WO2015106691A1  Soc estimation method for power battery for hybrid electric vehicle  Google Patents
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 WO2015106691A1 WO2015106691A1 PCT/CN2015/070734 CN2015070734W WO2015106691A1 WO 2015106691 A1 WO2015106691 A1 WO 2015106691A1 CN 2015070734 W CN2015070734 W CN 2015070734W WO 2015106691 A1 WO2015106691 A1 WO 2015106691A1
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 H—ELECTRICITY
 H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
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 H01M10/00—Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
 H01M10/42—Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary halfcells
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 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
 B60L—PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES
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 B60L3/12—Recording operating variables ; Monitoring of operating variables

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
 B60L—PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES
 B60L58/00—Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
 B60L58/10—Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
 B60L58/12—Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
 B60L58/15—Preventing overcharging

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 G01R31/367—Software therefor, e.g. for battery testing using modelling or lookup tables

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 G01R31/36—Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
 G01R31/382—Arrangements for monitoring battery or accumulator variables, e.g. SoC
 G01R31/3828—Arrangements for monitoring battery or accumulator variables, e.g. SoC using current integration

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
 B60L—PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES
 B60L2240/00—Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
 B60L2240/40—Drive Train control parameters
 B60L2240/54—Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
 B60L2240/545—Temperature

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
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 B60L2240/00—Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
 B60L2240/40—Drive Train control parameters
 B60L2240/54—Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
 B60L2240/547—Voltage

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
 B60L—PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES
 B60L2240/00—Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
 B60L2240/40—Drive Train control parameters
 B60L2240/54—Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
 B60L2240/549—Current

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
 B60L—PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLYPROPELLED VEHICLES
 B60L2260/00—Operating Modes
 B60L2260/40—Control modes
 B60L2260/44—Control modes by parameter estimation

 H—ELECTRICITY
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 H01M—PROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
 H01M10/00—Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
 H01M10/42—Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary halfcells
 H01M10/425—Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
 H01M2010/4271—Battery management systems including electronic circuits, e.g. control of current or voltage to keep battery in healthy state, cell balancing

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H01—BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
 H01M—PROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
 H01M2220/00—Batteries for particular applications
 H01M2220/20—Batteries in motive systems, e.g. vehicle, ship, plane

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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 Y02T—CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
 Y02T10/00—Road transport of goods or passengers
 Y02T10/60—Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
 Y02T10/70—Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
Abstract
An SOC estimation method for a power battery for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method comprises: first, obtaining charging and discharging capability data of a battery under different temperatures, currents and SOC values through an experimental method, and fitting data through analysis to obtain charging and discharging capability coefficients of the battery; then, in the actual operating process of the battery, calculating Ah integrals through BMS sampled data, and at the same time, judging whether an SOC correction condition is satisfied, if so, conducting SOC correction to correct an SOC value obtained by the current Ah integral to an SOC value calculated via the correction condition according to the step length; otherwise, not conducting SOC correction. The method reduces the accumulated errors of Ah integrals so that a more accurate SOC value can be obtained while avoiding frequent correction, and is suitable for all hybrid electric vehicle battery control systems.
Description
本发明涉及一种充电电池控制方法，尤其是涉及一种基于CCV修正的混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法。The invention relates to a charging battery control method, in particular to a CCV correction based power battery SOC estimating method for a hybrid vehicle.
在新能源汽车发展过程中，作为由传统燃油汽车向纯电动汽车的过渡产品，混合动力汽车的发展具有举足轻重的战略意义。动力电池作为混合动力汽车的关键储能元件，在使用过程中的表现具有高度非线性，使得SOC的准确估计更加困难。SOC(state of charge，荷电状态)作为电池特性最主要的参数，是动力电池管理系统研究的重点和难点。只有准确的估算电池的SOC，才能使得电池SOC始终维持在合理的目标范围内。避免了由于电池过充或过放对电池造成的损害，提高了电池的使用寿命，从而降低了混合动力汽车的运行成本。In the development of new energy vehicles, as a transition from traditional fuel vehicles to pure electric vehicles, the development of hybrid vehicles has a pivotal strategic significance. As a key energy storage component of hybrid vehicles, power batteries are highly nonlinear in their use, making accurate estimation of SOC more difficult. As the most important parameter of battery characteristics, SOC (state of charge) is the focus and difficulty of research on power battery management system. Only by accurately estimating the SOC of the battery can the battery SOC be maintained within a reasonable target range. The damage to the battery caused by overcharging or overdischarging of the battery is avoided, and the service life of the battery is improved, thereby reducing the running cost of the hybrid vehicle.
