. The comprehensive effect of stable operation, gas production and COD removal can be obtained under the conditions, and the comparison effect with the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) can be seen in Table 1.
  • UASB upflow anaerobic sludge blanket
  • A food sewage
  • B papermaking sewage
  • Figure 1 is a schematic view showing the structure of a jet anaerobic bioreactor.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic view showing the structure of the improved present jet anaerobic bioreactor.
  • the first embodiment is a jet anaerobic bioreactor for treating high-concentration organic sewage.
  • the reactor main body zone 1, the gas purification zone 2 and the separation sedimentation zone 3 are provided in the reactor, and the gas purification is performed.
  • the zone and the separation sedimentation zone are respectively disposed on both sides of the main body of the reactor; the main body zone of the reactor is connected to the outlet end of the jet 5 through the injection pipe 4, and the inlet end of the jet is connected to the separation sedimentation zone through the circulating water pipe 6
  • the inlet end of the jet is connected to the gas purification zone through the biogas pipeline 7; the middle of the main body of the reactor is provided with a mixed liquid connection hole 8 communicating with the separation sedimentation zone, and the bottom of the separation sedimentation zone is provided with a reaction A sludge return hole 9 connected to the bottom of the main body region.
  • the main body area of the reactor is provided with a lifting zone 1-1 and a descending zone 1-2.
  • the lifting zone is located in the middle of the main body of the reactor, the descending zone is located at the outer periphery of the main body of the reactor, and the upper part of the lifting zone is connected with the upper part of the descending zone, and the lifting zone is
  • the bottom is connected to the bottom of the lowering zone, the injection pipe is arranged in the lifting zone, and the bottom end of the injection pipe is located at the bottom of the lifting zone.
  • the main body area of the reactor is a casing type structure (that is, the main body area of the reactor is composed of two tube body phases), and the gas purification area and the separation and sedimentation area are both in a box type structure disposed outside the main body area of the reactor.
  • the main structure of the main body of the reactor comprises an outer tube and an inner tube which are coaxially arranged.
  • the inner tube is arranged in the middle of the outer tube, the upper end and the lower end of the inner tube are open, and a mixed liquid is left between the lower end of the inner tube and the bottom surface of the outer tube.
  • the lower flow space 1-4, the mixed liquid upward flow space 1-3 is left between the upper end of the inner tube and the top surface of the outer tube; the inner portion of the inner tube forms a lifting region, and the annular region between the outer tube and the outer tube forms Drop zone.
  • the mixed liquid in the lifting zone flows upward, the mixed liquid in the falling zone flows downward, the mixed liquid upward flowing space and the mixed liquid downward flowing space realize the exchange and circulation movement of the mixed liquid flow direction.
  • the outer tube and the inner tube are square tubes, and the gas purifying area and the separating and precipitating area are rectangular box structures arranged on both sides of the outer tube, and the descending area also corresponds to a rectangular annular area.
  • the main structure of the gas purifying zone comprises a lye porous nozzle 10, a porous packing 11, a gas releasing tube 12 and an lye storage tank 13 which are arranged in order from the top to the bottom, and the lye and gas releasing tube sprayed by the lye porous nozzle are released.
  • the biogas flows in the opposite direction, and the gas is purified at the porous packing, and the purified biogas is sent from the biogas pipeline to the jet.
  • the main body of the reactor is further provided with a gas storage zone 1-5, the gas storage zone is located above the lifting zone and the descending zone, and the gas storage zone is connected with the upper part of the gas purification zone; the gas storage zone is provided with a perforated gas absorption pipe 14, The perforated gas absorption tube is connected to the gas release tube through the getter pump 15.
  • the gas is forcibly pumped into the bottom of the gas purification zone by the suction pump, and the gas countercurrent is contacted with the lye sprayed at the top.
  • the watering filler significantly increases the contact area and strengthens the absorption of harmful gases such as hydrogen sulfide in the biogas.
  • the purified gas re-enters the top of the main body of the reactor under the driving of the circulating flow, and then enters the jet through the biogas pipeline to participate in the jet circulation of the biogas.
  • the lye storage tank is connected to the lye porous nozzle through the lye circulating pump 16, and the lye in the lye storage tank is taken through the lye circulating pump, and sent to the lye porous nozzle for spraying, so that the lye is recycled. Thereby achieving the goal of saving resources.
