WO2015139484A1 - 人工湿地污水处理装置及其处理污水的方法 - Google Patents

人工湿地污水处理装置及其处理污水的方法 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015139484A1
WO2015139484A1 PCT/CN2014/093083 CN2014093083W WO2015139484A1 WO 2015139484 A1 WO2015139484 A1 WO 2015139484A1 CN 2014093083 W CN2014093083 W CN 2014093083W WO 2015139484 A1 WO2015139484 A1 WO 2015139484A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
wetland
water conduit
water
sewage treatment
sewage
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PCT/CN2014/093083
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
安树青
徐德琳
任丽君
杨棠武
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南大(常熟)研究院有限公司
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Application filed by 南大(常熟)研究院有限公司 filed Critical 南大(常熟)研究院有限公司
Priority to JP2016568989A priority Critical patent/JP6175575B2/ja
Priority to US15/121,053 priority patent/US9878931B2/en
Publication of WO2015139484A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015139484A1/zh

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/327Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae characterised by animals and plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/008Control or steering systems not provided for elsewhere in subclass C02F
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/04Aerobic processes using trickle filters
    • C02F3/046Soil filtration
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/005Black water originating from toilets
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2203/00Apparatus and plants for the biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2203/006Apparatus and plants for the biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage details of construction, e.g. specially adapted seals, modules, connections
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/03Pressure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/44Time
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Definitions

  • the invention belongs to the technical field of environmental engineering sewage treatment, and particularly relates to a constructed wetland sewage treatment device, and also relates to a method for treating the same.
  • China's urban sewage treatment plants generally use the traditional secondary activated sludge process to treat sewage. As the amount of sewage treatment increases, it needs to be modified to improve the treatment capacity. However, if the traditional process, that is, the above-mentioned secondary activated sludge treatment method is used, the engineering investment is high, the energy consumption is large, the operation management requirements are high, and secondary pollution is easily generated, which does not meet the requirements of sustainable development.
  • Constructed wetland technology is a kind of sewage treatment technology that emerged in the 1970s. Due to its low construction investment, low operating cost, low energy consumption, long operating cycle and stable operation, it is gradually applied to small and medium-sized towns and villages. Domestic sewage treatment in the area. In the published Chinese patent literature, the technical information of using domestic wetland technology to treat domestic sewage can be seen. Typical, such as the authorization announcement number CN1163427C, recommends "a sewage treatment method and device", which first introduces sewage into the sedimentation tank to precipitate.
  • the patent scheme has the following shortcomings: First, since the water in the push-flow bed enters the downstream artificial wetland bed in a horizontal flow rather than a vertical flow, the sewage treatment efficiency is limited; the second is due to the denitrification reaction before the nitrification. After the reaction, it is not conducive to the denitrification reaction; the third is due to the fact that there are many links from the sewage entering the sedimentation tank to the upstream artificial wetland bed, and the various links are not organically formed as a whole, so the treatment process of the sewage is lengthy.
  • CN103274529A provides "a device and a method for extending the service life of a composite vertical flow artificial wetland", and the patent application adopts a method of vertically flowing sewage into a constructed wetland bed (patent application) "Artificial Wetland Unit”), which improves the treatment efficiency of sewage treatment with respect to the horizontal flow of CN1163427C, and also objectively has the technical effect summarized in paragraph 0013 of the specification, but since the wetland unit body is perforated through the perforation The wall is divided into two wetland units, and the sewage treatment is realized by two independent water distribution systems and a water collecting system, so that the structure is complicated, the cost is high, and the operation is cumbersome.
  • the primary task of the present invention is to provide a system for assisting in the ecological treatment of urban domestic sewage and low-concentration industrial sewage, and to satisfy the requirement of periodically changing the flow state of the water flow, thereby promoting the decomposition and conversion of the accumulated pollutants to avoid clogging.
  • the service life is beneficial to improve the purification ability of the sewage and the regeneration of the surface matrix and the artificial wetland sewage treatment device which is convenient for simplifying the structure, thereby reducing the investment cost of the facility and facilitating operation and management.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for treating sewage by a constructed wetland sewage treatment device, which can ensure that the flow pattern is periodically changed to reflect the long-lasting self-rinsing effect of the constructed wetland.
  • the object of the present invention is to provide a constructed wetland sewage treatment apparatus comprising a vertical flow constructed wetland bed body, the bottom of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body and the surrounding area being closed and the upper part being formed as an open; a vertical a sewage treatment artificial wetland, the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland is disposed on the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body; a drainage channel for introducing the sewage to be treated into the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland treatment, a water diversion channel is formed at one end of the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body, and is located at a centered position of the one end in the width direction; and a drainage channel for taking out the treated water treated by the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland, a drain is formed at the other end of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body, and is located at a center position of the other end in the width direction; a partition wall is formed in the longitudinal direction of the vertical flow artificial wetland bed
  • the sewage is urban domestic sewage or low-concentration industrial sewage
  • the low-concentration industrial sewage has COD ⁇ 350 mg/L, NH 3 -N ⁇ 30 mg/L, Sewage with SS ⁇ 200 mg / L, TN ⁇ 35 mg / L and / or TP ⁇ 5 mg / L.
  • the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body is composed of reinforced concrete, and the ratio between the length, the width and the height of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body is 1: 0.5:0.1.
  • the structure of the second wetland unit is the same as the structure of the first wetland unit, and the first wetland unit includes a drainage layer, a lower layer, a lower transition layer, and an intermediate transition layer.
  • the upper transition layer and the upper layer, the drainage layer is located at the bottom of the bed of the vertical flow constructed wetland, the lower layer is located at the upper portion of the drainage layer, the lower transition layer is located at the upper portion of the lower layer, the intermediate transition layer is located at the upper portion of the lower transition layer, and the upper transition layer Located at an upper portion of the intermediate transition layer, the upper layer is located at an upper portion of the upper transition layer, and the upper water conduit is disposed between the upper transition layer and the intermediate transition layer together with the upper water conduit branch pipe, and the lower water conduit is provided The branch pipe of the water conduit is laid down in the drainage layer.
