WO2014181898A1 - Large-capacity electric power storage system using thermal energy/chemical potential - Google Patents

Large-capacity electric power storage system using thermal energy/chemical potential Download PDF

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WO2014181898A1
WO2014181898A1 PCT/KR2013/004019 KR2013004019W WO2014181898A1 WO 2014181898 A1 WO2014181898 A1 WO 2014181898A1 KR 2013004019 W KR2013004019 W KR 2013004019W WO 2014181898 A1 WO2014181898 A1 WO 2014181898A1
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brine
storage
water
fresh
channel
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PCT/KR2013/004019
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French (fr)
Korean (ko)
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김태환
박종수
양현경
김찬수
박철호
곽성조
김한기
좌은진
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한국에너지기술연구원
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Priority to PCT/KR2013/004019 priority Critical patent/WO2014181898A1/en
Publication of WO2014181898A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014181898A1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G7/00Mechanical-power-producing mechanisms, not otherwise provided for or using energy sources not otherwise provided for
    • F03G7/005Electro-chemical actuators; Actuators having a material for absorbing or desorbing gas, e.g. a metal hydride; Actuators using the difference in osmotic pressure between fluids; Actuators with elements stretchable when contacted with liquid rich in ions, with UV light, with a salt solution
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M14/00Electrochemical current or voltage generators not provided for in groups H01M6/00 - H01M12/00; Manufacture thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/18Regenerative fuel cells, e.g. redox flow batteries or secondary fuel cells
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/469Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrochemical separation, e.g. by electro-osmosis, electrodialysis, electrophoresis
    • C02F1/4693Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrochemical separation, e.g. by electro-osmosis, electrodialysis, electrophoresis electrodialysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/30Energy from the sea, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells

Abstract

The present invention relates to a large-capacity electric power storage system using saline water, the system being capable of separating saline water into high-density saline water and fresh water and storing them using surplus power, during a low load, and producing power using the density difference between the high-density saline water and fresh water when power consumption increases rapidly, i.e. during a peak load. A super-large-capacity power storage system using saline water comprises: a condensation device for condensing/separating saline water and supplying condensed saline water and fresh water; a condensed saline water storage device and a fresh water storage device for storing the condensed saline water and fresh water supplied from the condensation device, respectively; a salinity difference power generation device connected to the condensed saline water storage device and the fresh water storage device to generate power using the density difference between the condensed saline water and fresh water; and a saline water storage device for storing saline water, which has passed through the salinity difference power generation device, and supplying the condensation device with saline water.

Description

열에너지/화학포텐셜을 이용한 대용량 전력저장시스템Massive power storage system using thermal energy / chemical potential
본 발명은 열에너지 및 화학포텐셜을 이용한 대용량 전력저장시스템에 관한 것으로, 더욱 상세하게는 저부하 시 잉여 전력을 사용하여 염수를 고농도의 염수와 담수로 분리 저장하고, 전력 소비가 급증하는 피크 부하시, 고농도 염수와 담수의 농도차를 이용하여 전력을 생산할 수 있는 염수를 이용하는 것과 폐열을 이용하여 염수와 담수의 온도를 상승시켜 기존의 화학포텐셜을 향상시키는 대용량 전력저장시스템에 관한 것이다.The present invention relates to a large-capacity power storage system using thermal energy and chemical potential, and more particularly, to separate and store brine into high concentrations of brine and fresh water using surplus power at low loads, and at peak loads when power consumption increases rapidly. The present invention relates to the use of brine capable of producing electric power by using the concentration difference between high concentration of brine and fresh water, and a large capacity power storage system that improves the existing chemical potential by raising the temperature of the brine and fresh water using waste heat.
화력발전, 원자력발전 등의 중앙 집중형 발전은 최대 피크(peak) 전력 수요를 위하여 평상시에는 가동률이 떨어지는 것을 감수하더라도 대규모 예비전력을 미리 확보해야 하는 단점이 있다.Centralized power generation, such as thermal power generation and nuclear power generation, has a disadvantage in that it needs to secure a large amount of reserve power in advance even if the operation rate is normally lowered for maximum peak power demand.