  • the separation and sedimentation zone includes a lower sludge zone 3-1 and a middle buffer zone 3-2 arranged in order from bottom to top.
  • the upper inclined plate sedimentation zone 3-3 and the water discharge gutter 3-4, the lower sludge zone communicates with the bottom of the reactor main body zone through the sludge return hole, and the middle buffer zone passes through the mixed liquid connection hole 8 and the middle portion of the reactor main body zone.
  • the outer side wall of the middle buffer zone is provided with a mixed liquid water outlet 17, and the mixed liquid water outlet is connected to the jet through the mixed liquid circulation pump 21, and the effluent is discharged to the rear stage through the gutter.
  • a certain proportion of the mixed liquid flows into the middle buffer zone from the main body area of the reactor through the mixture liquid outlet.
  • the sludge After buffering and sedimentation, the sludge is trapped in the lower sludge zone, and the mixed liquid changes direction to move upward, and further precipitates through the upper inclined plate.
  • the area is separated by mud and water, and the effluent enters the subsequent aerobic treatment through the effluent sump, and the sludge is gradually concentrated along the wall at the bottom of the lower sedimentation zone and then re-enters the main reaction zone to realize automatic reflux of the sludge.
  • the mixed liquid reflux pump extracts the mixed liquid circulation from the inclined plate below the separation sedimentation zone, which can effectively reduce the surface load of the inclined plate sedimentation zone and better realize the muddy water separation.
  • a gas flow meter 18 is provided on the biogas pipeline to detect the pressure conditions in the main body of the reactor and in the gas purification zone in real time.
  • the top of the main body of the reactor is provided with a pressure gauge 19 and a water seal bottle 20, and the pressure is stabilized by the water seal bottle. When the pressure exceeds the equilibrium pressure of the water seal bottle, the excess gas can be automatically released and decompressed.
  • Anaerobic gas is stored in the pressure vessel via the collector as a product.
  • the bottom of the main body of the reactor is provided with an inlet pipe 22 for introducing high concentration organic sewage.
  • the improved present jet anaerobic bioreactor adds a new No. 23 valve to the biogas external user or tank control valve for delivering biogas to the user or tank.
  • the principle of the above jet anaerobic bioreactor is that the jet anaerobic bioreactor uses a jet method to reflux the biogas (Biogas) generated in the anaerobic bioreactor to the bottom of the reactor together with the reflux liquid to fluidize the reactor.
  • the driving force is transformed from a single liquid flow to a gas flow turbulence and liquid flow push coupling, which greatly improves the fluidization effect and mass transfer performance of the reactor while reducing the liquid reflux ratio, and develops a jet anaerobic new biological fluidization.
  • the bed reactor treats high concentrations of organic sewage.
  • the gas generated by anaerobic fermentation promotes the internal circulation of the reactor liquid, solves the problem of poor fluidization of the conventional fluidized bed, overcomes the shortcomings of the conventional fluidized bed sludge separation, and achieves efficient three-phase separation and reaction.
  • the concentration of anaerobic sludge in the vessel is greatly improved; the MLSS reaches above 12g/L, and the concentration is controllable; the low C/N anaerobic operation and the low concentration anaerobic process are implemented, and the efficiency is low in the anaerobic fluidized bed.
  • the concentration of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process can remove 90% of COD and part of ammonia nitrogen after anaerobic treatment of high concentration sewage, reduce aerobic load, reduce the energy consumption of aerobic effluent treatment and fully achieve the standard discharge.
  • the specific process is as shown by the arrow in Fig. 1.
  • the main body of the reactor extracts the muddy water mixture from the sloping plate separating the sedimentation zone to carry out the forced mixture circulation, and the reflux mixture passes through the jet at a high speed to generate a negative pressure in the throat of the jet. Under the action of the negative pressure, the jet passes through the biogas.
  • the pipeline and the flow meter suck the gas stored at the top of the main body of the reactor into the jet, and the two phases of gas and water are mixed in the jet, and then directly delivered to the bottom of the lifting zone through the injection pipeline for release, and the gas-water mixture released is released along the pipeline.
  • the riser moves upward, the gas content of the lift zone is higher than that of the descending zone.
  • the circulating flow of the liquid in the lift zone and the descending zone is realized, and the entire reactor main zone is uniform. Ground fluidization. A certain proportion of the mixed liquid flows into the separation and sedimentation zone from the main body of the reactor through the mixed liquid connection hole in the middle.
