CN107991623B - Battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree - Google Patents

Battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree Download PDF

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CN107991623B
CN107991623B CN201711208271.6A CN201711208271A CN107991623B CN 107991623 B CN107991623 B CN 107991623B CN 201711208271 A CN201711208271 A CN 201711208271A CN 107991623 B CN107991623 B CN 107991623B
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battery
soc
temperature
aging degree
aging
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CN107991623A (en
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张承慧
张奇
商云龙
段彬
崔纳新
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Shandong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/36Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
    • G01R31/392Determining battery ageing or deterioration, e.g. state of health
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/36Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
    • G01R31/385Arrangements for measuring battery or accumulator variables
    • G01R31/387Determining ampere-hour charge capacity or SoC
    • G01R31/388Determining ampere-hour charge capacity or SoC involving voltage measurements

Abstract

The invention discloses a battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree, which comprises the following steps: correcting the initial value of the battery in consideration of the temperature and the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the initial value of the SOC of the battery, which is influenced by the temperature and the aging degree; correcting the maximum available capacity of the battery in consideration of the influence of the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degree; according to the obtained correction coefficient, the measured battery charging and discharging current i is detected and stored in real time through a current sensorbatAnd obtaining the change condition of the battery SOC under different temperatures and aging degrees of the battery through an ampere-hour integration basic algorithm, namely obtaining a corrected SOC estimation expression. The influence of the temperature and the aging degree of the battery on the SOC is considered, the initial value of the SOC of the battery can be accurately estimated, the problem of accumulated errors in the ampere-hour integration method is solved, and the SOC estimation precision of the ampere-hour integration method is improved.

Description

Battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of power batteries, in particular to a battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree.
Background
At present, the lithium ion power battery is one of the most attractive rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles due to the advantages of high energy density, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect, high monomer voltage and the like. As the core of the electric automobile, the power battery is a key factor which restricts the scale development of the electric automobile at present. Unlike traditional fuel oil vehicles, the energy of electric vehicles comes from power batteries, which and their management systems are critical to the performance of the entire vehicle, such as power, safe operation and economy.
The state of charge (SOC) of a battery is a very important parameter index in the running process of an electric vehicle, is an important basis for improving the battery performance, such as judging the remaining capacity of the battery, preventing the battery from being overcharged and overdischarged, judging whether the battery needs to be balanced, and the like, and is also one of key technologies to be solved by a battery management system. Like the fuel gauge of the traditional fuel automobile, the SOC of the battery reflects the residual capacity of the battery. However, unlike the conventional method for detecting the remaining fuel amount of a fuel automobile, the remaining power of a battery cannot be directly measured by using a sensor, and must be indirectly estimated by using other measurable physical quantities (such as battery terminal voltage, charge and discharge current, battery temperature and the like) and a corresponding algorithm.
The existing SOC estimation method mainly comprises a discharge method, an open-circuit voltage method, an electrochemical impedance method, an ampere-hour integration method, a neural network method, a Kalman filtering method and the like, and various algorithms have the following problems:
the SOC estimation of the discharge method is accurate, but a large amount of experimental data is needed, the online estimation requirement of the electric automobile in actual running is not met, and the actual application is difficult; the SOC estimation effect of the open-circuit voltage method at the beginning and the end of charging and discharging is good, but the error is large in the charging and discharging process, and the battery pack needs to be kept still for a long time due to the fact that the open-circuit voltage is estimated, which is contradictory to the application of an electric automobile, and is rarely used independently in practice; when the battery electric quantity is lower or higher, the SOC estimation is more accurate by the electrochemical impedance method, the SOC estimation is inaccurate due to smaller alternating current impedance change when the battery electric quantity is in the middle section, the impedance is greatly influenced by initial electric quantity, temperature, aging degree and the like, the estimation is difficult, the hardware is difficult to realize, and the electrochemical impedance method is few in practical application; the neural network method needs a large amount of data for training, is easily influenced by the training data and the training method, and has a complex processing process; the Kalman filtering method is an algorithm which is researched more at present, and various Kalman filtering optimization algorithms are researched more, but the neural network and the Kalman filtering method have high cost and no advantage when applied to a battery management system due to the difficulty in system setting; the ampere-hour integration method, also called as current integration method or coulomb counting, is the most common SOC estimation algorithm used in the current electric vehicle because the method is simple, practical and effective. The ampere-hour integration method calculates the state of charge of the battery by integrating the battery current with respect to time, and has a certain accuracy in calculating the amount of electricity discharged by the battery. However, the chemical reaction process inside the charging and discharging of the battery is very complex, and the SOC of the battery is easily affected by a plurality of factors such as temperature, aging degree (cycle number), current multiplying power, self-discharge and the like, so that the accurate estimation difficulty of the SOC of the power battery is very high, and the method is very challenging. The problem of accurate estimation of the initial SOC of the battery is not solved by an ampere-hour integration method at present, because the available capacity and the initial SOC of the battery change once the ambient temperature changes. In addition, if the current measurement is inaccurate in the current integration method, the SOC calculation error is also caused, and the error is cumulative and gradually increases with the increase of time.