또한, 풍력발전, 태양광발전 등을 이용하는 신재생에너지는 기후 변동에 따라 발전 변동폭이 매우 커서 안정적인 전력의 공급에 부적합한 단점이 있다.In addition, new renewable energy using wind power, photovoltaic power generation, etc. has a disadvantage in that it is unsuitable for supplying stable power due to a large fluctuation in power generation due to climate change.
따라서, 중앙 집중형 발전에서 최대 피크(peak) 전력 수요의 대비 및 신재생에너지를 이용한 발전의 환경적인 요인에 의해 발생하는 전력 수급 불안정을 해결하기 위해 대용량 전력저장시스템이 요구된다.Therefore, a large-capacity power storage system is required to solve the power supply and demand instability caused by the contrast of the maximum peak power demand in the centralized power generation and environmental factors of power generation using renewable energy.
현재 사용되고 있는 대용량 전력저장시스템으로는, 전지 (납축전지, NaS, 리튬이온전지, metal-air 전지, redox flow 전지 등), 양수 발전, CAES(Compressed air energy storage), 슈퍼 커패시터, 플라이휠(Flywheel), 초전도 전력장치(SMES) 등이 있다.Currently used large-capacity power storage systems include batteries (lead storage batteries, NaS, lithium ion batteries, metal-air batteries, redox flow batteries, etc.), positive power generation, compressed air energy storage (CAES), supercapacitors and flywheels. And superconducting power devices (SMES).
양수 발전, CAES 을 제외한 상기 대용량 전력저장시스템은 시스템은 초기 투자비가 높은 문제점이 있고 저장용량의 제한(1GW 미만)이 있어 GW급 초대용량 전력저장시스템으로 활용은 문제점이 있다.The large-capacity power storage system, except for positive power generation and CAES, has a problem in that the initial investment cost is high and the storage capacity is limited (less than 1GW).
또, 초기 투자비가 낮은 양수 발전의 경우 입지 선정의 한계성과 생태계 교란의 위험성으로 건설자체가 어려운 문제점이 있다(한국특허등록 제10-1020569호)In addition, there is a problem in that the construction itself is difficult due to the limitation of location selection and the risk of ecosystem disturbance in the case of pumped power generation with low initial investment cost (Korean Patent Registration No. 10-1020569).
또한, CAES의 경우 압축공기를 저장할 수 있을 만큼 단단한 지반을 찾아야 한다는 제약이 존재한다(한국특허공개 제10-2011-7026187호).In addition, in the case of CAES, there is a restriction to find a ground that is hard enough to store compressed air (Korean Patent Publication No. 10-2011-7026187).
상기 문제점을 해결하기 위해 안출된 본 발명의 목적은, 종래기술에 따른 염수를 이용한 상온에서의 대용량 전력저장시스템과 달리 발전소 폐열이나, 또는 디젤발전기 배기가스 또는 그 밖의 가열미디어를 활용한 열적 에너지를 동시에 저장하여 화학포텐셜 저장시스템의 효율을 극대화시켜 중앙 집중형 발전과 신재생에너지를 이용한 발전의 전력수급 불안정을 해결할 수 있는 대용량 전력저장시스템을 제공하는 데에 있다.The object of the present invention devised to solve the above problems, unlike the large-capacity power storage system at room temperature using the brine according to the prior art, thermal energy using waste heat of the power plant, or diesel generator exhaust gas or other heating media. It is to provide a large-capacity power storage system that can be stored at the same time to maximize the efficiency of the chemical potential storage system to solve the power supply instability of the power generation using centralized power generation and renewable energy.
상술한 목적을 달성하기 위한 본 발명은, 염수를 농축분리하여 농축염수와 담수를 공급하는 농축장치; 상기 농축장치로부터 공급되는 농축염수 및 담수를 각각 저장하는 농축염수저장장치 및 담수저장장치; 상기 농축염수저장장치 및 상기 담수저장장치와 연결되어서, 상기 농축염수와 담수 사이의 농도차를 이용하여 발전하는 염분차발전장치; 및 상기 염분차발전장치를 통과한 염수를 저장하고, 상기 농축장치로 염수를 공급하는 염수저장장치를 포함하며, 상기 농축염수, 상기 염수, 상기 담수 중 선택된 어느 하나 이상은 열교환라인에 의해 가열되는 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템이다.The present invention for achieving the above object, a concentrated device for supplying concentrated brine and fresh water by separating the brine; A concentrated brine storage device and a fresh water storage device for storing the concentrated brine and fresh water supplied from the concentration device, respectively; A salt differential generator connected to the concentrated brine storage device and the fresh water storage device and generating power using a difference in concentration between the concentrated brine and fresh water; And a brine storage device for storing the brine passing through the brine generator and supplying the brine to the concentrator, wherein at least one selected from the concentrated brine, the brine, and the fresh water is heated by a heat exchange line. Ultra-capacity power storage system using the brine characterized in that.