  • the mixed liquid reflux pump extracts the mixed liquid circulation from the inclined plate below the separation sedimentation zone, which can effectively reduce the surface load of the inclined plate sedimentation zone and better realize the muddy water separation.
  • the gas in the gas storage area at the top of the reactor is kept stable by the water seal bottle.
  • the pressure exceeds the equilibrium pressure of the water seal bottle, the excess gas can be automatically released and decompressed, and the pressure change can be monitored by a pressure gauge.
  • a perforated gas absorption pipe is arranged in the gas storage zone, and the gas is forcibly sucked into the bottom of the gas purification zone by the suction pump, and the gas countercurrent is contacted with the alkali liquid sprayed from the top, and the water spray filler significantly increases the contact area.
  • the absorption of harmful gases such as hydrogen sulfide in the biogas is enhanced, and the purified gas recirculation flow is pushed back into the top of the reaction zone to participate in the biogas jet circulation.
  • the second embodiment is a jet anaerobic bioreactor for treating high-concentration organic sewage.
  • the difference is that the outer tube and the inner tube constituting the main body region of the reactor are round tubes.
  • the gas purification zone and the separation sedimentation zone are semi-annular box structures respectively disposed on the outer circumference of the outer tube, and the descending area also corresponds to a circular ring area.

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Abstract

一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,包括反应器主体区(1)和设于其两侧气体净化区(2)和分离沉淀区(3);反应器主体区(1)内通过喷射管道(4)与射流器(5)的出口端连接,射流器(5)的进水端通过循环水管道(6)与分离沉淀区(3)连接,射流器(5)的进气端通过生物气管道(7)与气体净化区(2)连接;反应器主体区(1)的中部设有与分离沉淀区(3)连通的混合液连接孔(8),分离沉淀区(3)底部设有与反应器主体区(1)底部连通的污泥回流孔(9)。该反应器是通过反应器自身产生的生物气厌氧射流的形式实现反应器的流态化和污水污泥的完全均匀混合,由于生物气处于闭路循环状态,流态化效果受生物气产量影响小,可以适用于生化性较差的高浓有机污水的处理。