  • a sum of thicknesses of the drainage layer, the lower layer, the lower transition layer, the intermediate transition layer, the upper transition layer, and the upper layer is smaller than a height of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body.
  • the drainage layer is composed of gravel having a diameter of 20-30 mm laid at the bottom of the bed of the vertical flow constructed wetland; the lower layer is laid by Constructed in the upper part of the drainage layer and having a diameter of 15-20 mm; the lower transition layer is composed of gravel laid in the upper part of the lower layer and 12-15 mm; the intermediate transition layer is laid on the upper part of the lower transition layer And the zeolite having a diameter of 8-12 mm; the upper transition layer is composed of gravel laid in the upper part of the intermediate transition layer and having a diameter of 5-8 mm; the upper layer is laid on the upper part of the upper transition layer and It consists of gravel with a diameter of 3-5 mm.
  • a water plant is planted on the upper layer, the water plant The object is reed or calamus.
  • the upper water conduit branch pipe outlet hole is opened in the longitudinal direction of the upper water conduit branch pipe, and the outlet hole of the upper water pipe branch pipe outlet hole faces downward.
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe outlet hole is opened in a spaced state in the longitudinal direction of the draft pipe branch pipe, and the outlet hole of the lower water pipe branch pipe outlet hole faces downward.
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for treating sewage by a constructed wetland sewage treatment apparatus comprising the following steps:
  • the sewage in the diversion canal enters the upper diversion pipe located in the first wetland unit area through the upper diversion pipe inlet valve, and is led to the first by the upper diversion pipe branch pipe
  • the sewage entering the upper part of the first wetland unit reaches the lower part of the first wetland unit in a natural vertical downward drainage state, and then enters the lower water conduit located in the second wetland unit area through the lower water conduit control valve, and is led from below.
  • the water pipe branch pipe is led to a lower portion of the second wetland unit, and the water entering the lower portion of the second wetland unit and processed by the first wetland unit reaches the upper portion of the second wetland unit in a state of vertical drainage, via the second wetland unit
  • the upper branch pipe branch pipe in the area enters the upper water pipe and is introduced into the drain pipe by the upper water pipe outlet valve;
  • the water pipe branch pipe is led to the upper part of the second wetland unit, and the water that has entered the upper part of the second wetland unit and has been treated by the first wetland unit reaches the lower part of the second wetland unit in a state of natural vertical downward drainage, and then passes through the second wetland.
  • the lower water pipe branch pipe in the unit area enters the lower water pipe, and the drain pipe is introduced into the drain pipe by the lower water pipe outlet valve, wherein: the water supply method of the flushing method is The backwash water into alternating manner performed.
  • the alternating alternating timing is the introduction of the sewage by sewage
  • the flow rate per unit time of the canal is determined by the flow rate of the treated water from the drainage channel per unit time, or by the pressure flow meter disposed on the upper water conduit and the pressure flow provided on the lower water conduit The pressure difference between the tables is determined.
  • the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland composed of the first and second wetland units is disposed on the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body, the domestic sewage and the low concentration can be The industrial sewage with light pollution is ecologically treated; the second is that the upper inlet pipe, the outlet valve and the upper inlet pipe control valve are arranged on the pipeline of the upper water conduit, and the lower water conduit is arranged on the lower water conduit.
  • the water outlet valve and the lower water inlet control valve can meet the requirements of periodically changing the flow state of the water flow through the control of the corresponding valve, which is beneficial to reducing pollutants, ensuring the service life of the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland and avoiding the tube.
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an embodiment of a constructed wetland sewage treatment device of the present invention.
  • Figure 2 is a perspective view of Figure 1.
  • Fig. 3 is a detailed structural view of the upper water conduit and the lower water conduit shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
  • a vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1 which is preferably constructed of reinforced concrete, that is, reinforced concrete, is shown.
  • the length, width and height of the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1 are The embodiment does not need to be specifically limited because the volume of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1 can be adjusted or adjusted according to the amount of treatment or the processing capacity of the sewage. However, regardless of the volume of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1
  • the change in size is such that the ratio between its length, width and height is preferably 1:0.5:0.1, for example 15 m in length, then 7.5 m in width and 1.5 m in height.
  • the bottom portion and the periphery of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1 are closed and the upper portion is formed to be open, so that the overall shape thereof is in the form of a pool or a groove.
  • a vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2 is provided.
  • the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2 is disposed on the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1, that is, disposed in the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1.
  • a diversion canal 3 for introducing sewage to be treated into a vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2 is provided, and the diversion canal 3 is directly formed at one end of the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1 (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) The left end of the position state shown) and is at the center of the width direction of the one end.
  • a drain 4 for taking out treatment water treated by the vertical flow sewage treatment constructed wetland 2 is provided, and the drain 4 is directly formed at the other end of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1 (Figs. 1 and 2) The right end of the position state shown) and at the center of the width direction of the other end.
  • a partition wall 5 is provided, which is directly formed at a centered position in the longitudinal direction of the bed body 1 of the vertical flow constructed wetland, and the vertical flow sewage treatment constructed wetland 2 is separated by the partition wall 5 into a partition The first wetland unit 21 on the left side of the partition wall 5 and the second wetland unit 22 on the right side of the partition wall 5.
  • a box culvert 51 is formed at a centered position in the longitudinal direction of the partition wall 5, and the box culvert 51 corresponds to the between the water diversion channel 3 and the drain channel 4, that is, the water diversion channel 3, the box culvert 51 and the drain channel 4 are located in the same straight line. on.