目前的SOC估算算法通常为Ah(安时，电流和时间的乘积)积分结合CCV(闭路电压)或OCV(开路电压)修正的方式，在充电电流很小并维持一定时间或者放电电流很小并维持一定时间后，通过计算或者查表得到当前状态下电池的理论SOC值，然后对比当前SOC值和理论SOC值，决定是否需要对电池SOC值进行修正。如果当前SOC值和理论SOC值的差值超出一定范围，则进行修正，将当前电池SOC值修正到理论电池SOC值，从而完成SOC的判断、修正过程。此方案存在如下问题：
The current SOC estimation algorithm is usually Ah (Ah, current and time product) integration combined with CCV (closed voltage) or OCV (open circuit voltage) correction, the charging current is small and maintained for a certain time or the discharge current is small and After maintaining a certain period of time, the theoretical SOC value of the battery in the current state is obtained by calculation or lookup table, and then the current SOC value and the theoretical SOC value are compared to determine whether the battery SOC value needs to be corrected. If the difference between the current SOC value and the theoretical SOC value exceeds a certain range, the correction is performed to correct the current battery SOC value to the theoretical battery SOC value, thereby completing the SOC determination and correction process. This solution has the following problems:
1、SOC修正会过于频繁，修正结果存在较大误差1. The SOC correction will be too frequent, and the correction result will have a large error.
在混合动力汽车运行过程中，包括纯电动、混合动力等多种运行工况，仅简单地以当前时间段统计的电流大小和持续时间作为SOC修正的条件，则在实际运行过程中会经常触发修正条件。电池的极化效应是影响SOC修正的难点。电池在瞬态变化的电流工况下运行时，由于在一定程度上受到电池极化效应的影响，并且极化效应的影响程度无法计算，从而成为SOC修正的难点。电池受到极化效应的影响后，电池的电压特性会发生变化，电压值会比正常值偏高或者偏低。此时，如果修正条件满足，很容易导致SOC进行修正。由于电压的偏高或者偏低会造成SOC修正偏离实际SOC值，造成误修正。In the operation process of a hybrid vehicle, including various electric operating conditions such as pure electric power and hybrid power, the current magnitude and duration calculated by the current time period are simply used as the conditions for SOC correction, and are often triggered during actual operation. Correct the condition. The polarization effect of the battery is a difficult point affecting the SOC correction. When the battery is operated under transient current conditions, it is affected by the polarization effect of the battery to a certain extent, and the degree of influence of the polarization effect cannot be calculated, which becomes a difficult point of SOC correction. After the battery is affected by the polarization effect, the voltage characteristics of the battery will change, and the voltage value will be higher or lower than the normal value. At this time, if the correction condition is satisfied, it is easy to cause the SOC to be corrected. The SOC correction deviates from the actual SOC value due to the high or low voltage, causing erroneous correction.
2、Ah积分的累积误差大2. The cumulative error of Ah integral is large
电池在不同电流、温度、SOC下的充放电效率不同。尤其表现在电池过充阶段，大量的能量转化为电池的热量。如果不考虑充放电效率，则Ah积分过程中会存在较大的误差，并且随着时间的进行，累积误差会越来越大。The battery has different charge and discharge efficiencies at different currents, temperatures, and SOCs. Especially in the battery overcharge phase, a large amount of energy is converted into heat of the battery. If the charging and discharging efficiency is not considered, there will be a large error in the Ah integration process, and as time goes on, the cumulative error will become larger and larger.
3、容量衰减造成SOC计算误差大3, capacity attenuation causes large SOC calculation error
随着电池的持续使用，电池的容量会发生衰减。容量的衰减会给SOC带来较大的计算误差。As the battery continues to be used, the capacity of the battery will decrease. The attenuation of the capacity will bring a large calculation error to the SOC.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明主要是解决现有技术所存在的修正过于频繁以及充放电效率、容量衰减带来较大误差等的技术问题，提供一种只在必要时进行修正、考虑充放电效率和容量衰减带来的误差、精度高的混合动力
车用动力电池SOC估算方法。The invention mainly solves the technical problems that the correction of the prior art is too frequent, the charging and discharging efficiency, the capacity attenuation brings a large error, and the like, and provides a correction only when necessary, considering charging and discharging efficiency and capacity attenuation. Error, high precision hybrid
Vehicle SOC estimation method for power battery.