In summary, in the prior art, an effective solution to the problem of accurately estimating the SOC of the power battery is still lacking.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the defects of the prior art, the invention provides the battery ampere-hour integration SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree, the method considers the influence of the temperature and the aging degree of the battery on the SOC, can estimate the initial value of the battery SOC more accurately, solves the problem of the accumulated error of the ampere-hour integration method, and improves the SOC estimation precision of the ampere-hour integration method.
A battery ampere-hour integration SOC estimation method considering temperature and degree of aging, comprising:
correcting the initial value of the battery in consideration of the temperature and the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the initial value of the SOC of the battery, which is influenced by the temperature and the aging degree;
correcting the maximum available capacity of the battery in consideration of the influence of the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degree;
according to the obtained correction coefficient, the measured battery charging and discharging current i is detected and stored in real time through a current sensorbatAnd obtaining the change condition of the battery SOC under different temperatures and aging degrees of the battery through an ampere-hour integration basic algorithm, namely obtaining a corrected SOC estimation expression.
Further, when the initial value of the battery is corrected in consideration of the temperature and the aging degree, the battery management system obtains the temperature of the battery and the number of charge-discharge cycles of the battery, namely the aging degree in real time, and recalculates the initial SOC of the battery according to a correction algorithm, which can be recorded as gamma SOC0Wherein γ represents a correction coefficient of the initial value of the battery SOC affected by the temperature and the degree of aging, γ SOC0The initial value of the battery SOC is taken into account when the influence of temperature and the degree of aging is taken into account.
Further, when the maximum available capacity of the battery is corrected in consideration of the influence of the aging degree, according to the relationship between the maximum available capacity of the battery and the aging degree, namely the number of charge and discharge cycles, the number of charge and discharge cycles is obtained in real time through the battery management system, and the maximum available capacity of the battery is recalculated according to a correction algorithm and can be recorded as muNCmaxWherein, muNCorrection factor, mu, indicating that the maximum available capacity is affected by agingNCmaxThat is, the maximum available capacity of the battery for different degrees of aging, i.e., the number of cycles.
Further, the battery ampere-hour integration SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree is adopted, wherein the initial value SOC of the battery SOC is0The regular correction is needed, which means that when the battery needs to be corrected periodically or after a period of time, the initial value of the SOC of the battery is corrected again.
Further, the initial value of the battery SOC is corrected, and the correction method includes: when the battery voltage reaches the charge cut-off voltage and approaches the full charge state, correcting the initial value of the battery SOC according to the relation curve of the measured open-circuit voltage and the SOC.
Furthermore, in the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree, multiple groups of power battery monomers in the same batch are required to be selected before the initial value of the battery is corrected, one group of power battery monomers is used for a correction experiment that the maximum available capacity is influenced by the aging degree, and the other group of power battery monomers is used for a correction experiment that the initial value of the battery SOC is influenced by the temperature and the aging degree; the battery charging and discharging equipment with higher current control precision, the temperature control box with proper temperature precision and range and the high-precision current sensor are selected.
Further, when the initial value of the battery is corrected in consideration of the temperature and the aging degree, the specific process is as follows:
selecting a part of power battery monomers, and carrying out constant-current charging at normal temperature to enable the power battery to be restored to a fully charged state;
then, carrying out a current constant current discharge experiment on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery, and selecting the maximum available capacity C fully charged for the first timemaxAs a reference;
then, carrying out charge-discharge cyclic aging experiment on the battery under constant current until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only a set percentage of the initial maximum available capacity, and determining that the service life of the battery is terminated at the moment to obtain a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degreeWhere N represents the number of cycles.