  • An upper water conduit 6 which is preferably used by a PVC pipe is provided, and the upper water conduit 6 is laid in a horizontal state in the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2 and is located at an upper portion of the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2, the upper water conduit One end (left end) of 6 extends into the diversion canal 3 and is provided with an upper riser water inlet valve 61, the other end (right end) extends into the drain 4 and is provided with an upper water conduit outlet valve 62, and the upper water conduit 6
  • the middle portion passes through the box culvert 51 and is provided with an upper water conduit control valve 63 at a position corresponding to the inside of the tank culvert 51, and an upper water conduit branch pipe 64 preferably supported by a PVC pipe is disposed at an interval in the longitudinal direction of the upper water conduit 6.
  • the upper water conduit branch pipe 64 forms a cross-shaped relationship with the upper water conduit 6.
  • a lower water conduit 7 which is preferably used as a PVC pipe is provided, and the lower water conduit 7 is laid in a horizontal state in the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2, and is located in a lower portion of the vertical flow sewage treatment artificial wetland 2, the lower reference One end (left end) of the water pipe 7 extends into the water guiding channel 3 and is provided with a lower water inlet pipe inlet valve 71, the other end (right end) extends into the drain pipe 4 and is provided with a lower water pipe outlet valve 72, and the lower water conduit 7
  • the middle portion passes through the aforementioned box culvert 51 and is provided with a lower water conduit control valve 73 at a position corresponding to the inside of the tank culvert 51, and a lower water conduit which is preferably made of a PVC pipe is provided in a spaced state in the longitudinal direction of the lower water conduit 7.
  • the sewage mentioned by the applicant in the above is not limited to the following two types: one is urban domestic sewage; the other is low-concentration, that is, industrial sewage with a low degree of pollution.
  • the low-concentration industrial wastewater mentioned here is industrial wastewater with COD ⁇ 350mg/L, NH 3 -N ⁇ 30mg/L, SS ⁇ 200mg/L, TN ⁇ 35mg/L and/or TP ⁇ 5mg/L.
  • the aforementioned first wetland unit 21 includes a drainage layer 211, a lower layer 212, a lower transition layer 213, an intermediate transition layer 214, an upper transition layer 215, and an upper layer 216, and the drainage layer 211 is located in the vertical flow.
  • the bottom of the artificial wetland bed body 1 the lower layer 212 is located at the upper portion of the drainage layer 211, the lower transition layer 213 is located at the upper portion of the lower layer 212, the intermediate transition layer 214 is located at the upper portion of the lower transition layer 213, and the upper transition layer 215 is located at the intermediate transition layer 214.
  • the upper portion, the upper layer 216 is located at an upper portion of the upper transition layer 215, and the upper water conduit 6 is located between the upper transition layer 215 and the intermediate transition layer 214, and the lower water conduit 7 together
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe 74 is located in the drainage layer 211.
  • the sum of the thicknesses of the aforementioned drainage layer 211, the lower layer 212, the lower transition layer 213, the intermediate transition layer 214, the upper transition layer 215, and the upper layer 216 is smaller than the height of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1.
  • the foregoing drainage layer 211 is composed of gravel which is laid at the bottom of the aforementioned vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1 and has a diameter of 20-30 mm; the aforementioned lower layer 212 is laid on the upper part of the drainage layer 211 and has a diameter of 15-20 mm.
  • the gravel is formed; the aforementioned lower transition layer 213 is composed of gravel laid on the upper portion of the lower layer 212 and 12-15 mm; the aforementioned intermediate transition layer 214 is composed of zeolite having a diameter of 8-12 mm laid on the upper portion of the lower transition layer 213.
  • the foregoing upper transition layer 215 is composed of gravel laid on the upper portion of the intermediate transition layer 214 and having a diameter of 5-8 mm; the aforementioned upper layer 216 is composed of gravel having a diameter of 3-5 mm laid on the upper portion of the upper transition layer 215. Composition.
  • the ascending water plant is planted on the aforementioned upper layer 216, and the emergent plant is preferably reed or calamus (not shown).
  • the vertical flow artificial wetland bed body 1 has a length of 15 m, a width of 7.5 m, and a height of 1.5 m, and the aforementioned drainage layer 211 has a thickness of 20 cm, and the lower layer 212 has a thickness of 20 cm. Cm, the lower transition layer 213 has a thickness of 30 cm, the intermediate transition layer 214 has a thickness of 40 cm, the upper transition layer 215 has a thickness of 20 cm, and the upper layer 216 has a thickness of 10 cm.
  • the length and width of the transition layer 214, the upper transition layer 215 and the upper layer 216 are respectively adapted to the length and width of the vertical flow constructed wetland bed body 1.
  • the upper water conduit branch pipe water outlet hole 641 is opened in the longitudinal direction of the upper water conduit branch pipe 64, and the upper water pipe branch pipe outlet hole 641 is opened.
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe water outlet hole 741 is opened at an interval in the longitudinal direction of the draft water pipe branch pipe 74, and the orifice of the lower water pipe branch pipe water outlet hole 641 faces downward.
  • the thickness of the drainage layer 211 was changed to 25 cm, the thickness of the lower layer 212 was changed to 25 cm, the thickness of the lower transition layer 213 was changed to 30 cm, the thickness of the intermediate transition layer 214 was changed to 35 cm, and the thickness of the upper transition layer 215 was changed. 25 cm, the thickness of the upper layer 216 was changed to 10 cm, and the rest were the same as those described in Example 1.
  • the method for treating sewage by the constructed wetland sewage treatment device provided by the present invention is embodied by the following steps, including the following steps:
  • the water inlet control valve 63, the lower water inlet water inlet valve 71 and the lower water inlet water outlet valve 72, the sewage in the water conduit 3 enters the upper water conduit 6 located in the area of the first wetland unit 21 via the upper water inlet water inlet valve 61, And the upper water conduit branch pipe outlet hole 641 of the upper water conduit branch pipe 64 located in the area of the first wetland unit 21 is led out to the upper portion of the first wetland unit 21, and the sewage entering the upper portion of the first wetland unit 21 is drained naturally and vertically.