本发明针对上述技术问题主要是通过下述技术方案得以解决的：1.一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，包括以下步骤：The technical problem of the present invention is mainly solved by the following technical solutions: 1. A method for estimating a SOC of a power battery for a hybrid vehicle, comprising the following steps:
步骤一、电池管理系统运行中，通过安时积分法计算当前的SOC值，记为SOC_{now}；通过电流传感器采集电池当前电流、通过电压传感器采集电池当前电压、通过温度传感器采集电池温度，然后查表获得当前的电流、电压和温度所对应的放电效率η；通过查表获得当前累计使用Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ；Step 1. During the operation of the battery management system, calculate the current SOC value by the amperetime integration method, and record it as SOC _{now} ; collect the current current of the battery through the current sensor, collect the current voltage of the battery through the voltage sensor, collect the battery temperature through the temperature sensor, and then check The table obtains the discharge efficiency η corresponding to the current current, voltage and temperature; obtains the attenuation factor λ of the current accumulated battery capacity under Ah by looking up the table;
步骤二、计算电池当前时刻的修正后SOC值，计算公式如下：Step 2: Calculate the corrected SOC value of the current time of the battery, and calculate the formula as follows:
SOC_{i}＝SOC_{i1}△SOC (1)SOC _{i} = SOC _{i1} △SOC (1)
式中，SOC_{i}为当前时刻电池的修正后SOC值；SOC_{i1}为上一个时刻电池的修正后SOC值；ΔSOC为单位时间内电池的SOC修正值变化量，Δt为单位采样时间间隔；I为当前电流，定义电流正方向为放电方向，负方向为充电方向，即I为正表示电池放电，I为负表示电池充电；SOC_{std}表示电池的额定容量；SOC_{std}的单位是安时；Where SOC _{i} is the corrected SOC value of the battery at the current time; SOC _{i1} is the corrected SOC value of the battery at the previous time; ΔSOC is the amount of change in the SOC correction value of the battery per unit time, and Δt is the unit sampling time interval; I is the current current, defining the positive direction of the current as the discharge direction, and the negative direction as the charging direction, that is, I is positive for battery discharge, I is negative for battery charging; SOC _{std} is for battery rated capacity; SOC _{std} is for amperage;
步骤三、更新电流的最大值或最小值：如果电池为放电状态，则更新电流的最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，则更新电流的最小值I_{min}；Step 3: update the maximum or minimum value of the current: if the battery is in a discharged state, update the maximum value of current I _{max} ; if the battery is in a charged state, update the minimum value of current I _{min} ;
步骤四、如果本次采样电流和上次采样电流方向相反，则令n＝1，即重新计数，并且将新的采样电流值赋给平均电流值，同时将flag置1；如果本次采样电流值和上次采样电流值为相同方向，则更新平
均电流，更新平均电流具体操作为：I_{avg}＝(I_{avg}’×n+I)/(n+1),然后n的值增加1，I_{avg}为更新后的平均电流，I_{avg}’为原平均电流，n为影响平均电流的采样次数，flag为标记位；Step 4: If the current of the sampling current and the direction of the previous sampling current are opposite, let n=1, that is, recount, and assign the new sampling current value to the average current value, and set flag to 1; if the current is sampled When the value and the last sampled current value are in the same direction, the average current is updated, and the average current is updated as follows: I _{avg} = (I _{avg} '×n+I)/(n+1), and then the value of n is increased by 1, I _{avg} is updated average current, I _{avg} 'original average current, n is the sample number average current affected, flag is a flag;
步骤五、如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值小于ΔI，则将flag置0；如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值大于或等于ΔI，则将flag置1；Step 5: If the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is less than ΔI, set flag to 0; if the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is greater than or equal to ΔI, set flag to 1;
步骤六、如果flag＝1，且电池处于放电情况下，且放电电流的最大值I_{max}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}大于I_{chg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如果flag＝1，且电池处于充电情况下，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且放电电流最大I_{max}小于I_{dchg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如不满足上述两个条件中的任意一项，则跳转至步骤一；ΔI_{1}、I_{chg}、C_{nst}、SOC_{d}和I_{dchg}全部为预设值。Step 6. If flag=1, and the battery is in a discharge condition, and the difference between the maximum value I _{max of the} discharge current and the average current I _{avg} is less than ΔI _{1} , and the minimum value I _{min of the} charging current is greater than I _{chg} , and n is greater than C _{Nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; if flag=1, and the battery is in charge, and the minimum value of charging current I _{min} and average current I _{avg} difference is less than ΔI _{1} , and the discharge current maximum I _{max is} less than I _{dchg} , and n is greater than C _{nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; If any of the above two conditions is not satisfied, then jump to step one; ΔI _{1} , I _{chg} , C _{nst} , SOC _{d ,} and I _{dchg are} all preset values.
作为优选，步骤三中，更新电流的最大值或最小值的具体操作是：如果电池为放电状态，将当前电流和存储的电流最大值作比较，选择较大值作为新的电流最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，将当前电流和存储的电流最小值作比较，选择较小值作为新的电流最小值I_{min}；系统初始化时，电流最大值和电流最小值都为0。Preferably, in step 3, the specific operation of updating the maximum value or the minimum value of the current is: if the battery is in a discharging state, comparing the current current with the stored current maximum value, and selecting a larger value as the new current maximum value I _{max} If the battery is in the charging state, compare the current current with the stored current minimum value, and select the smaller value as the new current minimum value I _{min} ; when the system is initialized, the current maximum value and the current minimum value are both 0.
作为优选，步骤五中，如果是系统运行初始化后进行的第一次采样，则平均电流等于第一次采样电流值，flag为0。Preferably, in step 5, if the first sampling is performed after the system is initialized, the average current is equal to the first sampling current value, and flag is 0.
作为优选，ΔI取值为2A～3A；ΔI_{1}取值为0A～3A；I_{chg}取值为
12A～6A；I_{dchg}取值为为6A～12A；C_{nst}的取值在1min～5min之间；SOC_{d}的取值为5％～10％。Preferably, ΔI is 2A to 3A; ΔI _{1} is 0A to 3A; I _{chg} is _{12A} to 6A; I _{dchg} is 6A to 12A; and C _{nst} is 1min to 5min. Between SOC _{d} is 5% to 10%.