상기 농축장치로 공급되는 염수는 상기 염수저장장치 또는 염수공급원으로부터 공급되는 것을 특징으로 한다.The brine supplied to the concentrator is characterized in that it is supplied from the brine storage or the brine source.
또, 상기 염분차발전장치로 공급되는 담수는 상기 담수저장장치 또는 담수공급원으로부터 공급되는 것을 특징으로 한다.In addition, the fresh water supplied to the salt differential generator is characterized in that the fresh water storage device or a fresh water supply is supplied from.
그리고, 상기 발전장치는 하나 이상의 발전셀을 포함하고, 상기 발전셀은 전극용액이 이동하는 양극유로; 상기 양극유로와 이격되어 마주보도록 배치되고, 전극용액이 이동하는 음극유로; 및 상기 양극유로와 상기 음극유로 사이, 상기 양극유로로부터 담수가 흐르는 담수유로와 염수가 흐르는 염수유로가 교대로 배치되되 상기 음극유로에는 염수유로가 접하고, 상기 양극유로와 상기 음극유로의 전극세정용액은 폐루프를 이루도록 순환되며, 상기 양극유로와 상기 담수유로 사이 및 상기 음극유로와 상기 염수수로 사이에는 양이온교환막이 배치되고, 상기 양극유로에서 상기 음극유로로의 방향을 기준으로 담수유로와 염수유로의 순으로 배치되면 상기 담수유로와 상기 염수유로 사이에는 음이온교환막이 배치되고, 상기 양극유로에서 상기 음극유로로의 방향을 기준으로 염수유로와 담수유로의 순으로 배치되면 상기 염수유로와 상기 담수유로 사이에는 양이온교환막이 배치되며, 상기 전극용액의 양이온과 상기 염수의 양이온은 동일한 것을 특징으로 한다.In addition, the power generation apparatus includes one or more power generation cells, wherein the power generation cell includes an anode flow path through which the electrode solution moves; A cathode channel disposed to face the anode channel and spaced apart from each other, and to move an electrode solution; And between the anode flow path and the cathode flow path, a fresh water flow through which fresh water flows from the anode flow path, and a brine flow through the brine flow, wherein the brine flow path is in contact with the cathode flow path, and the electrode cleaning solution of the anode flow path and the cathode flow path flows. Is circulated to form a closed loop, and a cation exchange membrane is disposed between the anode channel and the freshwater channel, and between the cathode channel and the brine channel, and the freshwater channel and the brine channel based on the direction from the anode channel to the cathode channel. When disposed in the order of an anion exchange membrane is disposed between the freshwater flow path and the brine flow path, the saltwater flow path and the fresh water flow path is arranged in the order of the brine flow path and the fresh water flow path based on the direction from the anode flow path to the cathode flow path A cation exchange membrane is disposed between the cations of the electrode solution and the cations of the brine. And that the feature.
또, 상기 양극유로 및 상기 음극유로에는 전극활물질이 포함되는 것을 특징으로 한다.In addition, the positive electrode channel and the negative electrode channel is characterized in that it comprises an electrode active material.
본 발명을 통하여, 염수 분리에 의한 축전과, 분리된 농축염수와 담수의 혼합으로 인한 발전을 통해, 에너지저장매체인 염수가 순환하는 폐사이클을 형성할 수 있다. 그리고 발전 폐열을 열교환 시켜 염수와 담수의 투입액 온도를 상승시킬 경우 수용액 상에 포함된 이온의 활동성을 높일 수 있으므로, 열저장의 효과를 화학포텐셜의 증가로 변환시키는 효과가 있다. Through the present invention, through the power storage by the brine separation, and the power generation by the mixing of the separated concentrated brine and fresh water, it is possible to form a waste cycle circulating the brine as an energy storage medium. In addition, when the waste heat is generated by heat exchange to increase the temperature of the input solution of the brine and the fresh water, the activity of the ions contained in the aqueous solution may be increased, thereby converting the effect of heat storage into an increase in chemical potential.