  • the state or the lower drainage mode reaches the lower portion of the first wetland unit 21, and then enters the lower water conduit 7 located in the region of the second wetland unit 22 via the lower water conduit control valve 73, and the lower water conduit located in the second wetland unit 22
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe outlet hole 741 of the branch pipe 74 is led to the lower portion of the second wetland unit 22, and the water entering the lower portion of the second wetland unit 22 and treated by the first wetland unit 21 is vertically drained or referred to as drainage.
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe outlet hole 741 of the lower water conduit branch pipe 74 in the wetland unit 21 is led out to the lower portion of the first wetland unit 21, and the sewage entering the lower portion of the first wetland unit 21 reaches the first wetland unit 21 in a vertically upwardly drained state.
  • the upper portion passes through the upper water conduit control valve 63 to enter the upper water conduit 6 located in the region of the second wetland unit 22, and the upper water conduit branch pipe outlet hole 641 of the upper water conduit branch pipe 64 located in the second wetland unit 22.
  • the water entering the upper portion of the second wetland unit and processed by the first wetland unit 21 reaches the lower portion of the second wetland unit 22 in a natural vertical downward draining state, and then passes through the second wetland unit
  • the lower water conduit branch pipe outlet hole 741 of the lower water conduit branch pipe 74 in the region 22 enters the lower water conduit 7, and is introduced into the drain pipe 4 by the lower water conduit outlet valve 72, wherein: the aforementioned flushing water inlet portion Is carried out into the backwash water phase alternating manner.
  • the alternate timing is determined by the flow rate per unit time during which the sewage is introduced into the aqueduct 3 and the degree of flow change per unit time during which the treated water is drawn out of the drain 4, and may also be set by the pressure on the upper riser 6
  • the pressure difference between the flow meter and the pressure flow meter provided on the aforementioned lower water conduit 7 is determined.

Abstract

一种人工湿地污水处理装置,其包括垂直流人工湿地床床体(1),上部构成敞口;垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2),设在垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)上;引水渠(3),构成于垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的一端;排水渠(4),构成于垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的另一端;隔墙(5),将湿地分隔为第一(21)、第二湿地单元(22);上引水管(6),一端设上引水管进水阀(61)、另一端设上引水管出水阀(62)、中部设上引水管控制阀(63),在上引水管(6)上设上引水管分支管(64);下引水管(7),其一端设下引水管进水阀(71)、另一端设下引水管出水阀(72)、中部设下引水管控制阀(73),在下引水管(7)上设下引水管分支管(74)。同时还提供了一种人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法。

Description

人工湿地污水处理装置及其处理污水的方法 技术领域
本发明属于环境工程污水处理技术领域,具体涉及一种人工湿地污水处理装置,并且还涉及其处理污水的方法。
背景技术
目前,我国城市污水处理厂普遍采用传统的二级活性污泥法处理工艺进行污水处理,随着污水处理量的增大,需要改造以提高处理能力。然而若采用传统工艺即前述的二级活性污泥处理方法改造,则工程投资高、能耗大、运行管理要求高并且易产生二次污染,不符合可持续发展的要求。若采用传统的生物曝气池技术,虽然能够有效地去除污水中的有机物,但对氮磷的去除能力较低;若采用膜生物反应器技术即膜分离技术,那么出水水质虽然较高,但投资运行费用昂贵,使该技术的广泛应用在很大程度上受到制约;若采用其他化学物理处理技术,那么均存在诸如投资运行费用高、出水水质不稳定和二次污染等问题。