Further, the number of cycles is determined based on the actual number of cycles of the battery and the required estimation accuracy.
Further, when the maximum available capacity of the battery is corrected in consideration of the influence of the aging degree, the specific process is as follows:
setting a test temperature range and a temperature change step length;
under different temperatures, constant current charging is carried out on selected partial power battery monomers, so that the power battery is restored to a fully charged state;
carrying out a current constant-current discharge experiment on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery;
carrying out charge-discharge cyclic aging experiments on the battery under constant current until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only a set percentage of the initial maximum available capacity, considering that the service life of the battery is terminated, selecting the maximum available capacity at normal temperature as a reference, and obtaining a correction coefficient of the initial value of the SOC of the battery influenced by the temperature and the aging degree at different temperatures T ℃ and different cycle times N
Further, the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree is applied to a battery management system.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree obtains the correction coefficient considering the influence of the temperature and the aging degree on the maximum available capacity of the temperature and the aging degree, measures the correction coefficient of the influence of the temperature and the aging degree on the initial value of the battery SOC, optimizes the ampere-hour integral method, and is simple, reliable and easy to realize.
(2) According to the battery SOC estimation method, the influence of the battery temperature and the aging degree on the SOC is considered, the initial value of the battery SOC can be accurately estimated, meanwhile, the problem of accumulated errors existing in an ampere-hour integration method is solved, and the SOC estimation precision of the ampere-hour integration method is improved.
(3) The invention provides a more accurate battery SOC estimation method for a battery management system, and provides basic guarantee for safe, reasonable and efficient use of a power battery.
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The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate embodiments of the application and, together with the description, serve to explain the application and are not intended to limit the application.
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a battery SOC estimation method of the present invention that takes into account temperature and aging.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the disclosure. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs.
It is noted that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of example embodiments according to the present application. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, and it should be understood that when the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising" are used in this specification, they specify the presence of stated features, steps, operations, devices, components, and/or combinations thereof, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
As introduced in the background art, the method for estimating the battery SOC by the prior art using the ampere-hour integration method does not consider the influence of factors such as temperature and aging degree, and has limited estimation accuracy.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present application, as shown in fig. 1, a battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree is provided, and the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree includes a battery SOC initial value correction step considering temperature and aging degree, a battery maximum available capacity correction step considering an influence of aging degree, and a battery SOC estimation is realized by using an ampere-hour integral basic algorithm according to a correction coefficient obtained in the above steps.
Wherein, the SOC of the battery refers to the percentage of the remaining capacity of the battery to the maximum available capacity, wherein the remaining capacity of the battery refers to the total amount of electricity discharged from the battery during the process from the current state to the discharged state; the maximum available capacity refers to the total amount of electricity discharged from the battery during the discharge from the fully charged state with sufficiently small current to the fully discharged state, and this value is independent of temperature, only with respect to the battery design capacity and the degree of aging. The battery SOC may be expressed as:
wherein, Crem、CmaxRespectively representing the residual capacity and the maximum available capacity of the battery;
the ampere-hour integration method is a method for calculating the SOC of a battery by integrating the battery current with respect to time, and the basic principle is as follows:
therein, SOC0Represents an initial value of battery SOC, ibatRepresents the charge and discharge current of the battery.
About initial value SOC of battery SOC0The term "battery" means a battery SOC value at an initial time when charging and discharging of the battery are started.
The correction of the initial value of the battery SOC considering the temperature and the aging degree refers to the real-time acquisition of the battery temperature and the charge-discharge cycle times (aging degree) of the battery through a battery management system, and the recalculation of the initial SOC of the battery according to a correction algorithm, which can be recorded as gamma SOC0Wherein γ represents a correction coefficient of the initial value of the battery SOC affected by the temperature and the degree of aging, γ SOC0The initial value of the battery SOC is taken into account when the influence of temperature and the degree of aging is taken into account.