Description

高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器 技术领域
本发明涉及污水处理技术领域,特别涉及一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器。
背景技术
污水厌氧处理工艺的实质是利用厌氧微生物的代谢特性,将污水中的有机物进行还原,同时产生甲烷等生物气的一种经济、有效的处理技术。随着经济的快速发展,环境污染和能源紧张的问题日益突出时,厌氧处理工艺作为一种低能耗的有机污水生物处理方法得到了普遍的重视和广泛的推广。厌氧处理技术不再仅仅是好氧处理工艺的一个补充工艺,它本身正在成为一种可以替代好氧法的有价值的处理方法。厌氧生物处理技术可以作为环境保护、能源回收与生态良性循环结合起来的综合系统的核心技术来发展,具有良好的环境与经济效益。在厌氧生物处理工艺发展过程中,厌氧处理反应器的开发一直是水处理领域的研究热点,到目前为止已经出现了三代厌氧反应器。第一代厌氧反应器为厌氧消化池,主要用污泥和粪便的消化;第二代厌氧反应器主要有厌氧过滤器(AF)、厌氧流化床(AFB)和上流式厌氧污泥床(UASB);第三代厌氧反应器是为了解决第二代反应器在运行中出现的短流、死角和堵塞等问题而设计,主要有厌氧颗粒污泥膨胀床(EGSB)、厌氧内循环反应器(IC)和厌氧折流板式反应器(ABR)等。但以上反应器在使用中都存在污泥分布不均匀,混合传质效果不好的问题,尤其是对于生化性不好或者含有厌氧过程抑制性物质时,甲烷产量会显著降低,极大了影响反应器初期启动与传质混合的效果,COD和BOD5的去除率也相当低。
发明内容
本发明的目的在于克服现有技术的不足,提供一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,通过气体提升作用同时实现污水和污泥的均匀混合与溶解性气体特别是甲烷成分的吹脱分离,同时,该反应器因实现流体中污泥颗粒与处理的污水的异重流而解决传统流化床污泥分离差的缺点,实现高效的三相分离。
本发明的技术方案为:一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,反应器内设有反应器主体区、气体净化区和分离沉淀区,气体净化区和分离沉淀区分别设于反应器主体区的两侧;反应器主体区内通过喷射管道与射流器的出口端连接,射流器的进水端通过循环水管道与分离沉淀区连接,射流器的进气端通过生物气管道与气体净化区连接;反应器主体区的中部设有与分离沉淀区连通的混合液连接孔,分离沉淀区底部设有与反应器主体区底部连通的污泥回流孔。
所述反应器主体区为套管式结构(即反应器主体区由2个管体相嵌套构成),气体净化区和分离沉淀区均为设于反应器主体区外侧的箱体式结构中。
所述反应器主体区中设有提升区和下降区,提升区位于反应器主体区的中部,下降区位于反应器主体区的外周,提升区上部与下降区上部相通,提升区底部与下降区底部相通,喷射管道设于提升区内,且喷射管道的底端位于提升区的底部。
所述反应器主体区的主体结构包括同轴设置的外管和内管,内管设于外管中部,内管的上端和下端均开放,内管下端与外管的底面之间留有混合液下降流动的空间,内管上端与外管的顶面之间留有混合液上流动的空间;内管内部的区域形成提升区,内管外部与外管之间的环形区域形成下降区。其中,提升区内的混合液向上流动,下降区内的混合液向下流动,混合液向上流动空间和混合液向下流动空间实现混合液流向的交换运动。
所述外管和内管均为方管或圆管。当外管和内管均为方管时,气体净化区和分离沉淀区为设于外管两侧的矩形箱体结构内,下降区也对应为矩形的环形 区域;当外管和内管均为圆管时,气体净化区和分离沉淀区分别为设于外管外周的半环形箱体结构,下降区也对应为圆环形区域。
所述气体净化区的主体结构包括由上至下依次设置的碱液多孔喷头、多孔填料、气体释放管和碱液贮存池,碱液多孔喷头喷出的碱液与气体释放管释放出的生物气反向流动,实现逆流接触,在多孔填料处进行气体净化,去除气体中的硫化氢等酸性组分,净化后的生物气由生物气管道送至射流器。
所述反应器主体区内还设有贮气区,贮气区位于提升区和下降区的上方,贮气区与气体净化区的上部相通;贮气区内设有穿孔气体吸收管,穿孔气体吸收管通过吸气泵与气体释放管连接。通过吸气泵将气体强制抽吸进入气体净化区底部释放,气体逆流与顶部喷淋下来的碱液接触,淋水填料显著增大了接触面积,强化了生物气中硫化氢等酸性有害气体的吸收,净化后的气体在循环流量的推动下重新进入反应器主体区顶部,再通过生物气管道进入射流器而参与生物气射流循环。