人工湿地技术是20世纪70年代兴起的一种污水处理技术,由于其具有建设投资和运行管理成本低廉、能耗低、运行周期长以及运行效果稳定等优点而逐渐被应用于广大中小城镇和乡村地区的生活污水处理。在公开的中国专利文献中可见诸利用人工湿地技术处理生活污水的技术信息,典型的如授权公告号CN1163427C推荐有“一种污水处理方法及装置”,该专利方案先将污水引入沉淀池沉淀而藉以去除大粒径的颗粒及悬浮物,再进入水位倾斜的推流床而藉以进一步降低水中悬浮物和COD,而后进入下行流人工湿地床(专利称下行流人工湿地),最后进入上行流人工湿地床(专利称上行流人工湿地)。与传统的二级活性污泥处理法相比客观上能体现其说明书第2页第21至27行记载的技术效果。但是该专利方案存在以下缺憾:一是由于推流床中的水以水平流而非垂直流的方式进入下行流人工湿地床,因而,污水处理效率有限;二是由于反硝化反应在前,硝化反应在后,因而不利于脱氮反应;三是由于自污水进入沉淀池至上行流人工湿地床的环节多,并且各个环节并非有机地形成一个整体,因而对污水的处理过程冗长。又如发明专利申请公布号CN103274529A提供有“一种延长复合垂直流人工湿地服务年限的装置和方法”,该专利申请方案采用了以垂直流的方式使污水进入人工湿地床(专利申请称 “人工湿地单元”),相对于前述CN1163427C的水平流而言对于提高污水的处理效率有所提高,并且还客观上具有说明书第0013段归纳的技术效果,但是,由于将湿地单元本体通过穿孔隔墙分割成两个湿地单元,通过两套独立的配水系统与集水系统实现对污水的循环处理,因而存在结构复杂、成本高并且操作烦琐的欠缺。
鉴于上述已有技术,本申请人作了持久而有益的探索与反复的实验,终于形成了下面将要介绍的技术方案。
发明内容
本发明的首要任务在于提供一种有助于对城市生活污水以及低浓度工业污水实施生态处理、有利于满足周期性地改变水流流态要求而藉以促进累积的污染物分解转化避免堵塞而延长系统的使用寿命、有益于提高对污水的净化能力以及表层基质的再生利用和有便于简化结构而藉以降低设施投资成本并且方便操作与管护的人工湿地污水处理装置。
本发明的另一任务在于提供一种人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法,该方法能保证周期性地改变水流流态而藉以体现人工湿地持久的自冲洗效果。
本发明的任务是这样来完成的,一种人工湿地污水处理装置,包括一垂直流人工湿地床床体,该垂直流人工湿地床床体的底部以及四周封闭而上部构成为敞口;一垂直流污水处理人工湿地,该垂直流污水处理人工湿地设置在所述垂直流人工湿地床床体上;一用于将有待于处理的污水引入所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地处理的引水渠,该引水渠构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的一端,并且位于该一端的宽度方向的居中位置;一用于将由所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地处理后的处理水引出的排水渠,该排水渠构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的另一端,并且位于该另一端的宽度方向的居中位置;一隔墙,该隔墙构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的长度方向的居中位置,并且藉由该隔墙而将所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地分隔为第一湿地单元和第二湿地单元,在隔墙的长度方向的居中位置构成有一箱涵;该箱涵对应于所述引水渠与排水渠之间;一上引水管,该上引水管以水平状态敷设在所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地内并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地的上部,该上引水管的一端伸展到所述引水渠内并且设置有一上引水管进水阀,另一端伸展到所述排水渠内并且设置有一上引水管出水阀,而上引水管的中部途经所述 的箱涵并且在对应于箱涵内的部位设置有一上引水管控制阀,在上引水管的长度方向以间隔状态设置有上引水管分支管,上引水管分支管与上引水管构成十字形关系;一下引水管,该下引水管以水平状态敷设在所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地内并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地的下部,该下引水管的一端伸展到所述引水渠内并且设置有一下引水管进水阀,另一端伸展到所述排水渠内并且设置有一下引水管出水阀,而下引水管的中部途经所述箱涵并且在对应于箱涵内的部位设置有一下引水管控制阀,在下引水管的长度方向以间隔状态设置有下引水管分支管,下引水管分支管与下引水管构成十字形关系。
在本发明的一个具体的实施例中,所述的污水为城市生活污水或低浓度的工业污水,所述的低浓度的工业污水为COD<350mg/L、NH3-N<30mg/L、SS<200mg/L、TN<35mg/L和/或TP<5mg/L的污水。
在本发明的另一个具体的实施例中,所述的垂直流人工湿地床床体由钢筋混凝土构成,该垂直流人工湿地床床体的长度、宽度和高度三者之间的比例为1∶0.5∶0.1。
在本发明的又一个具体的实施例中,所述的第二湿地单元的结构是与第一湿地单元的结构相同的,而第一湿地单元包括排水层、下层、下过渡层、中间过渡层、上过渡层和上层,排水层位于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的底部,下层位于排水层的上部,下过渡层位于下层的上部,中间过渡层位于下过渡层的上部,上过渡层位于中间过渡层的上部,上层位于上过渡层的上部,所述的上引水管连同所述的上引水管分支管敷设于上过渡层与中间过渡层之间,所述的下引水管连同所述下引水管分支管敷设于排水层内。
在本发明的再一个具体的实施例中,所述排水层、下层、下过渡层、中间过渡层、上过渡层和上层的厚度之和小于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的高度。
在本发明的还有一个具体的实施例中,所述的排水层由铺设在所述垂直流人工湿地床床体的底部的并且直径为20-30㎜的砾石构成;所述的下层由铺设在排水层上部的并且直径为15-20㎜的砾石构成;所述的下过渡层由铺设在下层上部的并且为12-15㎜的砾石构成;所述的中间过渡层由铺设在下过渡层上部的并且直径为8-12㎜的沸石构成;所述的上过渡层由铺设在中间过渡层上部的并且直径为5-8㎜的砾石构成;所述的上层由铺设在上过渡层上部的并且直径为3-5㎜的砾石构成。
在本发明的更而一个具体的实施例中,在所述的上层上种植有挺水植物,该挺水植 物为芦苇或菖蒲。
在本发明的进而一个具体的实施例中,在所述的上引水管分支管的长度方向以间隔状态开设有上引水管分支管出水孔,该上引水管分支管出水孔的孔口朝向下;在所述的引引水管分支管的长度方向以间隔状态开设有下引水管分支管出水孔,该下引水管分支管出水孔的孔口朝向下。