The maximum available capacity correction of the battery considering the influence of the aging degree refers to the charge and discharge cycle times obtained in real time through a battery management system according to the relationship between the maximum available capacity of the battery and the aging degree (charge and discharge cycle times), and the maximum available capacity of the battery is recalculated according to a correction algorithm and can be recorded as muNCmaxWherein, muNCorrection factor, mu, indicating that the maximum available capacity is affected by agingNCmaxThe maximum available capacity of the battery under different aging degrees (cycle times);
a battery SOC estimation method considering temperature and degree of aging can be expressed as;
in still another embodiment of the present application, a method for estimating a battery SOC considering a temperature and a degree of aging by applying the above concept includes the steps of:
the method comprises the following steps: selecting a plurality of groups of power battery monomers in the same batch, wherein one part of the power battery monomers is used for a correction experiment that the maximum available capacity is influenced by the aging degree, and the other part of the power battery monomers is used for a correction experiment that the initial value of the SOC of the battery is influenced by the temperature and the aging degree; battery charging and discharging equipment with higher current control precision is selected, a temperature control box with proper temperature precision and range is selected, a high-precision current sensor is selected, and the current measurement error and the accumulated error of ampere-hour integral are reduced;
step two: selecting a part of power battery monomers, and carrying out constant current charging at the normal temperature of 25 ℃ so as to enable the power battery to be restored to a fully charged state; then, a sufficiently small current constant current discharge experiment is carried out on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery, and the maximum available capacity C fully charged for the first time is selectedmaxAs a reference; then, carrying out charge-discharge cycle aging experiment on the battery under the constant current of 1C until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only 80% of the initial maximum available capacity, and at the moment, considering that the service life of the battery is terminated, and obtaining a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degreeWherein N represents the number of cycles, since Cmax(N) the value varies less with the number of cycles and can therefore be reduced to a segmented form, i.e. one in which the number of cycles is greater than the number of cycles
The specific segment values 300 and 600 of the cycle number N are not fixed, but may be determined according to the actual cycle life number of the battery, the required estimation accuracy, and other specific conditions;
step three: designing a proper test temperature range and a proper temperature change step length, and then carrying out constant-current charging on selected partial power battery monomers at different temperatures to enable the power battery to be restored to a fully charged state; then, carrying out a sufficiently small current constant current discharge experiment on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery, then carrying out a charge-discharge cyclic aging experiment on the battery under a 1C constant current until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only 80% of the initial maximum available capacity, wherein the service life of the battery can be considered to be terminated, and the maximum available capacity at the normal temperature of 25 ℃ is selected as a reference, and at the moment, the maximum available capacity of the battery at the normal temperature can be obtained
Correction coefficient of initial value of battery SOC influenced by temperature and aging degree at different temperatures T ℃ and different cycle times N
Step four: according to the correction coefficients obtained in the second step and the third step, the measured battery charging and discharging current i is detected and stored in real time through a high-precision current sensorbatThe variation condition of the battery SOC under different temperatures and aging degrees can be obtained through an ampere-hour integration basic algorithm, namely a corrected SOC estimation expression
In another embodiment of the present invention, if the current measurement is inaccurate, the SOC calculation error will be caused, and the error is cumulative and will gradually increase with the increase of time, so that the initial value of the battery SOC needs to be corrected after a while or periodically. The correction method is that the initial value of the SOC of the battery is corrected once again when the battery needs to be regularly or after a period of time, the correction can be carried out when the battery is nearly fully charged, namely the battery voltage reaches 98 percent of charging cut-off voltage (also called charging stop voltage), the battery voltage reaches the charging cut-off voltage at the moment, the change of the battery SOC is larger corresponding to the change of the battery open-circuit voltage at one point, the correction precision is high, meanwhile, because the charging current is small enough, the influence of ohmic resistance voltage drop and polarization voltage can be ignored, and the battery voltage is basically equal to the open-circuit voltage of the battery at the moment; according to the battery data measured by adopting an open-circuit voltage method in the early stage, mainly the corresponding relation between the open-circuit voltage measured by experiments and the SOC, and the current SOC value of the battery is corrected by a table look-up method according to the current battery voltage, obviously, the more detailed the data measured and stored in the early stage, the more accurate the SOC correction is, and the more accurate correction of the initial value of the SOC of the battery can be realized through the method.
In another exemplary embodiment of the present application, a battery management system is disclosed that performs battery SOC estimation using the above-described battery SOC estimation method that takes into account temperature and aging. The battery management system can estimate the SOC of the battery more accurately, and provides basic guarantee for safe, reasonable and efficient use of the power battery.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present application and is not intended to limit the present application, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and the like made within the spirit and principle of the present application shall be included in the protection scope of the present application.