作为优选，所述将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}具体为，每秒修正SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值的5％～10％。Advantageously, the step size will be corrected by the SOC _{now} to SOC _{i} specifically, 5% to 10% of the difference correction and second SOC _{now} the SOC _{i.}
本方案中，不同电池温度、电流、电压下对应的SOC值、不同累计Ah下电池容量的衰减因子以及不同电池温度、SOC下电池的充放电效率都是通过大量的实验得到的。In this scheme, the corresponding SOC value under different battery temperature, current and voltage, the attenuation factor of battery capacity under different accumulated Ah, and the charging and discharging efficiency of the battery under different battery temperatures and SOC are all obtained through a large number of experiments.
建立数据库的过程为，在动力电池测试台架上，通过双通道电池充放电设备对两套规格及参数相同的新电池同步进行充放电实验。记录电池SOC值、电流、温度及累计Ah数据。通过对实验数据的整理和分析，得到不同电池温度、电流、电压下对应的SOC值、不同电池温度、SOC下电池的充放电效率η和不同累计Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ,λ＝(SOC_{red}·Ah_{use}/Ah_{pre})/SOC_{std}，SOC_{red}为电池累计Ah数达到预期使用寿命时电池容量的衰减量；Ah_{use}为当前累计使用Ah数；Ah_{pre}为电池预期使用寿命；SOC_{std}为电池额定容量。然后将不同电池温度、电流、电压下对应的SOC值和不同电池温度、SOC下电池的充放电效率η、不同累计Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ数据存储在电池管理系统BMS中。The process of establishing the database is to perform charging and discharging experiments on two sets of new batteries with the same specifications and parameters through the dualchannel battery charging and discharging equipment on the power battery test bench. Record battery SOC value, current, temperature and accumulated Ah data. Through the collation and analysis of experimental data, the corresponding SOC value under different battery temperature, current and voltage, different battery temperature, charge and discharge efficiency η of battery under SOC and attenuation factor λ of battery capacity under different accumulated Ah, λ=( SOC _{red} ·Ah _{use} /Ah _{pre} )/SOC _{std} , SOC _{red} is the attenuation of battery capacity when the accumulated Ah number of the battery reaches the expected service life; Ah _{use} is the current cumulative use of Ah number; Ah _{pre} is the expected service life of the battery; SOC _{std} For battery rated capacity. Then, the SOC value corresponding to different battery temperatures, currents, and voltages, and the different battery temperatures, the charge and discharge efficiency η of the battery under SOC, and the attenuation factor λ data of the battery capacity under different accumulated Ah are stored in the battery management system BMS.
在电池进行大电流充放电时，电池的电压会偏高或者偏低，并且这种影响会持续一段时间。由于极化效应的影响程度无法计算。因此在修正时，不仅考虑到电流的波动范围要小，而且还要避免在前一个充放电周期内大电流的出现，否则不进行修正。这一判断条件，尽可
能避免了误修正的情况和频繁修正的情况。When the battery is charged and discharged at a high current, the voltage of the battery will be high or low, and this effect will continue for a while. The degree of influence due to the polarization effect cannot be calculated. Therefore, in the correction, not only the fluctuation range of the current is considered to be small, but also the occurrence of a large current in the previous charge and discharge cycle is avoided, otherwise the correction is not performed. This judgment condition can be
It can avoid miscorrected situations and frequent corrections.
Ah积分过程中考虑了充放电效率，从而在一定程度上降低了Ah积分的累积误差。SOC计算过程中考虑了电池的老化问题，通过衰减因子进行修正补偿，从而在电池老化过程中依然可以保证SOC修正具有较高的精确性。The charging and discharging efficiency is considered in the Ah integral process, which reduces the cumulative error of the Ah integral to some extent. In the SOC calculation process, the aging problem of the battery is considered, and the compensation factor is corrected by the attenuation factor, so that the SOC correction can still ensure high accuracy in the battery aging process.
在判断修正条件时，要保证电流的波动始终维持在平均电流附近，并维持一定时间。这样可以尽量降低同方向电流波动造成的电压值波动问题，尽可能保证电池CCV值和温度、电流、SOC值之间的特性关系。When judging the correction condition, it is necessary to ensure that the current fluctuation is always maintained near the average current and maintained for a certain period of time. In this way, the voltage value fluctuation caused by the current fluctuation in the same direction can be minimized, and the characteristic relationship between the CCV value of the battery and the temperature, current, and SOC value can be ensured as much as possible.
在判断修正条件时，考虑了大的充放电电流带来的极化效应对电池电压的影响及其造成的误修正问题。如果平均电流为充电电流，则充电电流和I_{min}的差值要在一定范围内，同时考虑到大电流放电带来的极化效应的影响，会造成电压偏低，所以I_{max}不能过大；反之，如果平均电流为放电电流，则放电电流和I_{max}的差值要在一定范围内，同时考虑到大电流充电带来的极化效应的影响，会造成电压偏高，所以I_{min}不能过小。When judging the correction conditions, the influence of the polarization effect caused by the large charge and discharge current on the battery voltage and the erroneous correction caused by it are considered. If the average current is the charging current, the difference between the charging current and I _{min} should be within a certain range, and considering the influence of the polarization effect caused by the large current discharge, the voltage will be low, so I _{max} cannot be too large; On the other hand, if the average current is the discharge current, the difference between the discharge current and I _{max} should be within a certain range. Considering the influence of the polarization effect caused by the large current charge, the voltage will be high, so I _{min} cannot pass. small.