本发明的另一任务是这样来完成的,一种人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法,包括以下步骤:
A)正冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠的状态下,开启上引水管进水阀、上引水管出水阀和下引水管控制阀,同时关闭上引水管控制阀、下引水管进水阀和下引水管出水阀,引水渠内的污水经上引水管进水阀进入位于第一湿地单元区域内的上引水管,并且由上引水管分支管引出至第一湿地单元的上部,进入第一湿地单元上部的污水以自然垂直下引流状态到达第一湿地单元的下部,再经下引水管控制阀进入位于第二湿地单元区域内的下引水管,由下引水管分支管引至第二湿地单元的下部,进入第二湿地单元下部的并且经第一湿地单元处理过的水以垂直上引流的状态到达第二湿地单元的上部,经位于第二湿地单元的区域内的上引水管分支管进入上引水管,并且由上引水管出水阀引入排水渠;
B)反冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠的状态下,开启上引水管控制阀、下引水管进水阀和下引水管出水阀,同时关闭上引水管进水阀、上引水管出水阀和下引水管控制阀,引水渠内的污水经下引水管进水阀进入位于第一湿地单元区域内的下引水管,并且由下引水管分支管引出至第一湿地单元的下部,进入第一湿地单元下部的污水以垂直上引流的状态到达第一湿地单元的上部,再经上引水管控制阀进入位于第二湿地单元区域内的上引水管,由上引水管分支管引至第二湿地单元的上部,进入第二湿地单元上部的并且经第一湿地单元处理过的水以自然垂直下引流的状态到达第二湿地单元的下部,再经位于第二湿地单元区域内的下引水管分支管进入进入下引水管,并且由下引水管出水阀引入排水渠,其中:所述正冲洗方式进水处理是与所述反冲洗方式进水处理相交替进行的。
在本发明的又更而一个具体的实施例中,所述交替的交替时机是以污水引入所述引 水渠的单位时间内的流量与处理水引出所述排水渠的单位时间内的流量确定的,或者通过设置在所述上引水管上的压力流量表与设置在所述下引水管上的压力流量表之间的压差值确定。
本发明提供的技术方案的技术效果之一,由于在垂直流人工湿地床床体上设置了由第一、第二湿地单元构成的垂直流污水处理人工湿地,因而可对生活污水以及低浓度即污染程度轻的工业污水进行生态处理;之二,由于在上引水管的管路上配设了上引水管进、出水阀和上引水管控制阀,并且在下引水管上配设了下引水管进、出水阀以及下引水管控制阀,因而可通过对相应的阀的控制而可满足周期性地改变水流流态要求,有利于削减污染物,保障垂直流污水处理人工湿地的使用寿命并且避免管路堵塞;之三,由于垂直流污水处理人工湿地具有再生功能,因而可提高对污水的持久的净化处理能力;之四,由于整体结构简单,并且表现为整体的模块化构造,因而不仅构建成本低而且操作管护方便;之五,提供的方法能充分保障周期性改变水流流态,使整个系统体现持久的稳定使用效果。
附图说明
图1为本发明人工湿地污水处理装置的实施例示意图。
图2为图1的立体图。
图3为图1和图2所示的上引水管和下引水管的详细结构图。
具体实施方式
为了使专利局的审查员尤其是公众能够更加清楚地理解本发明的技术实质和有益效果,申请人将在下面以实施例的方式作详细说明,但是对实施例的描述均不是对本发明方案的限制,任何依据本发明构思所作出的仅仅为形式上的而非实质性的等效变换都应视为本发明的技术方案范畴。
实施例1:
请参见图1和图2,给出了一优选使用钢筋混凝土浇筑的即由钢筋混凝土构成的垂直流人工湿地床床体1,该垂直流人工湿地床床体1的长度、宽度和高度在本实施例中不需要进行特殊限定,因为依据对污水的处理量或称处理能力而可以将垂直流人工湿地床床体1的容积作增大或缩小的适应性调整。但是,不论垂直流人工湿地床床体1的容积 大小变化,以满足其长度、宽度和高度三者之间的比例为1∶0.5∶0.1为宜,例如长度为15m,那么宽度为7.5m,而高度为1.5m。
由图1和图2所示,由前述的垂直流人工湿地床床体1的底部以及四周封闭而上部构成为敞口,因而其整体形状呈池或称槽的形式。
给出了一垂直流污水处理人工湿地2,该垂直流污水处理人工湿地2设置在前述垂直流人工湿地床床体1上,即设置在垂直流人工湿地床床体1内。给出了一用于将有待于处理的污水引入垂直流污水处理人工湿地2处理的引水渠3,该引水渠3直接构成于前述垂直流人工湿地床床体1的一端(图1和图2所示位置状态的左端),并且位于该一端的宽度方向的居中位置。给出了一用于将由垂直流污水处理人工湿地2处理后的处理水引出的排水渠4,该排水渠4直接构成于前述垂直流人工湿地床床体1的另一端(图1和图2所示位置状态的右端),并且位于该另一端的宽度方向的居中位置。给出了一隔墙5,该隔墙5直接构成于垂直流人工湿地床床体1的长度方向的居中位置,并且由该隔墙5将前述的垂直流污水处理人工湿地2分隔为位于隔墙5左侧的第一湿地单元21和位于隔墙5右侧的第二湿地单元22。在隔墙5的长度方向的居中位置构成有一箱涵51,该箱涵51对应于前述引水渠3与排水渠4之间,也就是说引水渠3、箱涵51和排水渠4位于同一直线上。给出了一优选使用PVC管担当的上引水管6,该上引水管6以水平状态敷设在前述垂直流污水处理人工湿地2内并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地2的上部,该上引水管6的一端(左端)伸展到引水渠3内并且设置有一上引水管进水阀61,另一端(右端)伸展到排水渠4内并且设置有一上引水管出水阀62,而上引水管6的中部途经前述箱涵51并在对应于箱涵51内的位置设置有一上引水管控制阀63,在上引水管6的长度方向以间隔状态设置有优选由PVC管担当的上引水管分支管64,并且上引水管分支管64与上引水管6形成十字形关系。给出了一优选使用PVC管担当的下引水管7,该下引水管7以水平状态敷设在前述垂直流污水处理人工湿地2内,并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地2的下部,该下引水管7的一端(左端)伸展到引水渠3内并且设置有一下引水管进水阀71,另一端(右端)伸展到排水渠4内并且设置有一下引水管出水阀72,而下引水管7的中部途经前述的箱涵51并且在对应于箱涵51内的位置设置有一下引水管控制阀73,在下引水管7的长度方向以间隔状态设置有优选由PVC管担当的下引水管 分支管74,并且下引水管分支管74与下引水管7形成十字形关系。
本申请人在上面提及的污水并非限于地指以下两种:一是城市生活污水;二是低浓度的即污染程度轻的的工业污水。这里所讲的低浓度的工业污水为COD<350mg/L、NH3-N<30mg/L、SS<200mg/L、TN<35mg/L和/或TP<5mg/L的工业污水
由于上面提及的第二湿地单元22的结构及功能等是完全与第一湿地单元21相同的,仅仅由前述的隔墙5分隔而成,因而申请人在下面仅对第一湿地单元21作详细说明。
请继续见图1和图2,前述的第一湿地单元21包括排水层211、下层212、下过渡层213、中间过渡层214、上过渡层215和上层216,排水层211位于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体1的底部,下层212位于排水层211的上部,下过渡层213位于下层212的上部,中间过渡层214位于下过渡层213的上部,上过渡层215位于中间过渡层214的上部,上层216位于上过渡层215的上部,所述的上引水管6连同所述的上引水管分支管64位于上过渡层215与中间过渡层214之间,所述的下引水管7连同所述下引水管分支管74位于排水层211内。