所述碱液贮存池是通过碱液循环泵与碱液多孔喷头连接,通过碱液循环泵抽取碱液贮存池中的碱液,送至碱液多孔喷头处喷淋使用,使碱液实现循环利用,从而达到节省资源的目的。
所述分离沉淀区包括由下至上依次设置的下部污泥区、中部缓冲区、上部斜板沉淀区和出水堰槽,下部污泥区通过污泥回流孔与反应器主体区的底部连通,中部缓冲区通过混合液连接孔与反应器主体区的中部连通,中部缓冲区的外侧壁设有混合液出水口,混合液出水口通过混合液循环泵与射流器连接,出水堰槽处外接出水储槽。一定比例的混合液通过混合液出水口从反应器主体区流入中部缓冲区,经过缓冲和沉淀后,污泥被截留在下部污泥区中,混合液改变方向向上运动,进一步通过上部斜板沉淀区进行泥水分离,出水通过出水堰槽向外排出进入后段工序处理,而污泥在下部沉淀区底部经过适当浓缩而重新沿器壁滑落重新进入主体反应区,实现了污泥的自动回流,不需要二沉池。混合液回流泵从分离沉淀区斜板下方抽取混合液循环可以有效降低斜板沉淀区的表面负荷,更好实现泥水分离。
所述生物气管道上设有气体流量计,可实时检测反应器主体区内及气体净 化区内的压力状况。反应器主体区的顶部设有压力表和水封瓶,通过水封瓶保持压力稳定,当压力超过水封瓶的平衡压力时,多余的气体可以自动释放而减压。反应器主体区的底部设有进水管,用于均匀分布所导入的高浓度有机污水。
上述射流厌氧生物反应器的原理为:射流厌氧生物反应器用射流法将厌氧生物反应器内产生的生物气(Biogas)随回流液一并回流至反应器底部,使反应器的流化推动力从单一液流推动转变为气流紊动和液流推动相耦合,在降低液体回流比的同时大幅度提高反应器的流态化效果与传质性能,开发出射流厌氧新型生物流化床反应器处理高浓度有机污水。用厌氧发酵产生的气体,推动反应器液体内部循环流动,解决传统流化床流态化不好的问题,克服传统流化床污泥分离差的缺点,实现高效的三相分离,在省去二沉池的条件下使反应器内的厌氧污泥浓度大幅度提高;实行低C/N厌氧运行和低浓度厌氧过程,并在厌氧流化床里实行高效低浓度厌氧氨氧化过程,使高浓度污水经厌氧处理后,能去除90%左右的COD和氨氮,降低好氧负荷,使好氧出水完全达标排放。
本发明相对于现有技术,具有以下有益效果:
本射流厌氧生物反应器是通过反应器自身产生的生物气随厌氧混合液射流的形式实现反应器内的流态化和水相与污泥的完全均匀混合,由于生物气处于闭路循环状态,流态化效果受生物气产量影响小,可以适用于生化性较差的高浓有机污水的处理。
本射流厌氧生物反应器利用厌氧反应过程所产生的生物气和分离区顶部出水回流混合进行射流,强化传质性能并降低了能耗,且液体流速可控为10~30m3/h,不容易发生堵塞。
本射流厌氧生物反应器利用厌氧反应过程所产生的生物气来驱动流态化过程,由于分离了部分毒性的气体,可以推动反应过程的动力学,实现分离气体的纯化和产率的提高。
本射流厌氧生物反应器因改变流体特性而实现了反应器内气液两相的完全流态化,由实验证明,针对食品污水和造纸污水,在负荷为6kg COD/(m3·d)的条件下可获得稳定运行、达到产气与去除COD的综合效果,其与上流式厌 氧污泥床(UASB)的对比运行效果可参见表1。
表1射流厌氧生物反应器与UASB反应器的实验统计数据对比
Figure PCTCN2017113880-appb-000001
A:食品污水;B:造纸污水。
附图说明
图1为本射流厌氧生物反应器的结构示意图。
图2为改进的本射流厌氧生物反应器的结构示意图。
具体实施方式
下面结合实施例,对本发明作进一步的详细说明,但本发明的实施方式不限于此。
实施例1
本实施例1为一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,如图1所示,反应器内设有反应器主体区1、气体净化区2和分离沉淀区3,气体净化区和分离沉淀区分别设于反应器主体区的两侧;反应器主体区内通过喷射管道4与射流器5的出口端连接,射流器的进水端通过循环水管道6与分离沉淀区连接,射流器的进气端通过生物气管道7与气体净化区连接;反应器主体区的中部设有与分离沉淀区连通的混合液连接孔8,分离沉淀区底部设有与反应 器主体区底部连通的污泥回流孔9。
反应器主体区中设有提升区1-1和下降区1-2,提升区位于反应器主体区的中部,下降区位于反应器主体区的外周,提升区上部与下降区上部相通,提升区底部与下降区底部相通,喷射管道设于提升区内,且喷射管道的底端位于提升区的底部。