또한, 필요한 경우, 농축염수로부터 유용자원(소금, 미네랄)의 채취 또는, 담수의 식수활용 등의 목적으로도 사용할 수 있어서 부산물의 활용도 가능하다. In addition, if necessary, it can also be used for the purpose of collecting useful resources (salt, minerals) from concentrated brine or drinking water for fresh water.
또, 본 발명에 따른 전력저장시스템은 초저가의 염수(소금물)의 사용으로 초기 투자비가 매우 낮은 장점. 또한, 고농도 염을 이용한 에너지 저장으로 수력발전시스템에 비해서 에너지 밀도가 높고 저장고의 부피가 작기 때문에 경쟁력 있는 전력저장시스템을 제공할 수 있다.In addition, the power storage system according to the present invention has the advantage of very low initial investment due to the use of very low cost salt (salt). In addition, energy storage using a high concentration of salt can provide a competitive power storage system because the energy density is higher and the storage volume is smaller than the hydroelectric power generation system.
도 1은 본 발명의 실시예에 따른 염수를 이용한 대용량 전력저장시스템의 개략도이다.1 is a schematic diagram of a large-capacity power storage system using brine according to an embodiment of the present invention.
도 2는 도 1의 대용량 전력저장시스템에 사용되는 염분차발전장치의 발전셀의 개략도이다.FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a power generation cell of a salt differential power generation apparatus used in the large-capacity power storage system of FIG. 1.
도 3은 도 2의 발전셀에서 온도 변수를 고려한 발전출력 그래프이다.3 is a power generation graph considering temperature variables in the power generation cell of FIG. 2.
이하, 본 발명을 바람직한 실시예를 첨부한 도면을 참조하여 설명하기로 한다. 하기의 각 도면의 구성 요소들에 참조 부호를 부가함에 있어서, 동일한 구성 요소들에 한해서는 비록 다른 도면상에 표시되더라도 가능한 한 동일한 부호를 가지도록 하며, 본 발명의 요지를 불필요하게 흐릴 수 있다고 판단되는 공지 기능 및 구성에 대한 상세한 설명은 생략한다.Hereinafter, with reference to the accompanying drawings, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described. In adding reference numerals to components of the following drawings, it is determined that the same components have the same reference numerals as much as possible even if displayed on different drawings, and it is determined that they may unnecessarily obscure the subject matter of the present invention. Detailed descriptions of well-known functions and configurations will be omitted.
본 발명의 실시예에 따른 염수를 이용한 대용량 전력저장시스템(100)은 도 1에 도시된 바와 같이, 크게 축전부(102)와 발전부(104)로 나누어진다. 본 발명에서 염수는 기수를 포함하는 포괄적인 개념으로 사용된다.As shown in FIG. 1, the large-capacity power storage system 100 using the brine according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is largely divided into a power storage unit 102 and a power generation unit 104. In the present invention, brine is used as a comprehensive concept including brackish water.
상기 축전부(102)에는 농축장치(106)가 포함되고, 상기 발전부(104)에는 염분차발전장치(114)가 포함되며, 축전부(102)와 발전부(104)는 염수가 저장되는 염수저장장치(112)와, 농축염수가 저장되는 농축염수저장장치(110)와, 담수가 저장되는 담수저장장치(108)를 공유한다.The power storage unit 102 includes a concentrating device 106, the power generation unit 104 includes a salt differential generator 114, the power storage unit 102 and the power generation unit 104 is stored brine The brine storage device 112, the concentrated brine storage device 110, the concentrated brine is stored, and the fresh water storage device 108 is stored fresh water.
따라서, 화력발전 및 원자력발전 등에서 저부하시 잉여 전력, 또는 풍력발전 또는 태양열발전에 의한 변동이 큰 전력을 이용하여, 담수 및 고농도로 분리한 농축염수를 담수저장장치(108) 및 농축염수저장장치 (110)에 각각 분리 저장한다.Therefore, the freshwater storage device 108 and the concentrated brine storage device contain concentrated brine separated into fresh water and high concentration by using surplus power at a low load in thermal power generation and nuclear power generation or power fluctuating by wind power or solar power generation. Separately stored in 110.