本发明带来的实质性效果是，本方法以Ah积分为主，并结合动态CCV进行修正，在Ah积分过程中考虑了不同温度、SOC下的充放电效率问题，降低了Ah积分的累积误差；根据电池累计Ah下电池的老化程度，利用了衰减因子对SOC进行修正补偿；在电池运行过程中，使用了动态CCV修正，修正时考虑了极化效应对电池CCV的影响，避免了SOC频繁修正的同时，提高了修正的准确性；本方法提高了SOC
估算的准确性，避免了电池在使用过程中出现的过充或者过放的问题，提高了系统运行的可靠性和安全性。The substantial effect brought by the invention is that the method is based on the Ah integral and combined with the dynamic CCV for correction, and the charge and discharge efficiency problems under different temperatures and SOCs are considered in the Ah integral process, and the cumulative error of the Ah integral is reduced. According to the aging degree of the battery under the accumulated Ah, the attenuation factor is used to correct the SOC. During the operation of the battery, the dynamic CCV correction is used. The correction affects the influence of the polarization effect on the battery CCV, and avoids frequent SOC. At the same time of correction, the accuracy of the correction is improved; this method improves the SOC
The accuracy of the estimation avoids the problem of overcharging or overdischarging of the battery during use, which improves the reliability and safety of the system operation.
图1是本发明的一种流程图。Figure 1 is a flow chart of the present invention.
下面通过实施例，并结合附图，对本发明的技术方案作进一步具体的说明。The technical solutions of the present invention will be further specifically described below by way of embodiments and with reference to the accompanying drawings.
实施例：本实施例的一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，如图1所示，包括以下步骤：步骤一、电池管理系统运行中，通过安时积分法计算当前的SOC值，记为SOC_{now}；通过电流传感器采集电池当前电流、通过电压传感器采集电池当前电压、通过温度传感器采集电池温度，然后查表获得当前的电流、电压和温度所对应的放电效率η；通过查表获得当前累计使用Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ；Embodiment: A SOC estimation method for a hybrid vehicle power battery according to the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 1 , includes the following steps: Step 1: During the operation of the battery management system, the current SOC value is calculated by the amperetime integration method. For the SOC _{now} ; collect the current current of the battery through the current sensor, collect the current voltage of the battery through the voltage sensor, collect the battery temperature through the temperature sensor, and then check the table to obtain the current discharge voltage η corresponding to the current, voltage and temperature; obtain the current by looking up the table Cumulative use of the attenuation factor λ of the battery capacity under Ah;
步骤二、计算电池当前时刻的修正后SOC值，计算公式如下：Step 2: Calculate the corrected SOC value of the current time of the battery, and calculate the formula as follows:
SOC_{i}＝SOC_{i1}△SOC (1)SOC _{i} = SOC _{i1} △SOC (1)
式中，SOC_{i}为当前时刻电池的修正后SOC值；SOC_{i1}为上一个时刻电池的修正后SOC值；ΔSOC为单位时间内电池的SOC修正值变化量，Δt为单位采样时间间隔；I为当前电流，定义电流正方向为放电方向，负方向为充电方向，即I为正表示电池放电，I为负表示电池充电；SOC_{std}表示电池的额定容量；SOC_{std}的单位是安时；Where SOC _{i} is the corrected SOC value of the battery at the current time; SOC _{i1} is the corrected SOC value of the battery at the previous time; ΔSOC is the amount of change in the SOC correction value of the battery per unit time, and Δt is the unit sampling time interval; I is the current current, defining the positive direction of the current as the discharge direction, and the negative direction as the charging direction, that is, I is positive for battery discharge, I is negative for battery charging; SOC _{std} is for battery rated capacity; SOC _{std} is for amperage;
步骤三、更新电流的最大值或最小值：如果电池为放电状态，则
更新电流的最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，则更新电流的最小值I_{min}；Step 3: Updating the maximum value or the minimum value of the current: if the battery is in a discharging state, updating the maximum value of current I _{max} ; if the battery is in a charging state, updating the minimum value of current I _{min} ;
步骤四、如果本次采样电流和上次采样电流方向相反，则令n＝1，即重新计数，并且将新的采样电流值赋给平均电流值，同时将flag置1；如果本次采样电流值和上次采样电流值为相同方向，则更新平均电流，更新平均电流具体操作为：I_{avg}＝(I_{avg}’×n+I)/(n+1),然后n的值增加1，I_{avg}为更新后的平均电流，I_{avg}’为原平均电流，n为影响平均电流的采样次数，flag为标记位；Step 4: If the current of the sampling current and the direction of the previous sampling current are opposite, let n=1, that is, recount, and assign the new sampling current value to the average current value, and set flag to 1; if the current is sampled When the value and the last sampled current value are in the same direction, the average current is updated, and the average current is updated as follows: I _{avg} = (I _{avg} '×n+I)/(n+1), and then the value of n is increased by 1, I _{avg} is updated average current, I _{avg} 'original average current, n is the sample number average current affected, flag is a flag;
步骤五、如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值小于ΔI，则将flag置0；如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值大于或等于ΔI，则将flag置1；Step 5: If the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is less than ΔI, set flag to 0; if the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is greater than or equal to ΔI, set flag to 1;
步骤六、如果flag＝1，且电池处于放电情况下，且放电电流的最大值I_{max}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}大于I_{chg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如果flag＝1，且电池处于充电情况下，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且放电电流最大I_{max}小于I_{dchg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如不满足上述两个条件中的任意一项，则跳转至步骤一；ΔI_{1}、I_{chg}、C_{nst}、SOC_{d}和I_{dchg}全部为预设值。Step 6. If flag=1, and the battery is in a discharge condition, and the difference between the maximum value I _{max of the} discharge current and the average current I _{avg} is less than ΔI _{1} , and the minimum value I _{min of the} charging current is greater than I _{chg} , and n is greater than C _{Nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; if flag=1, and the battery is in charge, and the minimum value of charging current I _{min} and average current I _{avg} difference is less than ΔI _{1} , and the discharge current maximum I _{max is} less than I _{dchg} , and n is greater than C _{nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; If any of the above two conditions is not satisfied, then jump to step one; ΔI _{1} , I _{chg} , C _{nst} , SOC _{d ,} and I _{dchg are} all preset values.