Claims (6)

1. A battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree is characterized by comprising the following steps:
correcting the initial value of the battery in consideration of the temperature and the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the initial value of the SOC of the battery, which is influenced by the temperature and the aging degree;
when the initial value of the battery is corrected by considering the temperature and the aging degree, the battery management system acquires the temperature of the battery and the charging and discharging cycle times of the battery, namely the aging degree in real time, and recalculates the initial SOC of the battery according to a correction algorithm, which can be recorded as gamma SOC0Wherein γ represents a correction coefficient of the initial value of the battery SOC affected by the temperature and the degree of aging, γ SOC0The initial value of the SOC of the battery is considered when the influence of the temperature and the aging degree is considered;
when the initial value of the battery is corrected by considering the temperature and the aging degree, the specific process is as follows:
setting a test temperature range and a temperature change step length;
under different temperatures, constant current charging is carried out on selected partial power battery monomers, so that the power battery is restored to a fully charged state;
carrying out a current constant-current discharge experiment on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery;
under constant currentCarrying out charge-discharge cyclic aging experiments on the battery until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only a set percentage of the initial maximum available capacity, considering that the service life of the battery is terminated, selecting the maximum available capacity at normal temperature as a reference, and obtaining a correction coefficient of the initial value of the SOC of the battery influenced by the temperature and the aging degree at different temperatures T ℃ and different cycle times N
Correcting the maximum available capacity of the battery in consideration of the influence of the aging degree to obtain a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degree;
when the maximum available capacity of the battery is corrected by considering the influence of the aging degree, according to the relationship between the maximum available capacity of the battery and the aging degree, namely the charging and discharging cycle times, the charging and discharging cycle times are obtained in real time through the battery management system, and the maximum available capacity of the battery is recalculated according to a correction algorithm and can be recorded as muNCmaxWherein, muNCorrection factor, mu, indicating that the maximum available capacity is affected by agingNCmaxThe maximum available capacity of the battery under different aging degrees, namely the cycle times;
when the maximum available capacity of the battery is corrected in consideration of the influence of the aging degree, the specific process is as follows:
selecting a part of power battery monomers, and carrying out constant-current charging at normal temperature to enable the power battery to be restored to a fully charged state;
then, carrying out a current constant current discharge experiment on the power battery to obtain the maximum available capacity of the power battery, and selecting the maximum available capacity C fully charged for the first timemaxAs a reference;
then, carrying out charge-discharge cyclic aging experiment on the battery under constant current until the maximum available capacity of the battery is only a set percentage of the initial maximum available capacity, and determining that the service life of the battery is terminated at the moment to obtain a correction coefficient of the maximum available capacity influenced by the aging degreeWherein N represents the number of cycles;
according to the obtained correction coefficient, the measured battery charging and discharging current i is detected and stored in real time through a current sensorbatObtaining the change condition of the battery SOC under different temperatures and aging degrees through an ampere-hour integration basic algorithm, namely a corrected SOC estimation expression:
2. the method of claim 1, wherein the method of estimating Ampere's time integral SOC takes into account temperature and aging degree, wherein the initial value SOC of the battery is set as SOC0The regular correction is needed, which means that when the battery needs to be corrected periodically or after a period of time, the initial value of the SOC of the battery is corrected again.
3. The battery ampere-hour integration SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging as claimed in claim 2, wherein said initial value of battery SOC is corrected by: and when the battery voltage reaches 98% of the charge cut-off voltage, correcting the initial value of the battery SOC according to the measured relation curve of the open-circuit voltage and the SOC.
4. The battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree as claimed in claim 1, wherein the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering the temperature and the aging degree needs to select a plurality of groups of power battery cells of the same batch before correcting the initial value of the battery, one group of power battery cells are used for a correction experiment that the maximum available capacity is affected by the aging degree, and the other group of power battery cells are used for a correction experiment that the initial value of the battery SOC is affected by the temperature and the aging degree; the battery charging and discharging equipment with higher current control precision, the temperature control box with proper temperature precision and range and the high-precision current sensor are selected.
5. The battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging as set forth in claim 1, wherein the number of cycles is determined based on an actual number of cycles of the battery and a required estimation accuracy.
6. The battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree according to claim 1, wherein the battery ampere-hour integral SOC estimation method considering temperature and aging degree is applied to a battery management system.
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