상기 농축장치(106)로는 공지의 기술을 사용할 수 있다. 예를 들어, 농축장치(106)에 distillation (multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multiple-effect distillation (MED), vapor-compression (VC)), ion exchange, membrane processes (electrodialysis reversal (EDR), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), membrane distillation (MD)), capacitive deionization, freezing desalination, geothermal desalination, solar desalination (solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH), multiple-effect humidification (MEH)), methane hydrate crystallization, high grade water recycling, seawater greenhouse 등의 다양한 기술이 사용될 수 있으나 본 발명에 있어 이를 제한하는 것은 아니다.The thickening device 106 may be a known technique. For example, the thickener 106 may include distillation (multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multiple-effect distillation (MED), vapor-compression (VC)), ion exchange, membrane processes (electrodialysis reversal (EDR), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), membrane distillation (MD)), capacitive deionization, freezing desalination, geothermal desalination, solar desalination (solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH), multiple-effect humidification (MEH)), methane hydrate crystallization, Various techniques, such as high grade water recycling and seawater greenhouse, may be used, but the present invention is not limited thereto.
상기 염분차발전장치(114)로는 pressure-retarded osmosis, reversed electrodialysis, capacitive method, absorption refrigeration cycle, solar pond 등의 다양한 공정이 사용될 수 있으나 본 발명에 있어 이를 제한하는 것은 아니다.As the salt differential generator 114, various processes such as pressure-retarded osmosis, reversed electrodialysis, capacitive method, absorption refrigeration cycle, solar pond, etc. may be used, but the present invention is not limited thereto.
본 발명에 따른 대용량 에너지 저장장치(100)는 고농도의 염을 이용한 화학포텐셜 형태의 저장과 동시에, 염수 및 담수의 온도를 상승시켜서 열에너지를 추가적으로 저장하는 것도 가능하다. 상기 열에너지는 각종 공정의 배출폐가스, 열수 또는 잉여전력을 활용하여 직접 가열할 수 있다. The large-capacity energy storage device 100 according to the present invention may store the thermal energy by increasing the temperature of the brine and fresh water at the same time as the storage of the chemical potential form using a high concentration of salt. The thermal energy may be directly heated by utilizing waste gas, hot water or surplus power of various processes.
좀 더 설명하면, 담수와 염수의 온도 증가에 따라서, 발전공정을 포함하여 분리공정의 효율증가를 얻을 수 있기 때문에 구성 시스템의 효율을 향상할 수 있다. In more detail, as the temperature of fresh water and brine increases, the efficiency of the separation process including the power generation process can be obtained, thereby improving the efficiency of the component system.
다시 말해, 상기 발전공정으로, RED의 경우 E. Brauns의 연구에 따르면 20℃에서 30℃로 증가시 25%의 발전효율 향상(ref. E. Brauns, Desalination, 237, 378-391) 보고가 있었으며, PRO 공정 또한 온도 증가시 발전효율 46%증가 결과를 볼 수 있다(ref. Y. C. Kim and M. Elimelech, J. Membr. Sci., 429, 330-337). 또한, 고농도 염수를 농축하기 위한 장치로 분리막증류(MD) 공정 활용시 수분의 증발열 공급이 필요하기 때문에 발전공정에서 배출된 염수/담수 혼합물의 온도가 증가된 상태로 분리장치로 도입하게 되면 공정효율이 증가된다. 따라서, 이온농도차를 이용한 에너지저장과 동시에 열에너지까지 동시에 보관시 더욱 향상된 결과를 얻을 수 있다.In other words, as for the power generation process, according to E. Brauns's research, there was a 25% improvement in power generation efficiency (ref. E. Brauns, Desalination, 237, 378-391) when increasing from 20 ° C to 30 ° C. In addition, the PRO process also showed a 46% increase in power generation efficiency at increasing temperatures (ref. YC Kim and M. Elimelech, J. Membr. Sci., 429, 330-337). In addition, as a device for concentrating high concentration of brine, it is necessary to supply evaporative heat of water when using the membrane distillation (MD) process, so if the brine / fresh water mixture discharged from the power generation process is introduced into the separator with an increased temperature, process efficiency Is increased. Therefore, when the energy storage using the ion concentration difference and at the same time storage up to the thermal energy can be further improved results.