反应器主体区为套管式结构(即反应器主体区由2个管体相嵌套构成),气体净化区和分离沉淀区均为设于反应器主体区外侧的箱体式结构中。反应器主体区的主体结构包括同轴设置的外管和内管,内管设于外管中部,内管的上端和下端均开放,内管下端与外管的底面之间留有混合液向下流动空间1-4,内管上端与外管的顶面之间留有混合液向上流动空间1-3;内管内部的区域形成提升区,内管外部与外管之间的环形区域形成下降区。其中,提升区内的混合液向上流动,下降区内的混合液向下流动,混合液向上流动空间和混合液向下流动空间实现混合液流向的交换与循环运动。外管和内管均为方管,气体净化区和分离沉淀区为设于外管两侧的矩形箱体结构中,下降区也对应为矩形的环形区域。
气体净化区的主体结构包括由上至下依次设置的碱液多孔喷头10、多孔填料11、气体释放管12和碱液贮存池13,碱液多孔喷头喷出的碱液与气体释放管释放出的生物气反向流动,在多孔填料处进行气体净化,净化后的生物气由生物气管道送至射流器。反应器主体区内还设有贮气区1-5,贮气区位于提升区和下降区的上方,贮气区与气体净化区的上部相通;贮气区内设有穿孔气体吸收管14,穿孔气体吸收管通过吸气泵15与气体释放管连接。通过吸气泵将气体强制抽吸进入气体净化区底部释放,气体逆流与顶部喷淋下来的碱液接触,淋水填料显著增大了接触面积,强化了生物气中硫化氢等有害气体的吸收,净化后的气体在循环流量的推动下重新进入反应器主体区顶部,再通过生物气管道进入射流器而参与生物气的射流循环。碱液贮存池通过碱液循环泵16与碱液多孔喷头连接,通过碱液循环泵抽取碱液贮存池中的碱液,送至碱液多孔喷头处喷淋使用,使碱液实现循环利用,从而达到节省资源的目的。
分离沉淀区包括由下至上依次设置的下部污泥区3-1、中部缓冲区3-2、 上部斜板沉淀区3-3和出水堰槽3-4,下部污泥区通过污泥回流孔与反应器主体区的底部连通,中部缓冲区通过混合液连接孔8与反应器主体区的中部连通,中部缓冲区的外侧壁设有混合液出水口17,混合液出水口通过混合液循环泵21与射流器连接,出水经堰槽向外排出进入后段工序处理。一定比例的混合液通过混合液出水口从反应器主体区流入中部缓冲区,经过缓冲和沉淀后,污泥被截留在下部污泥区中,混合液改变方向向上运动,进一步通过上部斜板沉淀区进行泥水分离,出水通过出水堰槽进入后续的好氧处理,而污泥在下部沉淀区底部经过适当浓缩后沿器壁滑落而重新进入主体反应区,实现了污泥的自动回流。混合液回流泵从分离沉淀区的斜板下方抽取混合液循环可以有效降低斜板沉淀区的表面负荷,更好地实现泥水分离。
除此之外,生物气管道上设有气体流量计18,可实时检测反应器主体区内及气体净化区内的压力状况。反应器主体区的顶部设有压力表19和水封瓶20,通过水封瓶保持压力稳定,当压力超过水封瓶的平衡压力时,多余的气体可以自动释放而减压。厌氧气体经过收集器作为产品保存在压力容器罐中。反应器主体区的底部设有进水管22,用于导入高浓度有机污水。此外,如图2所示,改进的本射流厌氧生物反应器新增加了23号阀门,为生物气外接用户或储罐的控制阀门,用于将生物气输送到用户或储罐中。
上述射流厌氧生物反应器的原理为:射流厌氧生物反应器用射流法将厌氧生物反应器内产生的生物气(Biogas)随回流液一并回流至反应器底部,使反应器的流化推动力从单一液流推动转变为气流紊动和液流推动相耦合,在降低液体回流比的同时大幅度提高反应器的流态化效果与传质性能,开发出射流厌氧新型生物流化床反应器处理高浓度有机污水。用厌氧发酵产生的气体,推动反应器液体内部循环流动,解决传统流化床流态化不好的问题,克服传统流化床污泥分离差的缺点,实现高效的三相分离,使反应器内的厌氧污泥浓度大幅度提高;MLSS达到12g/L以上,而且浓度可控;实行低C/N厌氧运行和低浓度厌氧过程,并在厌氧流化床里实行高效低浓度厌氧氨氧化过程,使高浓度污水经厌氧处理后,能去除90%左右的COD和部分氨氮,降低好氧负荷,使好氧出水的处理能耗降低并且能够完全实现达标排放。
其具体过程如图1中的箭头所示,在反应器主体区顶部有一部分未被混合液充满的空间(即贮气区1-5),反应开始后其中逐渐充满了生物气。反应器主体区从分离沉淀区的斜板下方抽取泥水混合液进行强制混合液循环,回流混合液高速通过射流器,在射流器喉部产生负压,在负压作用下,射流器经生物气管道和流量计将反应器主体区顶部贮存的气体抽吸进射流器,气水两相在射流器中混合后,经喷射管道直接输送至提升区的底部进行释放,释放出的气水混合物沿提升管向上运动,由于提升区的气含率比下降区的气含率高,在产生密度差的作用下,实现了提升区和下降区中液体的循环流动,整个反应器主体区实现了均匀地流态化。一定比例的混合液通过中部的混合液连接孔从反应器主体区流入分离沉淀区,经过中部缓冲区和下部沉淀区后,污泥被截留,混合液改变方向向上运动,进一步通过上部斜板沉淀区进行泥水分离,出水通过出水堰槽排出,进入后续处理工段,而污泥在下部沉淀区底部经过适当浓缩后,沿器壁滑落而重新进入主体反应区,实现了污泥的自动回流并提高污泥浓度。混合液回流泵从分离沉淀区的斜板下方抽取混合液循环可以有效降低斜板沉淀区的表面负荷,更好实现泥水分离。反应器顶部贮气区内的气体通过水封瓶保持压力稳定,当压力超过水封瓶的平衡压力时,多余的气体可以自动释放而减压,同时可以通过压力表进行监测压力变化。在贮气区内设有穿孔气体吸收管,通过吸气泵将气体强制抽吸进入气体净化区底部释放,气体逆流与顶部喷淋下来的碱液接触,淋水填料显著增大了接触面积,强化了生物气中硫化氢等有害气体的吸收,净化后的气体再循环流量的推动下重新进入反应区顶部而参与生物气射流循环。