优选地,前述的排水层211、下层212、下过渡层213、中间过渡层214、上过渡层215和上层216的厚度之和小于前述垂直流人工湿地床床体1的高度。
前述的排水层211由铺设在前述垂直流人工湿地床床体1的底部的并且直径为20-30㎜的砾石构成;前述的下层212由铺设在排水层211上部的并且直径为15-20㎜的砾石构成;前述的下过渡层213由铺设在下层212上部的并且为12-15㎜的砾石构成;前述的中间过渡层214由铺设在下过渡层213上部的并且直径为8-12㎜的沸石构成;前述的上过渡层215由铺设在中间过渡层214上部的并且直径为5-8㎜的砾石构成;前述的上层216由铺设在上过渡层215上部的并且直径为3-5㎜的砾石构成。
优选地,在前述上层216上种植有挺水植物,该挺水植物优选为芦苇或菖蒲(图中未示出)。
在本实施例中,前述的垂直流人工湿地床床体1的长度为15m,宽度为7.5m,而高度为1.5m,而前述的排水层211的厚度为20㎝,下层212的厚度为20㎝,下过渡层213的厚度为30㎝,中间过渡层214的厚度为40㎝,上过渡层215的厚度为20㎝,上层216的厚度为10㎝。此外依据公知常识,前述的排水层211、下层212、下过渡层213、中间 过渡层214、上过渡层215和上层216的长度及宽度均分别为与垂直流人工湿地床床体1的长度及宽度相适应。
请参见图3并且结合图1和图2,在前述的上引水管分支管64的长度方向以间隔状态开设有上引水管分支管出水孔641,该上引水管分支管出水孔641的孔口朝向下;在前述的引引水管分支管74的长度方向以间隔状态开设有下引水管分支管出水孔741,该下引水管分支管出水孔641的孔口朝向下。
实施例2:
仅将排水层211的厚度改为25㎝,下层212的厚度改为25㎝,下过渡层213的厚度改为30㎝,中间过渡层214的厚度改为35㎝,上过渡层215的厚度改为25㎝,上层216的厚度改为10㎝,其余均同对实施例1的描述。
使用例:
本发明提供的人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法是这样来体现的,包括以下步骤:
A)正冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠3的状态下,开启上引水管进水阀61、上引水管出水阀62和下引水管控制阀73,同时关闭上引水管控制阀63、下引水管进水阀71和下引水管出水阀72,引水渠3内的污水经上引水管进水阀61进入位于第一湿地单元21区域内的上引水管6,并且由位于第一湿地单元21区域内的上引水管分支管64的上引水管分支管出水孔641引出至第一湿地单元21的上部,进入第一湿地单元21上部的污水以自然垂直下引流状态或称下引流方式到达第一湿地单元21的下部,再经下引水管控制阀73进入位于第二湿地单元22区域内的下引水管7,由位于第二湿地单元22内的下引水管分支管74的下引水管分支管出水孔741引至第二湿地单元22的下部,进入第二湿地单元22下部的并且经第一湿地单元21处理过的水以垂直上引流状态或称上引流方式到达第二湿地单元22的上部,经位于第二湿地单元22的区域内的上引水管分支管64的上引水管分支管出水孔641进入上引水管6,并且由上引水管出水阀62引入排水渠4;
B)反冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠3的状态下,开启上引水管控制阀63、下引水管进水阀71和下引水管出水阀72,同时关闭上引水管进水阀 61、上引水管出水阀62和下引水管控制阀73,引水渠3内的污水经下引水管进水阀71进入位于第一湿地单元21区域内的下引水管7,并且由位于第一湿地单元21内的下引水管分支管74的下引水管分支管出水孔741引出至第一湿地单元21的下部,进入第一湿地单元21下部的污水以垂直上引流状态到达第一湿地单元21的上部,再经上引水管控制阀63进入位于第二湿地单元22区域内的上引水管6,由位于第二湿地单元22内的上引水管分支管64的上引水管分支管出水孔641引至第二湿地单元22的上部,进入第二湿地单元上部的并且经第一湿地单元21处理过的水以自然垂直下引流状态到达第二湿地单元22的下部,再经位于第二湿地单元22区域内的下引水管分支管74的下引水管分支管出水孔741进入进入下引水管7,并且由下引水管出水阀72引入排水渠4,其中:前述的正冲洗方式进水处理是与前述反冲洗方式进水处理相交替进行的。交替的时机是以污水引入前述引水渠3的单位时间内的流量与处理水引出所述排水渠4的单位时间内的流量变化程度确定的,也可以通过设置在前述上引水管6上的压力流量表与设置在前述下引水管7上的压力流量表之间的压差确定。

Claims (10)

  1. 一种人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于包括一垂直流人工湿地床床体(1),该垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的底部以及四周封闭而上部构成为敞口;一垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2),该垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)设置在所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)上;一用于将有待于处理的污水引入所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)处理的引水渠(3),该引水渠(3)构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的一端,并且位于该一端的宽度方向的居中位置;一用于将由所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)处理后的处理水引出的排水渠(4),该排水渠(4)构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的另一端,并且位于该另一端的宽度方向的居中位置;一隔墙(5),该隔墙(5)构成于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的长度方向的居中位置,并且藉由该隔墙(5)而将所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)分隔为第一湿地单元(21)和第二湿地单元(22),在隔墙(5)的长度方向的居中位置构成有一箱涵(51);该箱涵(51)对应于所述引水渠(3)与排水渠(4)之间;一上引水管(6),该上引水管(6)以水平状态敷设在所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)内并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)的上部,该上引水管(6)的一端伸展到所述引水渠(3)内并且设置有一上引水管进水阀(61),另一端伸展到所述排水渠(4)内并且设置有一上引水管出水阀(62),而上引水管(6)的中部途经所述的箱涵(51)并且在对应于箱涵(51)内的部位设置有一上引水管控制阀(63),在上引水管(6)的长度方向以间隔状态设置有上引水管分支管(64),上引水管分支管(64)与上引水管(6)构成十字形关系;一下引水管(7),该下引水管(7)以水平状态敷设在所述垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)内并且位于垂直流污水处理人工湿地(2)的下部,该下引水管(7)的一端伸展到所述引水渠(3)内并且设置有一下引水管进水阀(71),另一端伸展到所述排水渠(4)内并且设置有一下引水管出水阀(72),而下引水管(7)的中部途经所述箱涵(51)并且在对应于箱涵(51)内的部位设置有一下引水管控制阀(73),在下引水管(7)的长度方向以间隔状态设置有下引水管分支管(74),下引水管分支管(74)与下引水管(7)构成十字形关系。