步骤三中，更新电流的最大值或最小值的具体操作是：如果电池为放电状态，将当前电流和存储的电流最大值作比较，选择较大值作为新的电流最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，将当前电流和存储的
电流最小值作比较，选择较小值作为新的电流最小值I_{min}；系统初始化时，电流最大值和电流最小值都为0。In step 3, the specific operation of updating the maximum or minimum value of the current is: if the battery is in a discharged state, compare the current current with the stored current maximum value, and select a larger value as the new current maximum value I _{max} ; For the state of charge, the current current is compared with the stored current minimum, and the smaller value is selected as the new current minimum value I _{min} ; when the system is initialized, both the current maximum value and the current minimum value are zero.
步骤五中，如果是系统运行初始化后进行的第一次采样，则平均电流等于第一次采样电流值，flag为0。In step 5, if the first sampling is performed after the system is initialized, the average current is equal to the first sampling current value, and flag is 0.
ΔI取值为2A～3A；ΔI_{1}取值为0A～3A；I_{chg}取值为12A～6A；I_{dchg}取值为为6A～12A；C_{nst}的取值在1min～5min之间；SOC_{d}的取值为5％～10％。ΔI is 2A to 3A; ΔI _{1} is 0A to 3A; I _{chg} is _{12A} to 6A; I _{dchg} is 6A to 12A; C _{nst} is between 1min and 5min; The value of SOC _{d} is 5% to 10%.
将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}具体为，每秒修正SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值的5％～10％。The SOC _{now} corrected in steps to SOC _{i} Specifically, the correction per 5% to 10% of the difference in SOC _{now} and SOC _{i.}
系统运行前，需要先建立数据库，具体过程为：在动力电池测试台架上，通过双通道电池充放电设备对两套规格及参数相同的新电池同步进行充放电实验。记录电池SOC值、电流、温度及累计Ah数据。通过对实验数据的整理和分析，得到不同电池温度、电流、电压下对应的SOC值、不同电池温度、SOC下电池的充放电效率η和不同累计Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ,λ＝(SOC_{red}·Ah_{use}/Ah_{pre})/SOC_{std}，SOC_{red}为电池累计Ah数达到预期使用寿命时电池容量的衰减量；Ah_{use}为当前累计使用Ah数；Ah_{pre}为电池预期使用寿命；SOC_{std}为电池额定容量。然后将不同电池温度、电流、电压下对应的SOC值和不同电池温度、SOC下电池的充放电效率η、不同累计Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ数据存储在电池管理系统BMS中。Before the system is running, it is necessary to establish a database first. The specific process is: on the power battery test bench, the two sets of new batteries with the same specifications and parameters are simultaneously charged and discharged through the dualchannel battery charge and discharge equipment. Record battery SOC value, current, temperature and accumulated Ah data. Through the collation and analysis of experimental data, the corresponding SOC value under different battery temperature, current and voltage, different battery temperature, charge and discharge efficiency η of battery under SOC and attenuation factor λ of battery capacity under different accumulated Ah, λ=( SOC _{red} ·Ah _{use} /Ah _{pre} )/SOC _{std} , SOC _{red} is the attenuation of battery capacity when the accumulated Ah number of the battery reaches the expected service life; Ah _{use} is the current cumulative use of Ah number; Ah _{pre} is the expected service life of the battery; SOC _{std} For battery rated capacity. Then, the SOC value corresponding to different battery temperatures, currents, and voltages, and the different battery temperatures, the charge and discharge efficiency η of the battery under SOC, and the attenuation factor λ data of the battery capacity under different accumulated Ah are stored in the battery management system BMS.