实施例2
本实施例2为一种高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,与实施例1相比较,其不同之处在于,构成反应器主体区的外管和内管均为圆管,气体净化区和分离沉淀区分别为设于外管外周的半环形箱体结构,下降区也对应为圆环形区域。
如上所述,便可较好地实现本发明,上述实施例仅为本发明的较佳实施例,并非用来限定本发明的实施范围;即凡依本发明内容所作的均等变化与修饰,都为本发明权利要求所要求保护的范围所涵盖。

Claims (10)

  1. 高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,反应器内设有反应器主体区、气体净化区和分离沉淀区,气体净化区和分离沉淀区分别设于反应器主体区的两侧;反应器主体区内通过喷射管道与射流器的出口端连接,射流器的进水端通过循环水管道与分离沉淀区连接,射流器的进气端通过生物气管道与气体净化区连接;反应器主体区的中部设有与分离沉淀区连通的混合液连接孔,分离沉淀区底部设有与反应器主体区底部连通的污泥回流孔。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述反应器主体区为套管式结构,气体净化区和分离沉淀区均为设于反应器主体区外侧的箱体式结构。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述反应器主体区中设有提升区和下降区,提升区位于反应器主体区的中部,下降区位于反应器主体区的外周,提升区上部与下降区上部相通,提升区底部与下降区底部相通,喷射管道设于提升区内,且喷射管道的底端位于提升区的底部。
  4. 根据权利要求3所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述反应器主体区的主体结构包括同轴设置的外管和内管,内管设于外管中部,内管的上端和下端均开放,内管下端与外管的底面之间留有混合液下流动空间,内管上端与外管的顶面之间留有混合液上流动空间;内管内部的区域形成提升区,内管外部与外管之间的环形区域形成下降区。
  5. 根据权利要求4所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述外管和内管均为方管或圆管。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述气体净化区的主体结构包括由上至下依次设置的碱液多孔喷头、多孔填料、气体释放管和碱液贮存池,碱液多孔喷头喷出的碱液与气体释放管释放出的生物气反向流动,在多孔填料处进行气体净化,净化后的生物气 由生物气管道送至射流器。
  7. 根据权利要求6所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述反应器主体区内还设有贮气区,贮气区位于提升区和下降区的上方,贮气区与气体净化区的上部相通;贮气区内设有穿孔气体吸收管,穿孔气体吸收管通过吸气泵与气体释放管连接。
  8. 根据权利要求6所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述碱液贮存池为通过碱液循环泵与碱液多孔喷头相连接的液料池。
  9. 根据权利要求1所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述分离沉淀区包括由下至上依次设置的下部污泥区、中部缓冲区、上部斜板沉淀区和出水堰槽,下部污泥区通过污泥回流孔与反应器主体区的底部连通,中部缓冲区通过混合液连接孔与反应器主体区的中部连通,中部缓冲区的外侧壁设有混合液出水口,混合液出水口通过混合液循环泵与射流器连接,出水堰槽处外接出水储槽。
  10. 根据权利要求1所述高浓度有机污水处理用的射流厌氧生物反应器,其特征在于,所述生物气管道上设有气体流量计,反应器主体区的顶部设有压力表和水封瓶,反应器主体区的底部设有进水管。
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