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于所述的污水为城市生活污水或低浓度的工业污水,所述的低浓度的工业污水为COD<350mg/L、NH3-N<30mg/L、SS<200mg/L、TN<35mg/L和/或TP<5mg/L的污水。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于所述的垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)由钢筋混凝土构成,该垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的长度、宽度和高度三者之 间的比例为1∶0.5∶0.1。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于所述的第二湿地单元(22)的结构是与第一湿地单元(21)的结构相同的,而第一湿地单元(21)包括排水层(211)、下层(212)、下过渡层(213)、中间过渡层(214)、上过渡层(215)和上层(216),排水层(211)位于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的底部,下层(212)位于排水层(211)的上部,下过渡层(213)位于下层(212)的上部,中间过渡层(214)位于下过渡层(213)的上部,上过渡层(215)位于中间过渡层(214)的上部,上层(216)位于上过渡层(215)的上部,所述的上引水管(6)连同所述的上引水管分支管(64)敷设于上过渡层(215)与中间过渡层(214)之间,所述的下引水管(7)连同所述下引水管分支管(74)敷设于排水层(211)内。
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于所述排水层(211)、下层(212)、下过渡层(213)、中间过渡层(214)、上过渡层(215)和上层(216)的厚度之和小于所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的高度。
  6. 根据权利要求4或5所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于所述的排水层(211)由铺设在所述垂直流人工湿地床床体(1)的底部的并且直径为20-30㎜的砾石构成;所述的下层(212)由铺设在排水层(211)上部的并且直径为15-20㎜的砾石构成;所述的下过渡层(213)由铺设在下层(212)上部的并且为12-15㎜的砾石构成;所述的中间过渡层(214)由铺设在下过渡层(213)上部的并且直径为8-12㎜的沸石构成;所述的上过渡层(215)由铺设在中间过渡层(214)上部的并且直径为5-8㎜的砾石构成;所述的上层(216)由铺设在上过渡层(215)上部的并且直径为3-5㎜的砾石构成。
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于在所述的上层(216)上种植有挺水植物,该挺水植物为芦苇或菖蒲。
  8. 根据权利要求1或4所述的人工湿地污水处理装置,其特征在于在所述的上引水管分支管(64)的长度方向以间隔状态开设有上引水管分支管出水孔(641),该上引水管分支管出水孔(641)的孔口朝向下;在所述的引引水管分支管(74)的长度方向以间隔状态开设有下引水管分支管出水孔(741),该下引水管分支管出水孔(641)的孔口朝向下。
  9. 一种如权利要求1所述的人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法,其特征在于包括以下步骤:
    A)正冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠(3)的状态下,开启上 引水管进水阀(61)、上引水管出水阀(62)和下引水管控制阀(73),同时关闭上引水管控制阀(63)、下引水管进水阀(71)和下引水管出水阀(72),引水渠(3)内的污水经上引水管进水阀(61)进入位于第一湿地单元(21)区域内的上引水管(6),并且由上引水管分支管(64)引出至第一湿地单元(21)的上部,进入第一湿地单元(21)上部的污水以自然垂直下引流状态到达第一湿地单元(21)的下部,再经下引水管控制阀(73)进入位于第二湿地单元(22)区域内的下引水管(7),由下引水管分支管(74)引至第二湿地单元(22)的下部,进入第二湿地单元(22)下部的并且经第一湿地单元(21)处理过的水以垂直上引流的状态到达第二湿地单元(22)的上部,经位于第二湿地单元(22)的区域内的上引水管分支管(64)进入上引水管(6),并且由上引水管出水阀(62)引入排水渠(4);
    B)反冲洗方式进水处理,在将有待于处理的污水引入引水渠(3)的状态下,开启上引水管控制阀(63)、下引水管进水阀(71)和下引水管出水阀(72),同时关闭上引水管进水阀(61)、上引水管出水阀(62)和下引水管控制阀(73),引水渠(3)内的污水经下引水管进水阀(71)进入位于第一湿地单元(21)区域内的下引水管(7),并且由下引水管分支管(74)引出至第一湿地单元(21)的下部,进入第一湿地单元(21)下部的污水以垂直上引流的状态到达第一湿地单元(21)的上部,再经上引水管控制阀(63)进入位于第二湿地单元(22)区域内的上引水管(6),由上引水管分支管(64)引至第二湿地单元(22)的上部,进入第二湿地单元(22)上部的并且经第一湿地单元(21)处理过的水以自然垂直下引流的状态到达第二湿地单元(22)的下部,再经位于第二湿地单元(22)区域内的下引水管分支管(74)进入进入下引水管(7),并且由下引水管出水阀(72)引入排水渠(4),其中:所述正冲洗方式进水处理是与所述反冲洗方式进水处理相交替进行的。
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的人工湿地污水处理装置处理污水的方法,其特征在于所述交替的交替时机是以污水引入所述引水渠(3)的单位时间内的流量与处理水引出所述排水渠(4)的单位时间内的流量确定的,或者通过设置在所述上引水管(6)上的压力流量表与设置在所述下引水管(7)上的压力流量表之间的压差值确定。
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