本方案的优点如下：The advantages of this program are as follows:
1、结合Ah积分算法和电池CCV修正，对动力电池SOC进行
估算。保证计算的SOC能精确地反映动力电池的荷电状态，避免了在混合动力模式工况下动力电池的过充和过放行为。1. Combine the Ah integral algorithm and the battery CCV correction to perform the power battery SOC
Estimate. The calculated SOC can accurately reflect the state of charge of the power battery, and avoid the overcharge and over discharge behavior of the power battery under the hybrid mode.
2、Ah积分算法中，考虑到了不同SOC、温度和电流下的充放电能力，从而提高了Ah积分的计算精度，降低了Ah积分的累积误差2. In the Ah integral algorithm, the charge and discharge capacities under different SOC, temperature and current are considered, which improves the calculation accuracy of Ah integral and reduces the cumulative error of Ah integral.
3、根据电池的老化带来的电池电压平台升高、电池容量发生衰减的问题，提出了衰减因子并利用其对SOC进行修正补偿，从而避免了电池使用后期SOC修正受电池老化影响的问题。3. According to the problem that the battery voltage platform rises and the battery capacity is attenuated due to the aging of the battery, the attenuation factor is proposed and used to correct and compensate the SOC, thereby avoiding the problem that the SOC correction is affected by the battery aging after the battery is used.
4、依据大量的实验数据，制定4维表格。表格考虑了电池温度、电流、电压、SOC之间的关系。通过查表，插值的方式对动力电池进行动态CCV修正，进一步提高了SOC修正的精确性。4. Develop a 4dimensional form based on a large amount of experimental data. The table considers the relationship between battery temperature, current, voltage, and SOC. The dynamic CCV correction of the power battery is carried out by looking up the table and interpolating, which further improves the accuracy of the SOC correction.
本文中所描述的具体实施例仅仅是对本发明精神作举例说明。本发明所属技术领域的技术人员可以对所描述的具体实施例做各种各样的修改或补充或采用类似的方式替代，但并不会偏离本发明的精神或者超越所附权利要求书所定义的范围。The specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the spirit of the invention. A person skilled in the art can make various modifications or additions to the specific embodiments described or in a similar manner, without departing from the spirit of the invention or as defined by the appended claims. The scope.
尽管本文较多地使用了Ah、放电效率、衰减因子等术语，但并不排除使用其它术语的可能性。使用这些术语仅仅是为了更方便地描述和解释本发明的本质；把它们解释成任何一种附加的限制都是与本发明精神相违背的。
Although terms such as Ah, discharge efficiency, attenuation factor, etc. are used more frequently in this paper, the possibility of using other terms is not excluded. These terms are only used to describe and explain the nature of the invention more conveniently; it is to be construed that any additional limitation is inconsistent with the spirit of the invention.
Claims (5)
 一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，其特征在于，包括以下步骤：A method for estimating a SOC of a power battery for a hybrid vehicle, comprising the steps of:步骤一、电池管理系统运行中，通过安时积分法计算当前的SOC值，记为SOC_{now}；通过电流传感器采集电池当前电流、通过电压传感器采集电池当前电压、通过温度传感器采集电池温度，然后查表获得当前的电流、电压和温度所对应的放电效率η；通过查表获得当前累计使用Ah下电池容量的衰减因子λ；Step 1. During the operation of the battery management system, calculate the current SOC value by the amperetime integration method, and record it as SOC _{now} ; collect the current current of the battery through the current sensor, collect the current voltage of the battery through the voltage sensor, collect the battery temperature through the temperature sensor, and then check The table obtains the discharge efficiency η corresponding to the current current, voltage and temperature; obtains the attenuation factor λ of the current accumulated battery capacity under Ah by looking up the table;步骤二、计算电池当前时刻的修正后SOC值，计算公式如下：Step 2: Calculate the corrected SOC value of the current time of the battery, and calculate the formula as follows:SOC_{i}＝SOC_{i1}△SOC (1)SOC _{i} = SOC _{i1} △SOC (1)式中，SOC_{i}为当前时刻电池的修正后SOC值；SOC_{i1}为上一个时刻电池的修正后SOC值；ΔSOC为单位时间内电池的SOC修正值变化量，Δt为单位采样时间间隔，η为充放电效率；I为当前电流，定义电流正方向为放电方向，负方向为充电方向，即I为正表示电池放电，I为负表示电池充电；SOC_{std}表示电池的额定容量；Where SOC _{i} is the corrected SOC value of the current time battery; SOC _{i1} is the corrected SOC value of the battery at the previous time; ΔSOC is the amount of change in the SOC correction value of the battery per unit time, and Δt is the unit sampling time interval. η is the charging and discharging efficiency; I is the current current, defining the positive direction of the current as the discharging direction, and the negative direction is the charging direction, that is, I is positive for battery discharge, I is negative for battery charging; SOC _{std} is for battery rated capacity;步骤三、更新电流的最大值或最小值：如果电池为放电状态，则更新电流的最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，则更新电流的最小值I_{min}；Step 3: update the maximum or minimum value of the current: if the battery is in a discharged state, update the maximum value of current I _{max} ; if the battery is in a charged state, update the minimum value of current I _{min} ;步骤四、如果本次采样电流和上次采样电流方向相反，则令n＝1，即重新计数，并且将新的采样电流值赋给平均电流值，同时将flag 置1；如果本次采样电流值和上次采样电流值为相同方向，则更新平均电流，更新平均电流具体操作为：I_{avg}＝(I_{avg}’×n+I)/(n+1),然后n的值增加1，I_{avg}为更新后的平均电流，I_{avg}’为原平均电流，n为影响平均电流的采样次数，flag为标记位；Step 4: If the current of the sampling current and the direction of the previous sampling current are opposite, let n=1, that is, recount, and assign the new sampling current value to the average current value, and set flag to 1; if the current is sampled When the value and the last sampled current value are in the same direction, the average current is updated, and the average current is updated as follows: I _{avg} = (I _{avg} '×n+I)/(n+1), and then the value of n is increased by 1, I _{avg} is updated average current, I _{avg} 'original average current, n is the sample number average current affected, flag is a flag;步骤五、如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值小于ΔI，则将flag置0；如果本次采样电流值和平均电流的差值大于或等于ΔI，则将flag置1；Step 5: If the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is less than ΔI, set flag to 0; if the difference between the current sampling current value and the average current is greater than or equal to ΔI, set flag to 1;步骤六、如果flag＝1，且电池处于放电情况下，且放电电流的最大值I_{max}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}大于I_{chg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如果flag＝1，且电池处于充电情况下，且充电电流的最小值I_{min}和平均电流I_{avg}差值小于ΔI_{1}，且放电电流最大I_{max}小于I_{dchg}，且n大于C_{nst}，且SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值大于SOC_{d}，则将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}；如不满足上述两个条件中的任意一项，则跳转至步骤一；ΔI_{1}、I_{chg}、C_{nst}、SOC_{d}和I_{dchg}全部为预设值。Step 6. If flag=1, and the battery is in a discharge condition, and the difference between the maximum value I _{max of the} discharge current and the average current I _{avg} is less than ΔI _{1} , and the minimum value I _{min of the} charging current is greater than I _{chg} , and n is greater than C _{Nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; if flag=1, and the battery is in charge, and the minimum value of charging current I _{min} and average current I _{avg} difference is less than ΔI _{1} , and the discharge current maximum I _{max is} less than I _{dchg} , and n is greater than C _{nst} , and the difference between SOC _{now} and SOC _{i} is greater than SOC _{d} , then SOC _{now} is corrected to SOC _{i} in steps; If any of the above two conditions is not satisfied, then jump to step one; ΔI _{1} , I _{chg} , C _{nst} , SOC _{d ,} and I _{dchg are} all preset values.
 根据权利要求1所述的一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，其特征在于，步骤三中，更新电流的最大值或最小值的具体操作是：如果电池为放电状态，将当前电流和存储的电流最大值作比较，选择较大值作为新的电流最大值I_{max}；如果电池为充电状态，将当前电流和存储的电流最小值作比较，选择较小值作为新的电流最小值I_{min}；系统初始化时，电流最大值和电流最小值都为0。The SOC estimation method for a hybrid vehicle power battery according to claim 1, wherein in step three, the specific operation of updating the maximum value or the minimum value of the current is: if the battery is in a discharged state, the current current is The stored current maximum value is compared, and the larger value is selected as the new current maximum value I _{max} ; if the battery is in the charging state, the current current is compared with the stored current minimum value, and the smaller value is selected as the new current minimum value I _{Min} ; The maximum current and current minimum are 0 when the system is initialized.
 根据权利要求1或2所述的一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估 算方法，其特征在于，步骤五中，如果是系统运行初始化后进行的第一次采样，则平均电流等于第一次采样电流值，flag为0。The SOC estimation of a hybrid vehicle power battery according to claim 1 or 2 The calculation method is characterized in that, in the fifth step, if the first sampling is performed after the system is initialized, the average current is equal to the first sampling current value, and the flag is 0.
 根据权利要求3所述的一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，其特征在于，ΔI取值为2A～3A；ΔI_{1}取值为0A～3A；I_{chg}取值为12A～6A；I_{dchg}取值为为6A～12A；C_{nst}的取值在1min～5min之间；SOC_{d}的取值为5％～10％。The SOC estimation method for a hybrid vehicle power battery according to claim 3, wherein ΔI takes a value of 2A to 3A; ΔI _{1} takes a value of 0A to 3A; and I _{chg} takes a value of 12A to 6A. The value of I _{dchg} is 6A~12A; the value of C _{nst} is between 1min and 5min; the value of SOC _{d} is 5%~10%.
 根据权利要求1所述的一种混合动力车用动力电池SOC估算方法，其特征在于，所述将SOC_{now}按步长修正到SOC_{i}具体为每秒修正SOC_{now}和SOC_{i}的差值的5％～10％。 According to a hybrid vehicle battery SOC estimation method according to claim 1, characterized in that, the SOC will _{now} be corrected to the SOC in steps as the difference _{I} specifically _{now} corrected SOC per SOC _{I} and 5 %~10%.
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