이러한, 열에너지를 염수 및 담수에 추가하기 위하여, 도 1에 도시된 바와 같이, 농축염수가 저장되는 농축염수저장장치(110)와, 담수가 저장되는 담수저장장치(108)를 열교환라인(124)과 접촉시킨다. 상기 열교환라인(124)은 도시되지 않은 열원과 연결되어 열매체가 이동하면서 열매체의 열을 농축염수 또는 담수에 전달하게 된다. 또 외부에서 담수가 유입시 다른 열교환라인(126)을 두어 담수를 가열하는 것이 가능하다. 그리고, 담수의 열교환을 위해 추가적으로 담수버퍼탱크(128)를 설치하고, 상기 담수버퍼탱크(128)에서 충분한 시간을 두고 담수에 열을 공급하는 것도 가능하다.In order to add heat energy to the brine and fresh water, as shown in FIG. 1, the concentrated brine storage device 110 in which the concentrated brine is stored, and the fresh water storage device 108 in which the fresh water is stored in the heat exchange line 124. Contact with. The heat exchange line 124 is connected to a heat source (not shown) to transfer the heat of the heat medium to concentrated brine or fresh water as the heat medium moves. In addition, when fresh water is introduced from the outside, another heat exchange line 126 may be provided to heat the fresh water. In addition, the freshwater buffer tank 128 may be additionally installed for heat exchange of the freshwater, and the freshwater buffer tank 128 may be supplied with sufficient time for the freshwater.
도 2에서는 염분차발전장치(114)를 구성하기 위하여 사용될 수 있는 RED장치를 이용하는 농도차 발전셀(130)을 도시하고 있다. 상기 발전셀(130)은 복수개를 병렬 또는 직렬로 연결하여 사용할 수 있다.In FIG. 2, there is shown a concentration difference power generation cell 130 using a RED device that can be used to construct the salt differential generation device 114. The power generation cell 130 may be used by connecting a plurality of in parallel or in series.
상기 발전셀(130)은 서로 이격되어 배치되는 양극집전체(131)와 음극집전체(139) 사이에 형성되는 공간에 상기 양이온분리막(134)와 상기 음이온분리막(136)에 근접하여 이격되도록 양이온분리막(133,137)이 배치된다. 그리고, 상기 2개의 양극분리막(133,137) 사이로 1개의 음이온분리막(135)가 배치된다. The power generation cell 130 is positively spaced close to the cation separation membrane 134 and the anion separation membrane 136 in a space formed between the positive electrode collector 131 and the negative electrode collector 139 are spaced apart from each other Separation membranes 133 and 137 are disposed. In addition, one anion separator 135 is disposed between the two anode separators 133 and 137.
또, 상기 2개의 양극분리막(133,137) 사이에 2 이상의 음이온 분리막이 배치되는 경우에는 음이온분리막과 양이온분리막이 교대로 배치되되, 최외측에는 반드시 음이온분리막이 배치되도록 한다.In addition, when two or more anion separation membranes are disposed between the two anode separation membranes 133 and 137, the anion separation membrane and the cation separation membrane are alternately arranged, and the anion separation membrane must be disposed on the outermost side.
상술한 배치에 의하여, 상기 양극집전체(131)와 양이온분리막(133) 사이에는 양극유로(132)가 형성되고, 상기 음극집전체(139)와 상기 양이온분리막(137) 사이에는 음극유로(138)가 형성된다. 그리고, 상기 양극유로(132)와 상기 음극유로(138) 사이에 담수유로(134)와 염수유로(138)이 교대로 배치된다. 상기 담수유로(134), 상기 염수유로(138), 상기 양극유로(132), 상기 음극유로(138) 내부에는 간격변동을 방지하기 위한 스페이서가 설치될 수 있다.By the above arrangement, a positive electrode flow path 132 is formed between the positive electrode current collector 131 and the cation separation membrane 133, and a negative electrode flow path 138 between the negative electrode current collector 139 and the cation separation membrane 137. ) Is formed. The freshwater channel 134 and the brine channel 138 are alternately disposed between the anode channel 132 and the cathode channel 138. Spacers may be installed in the freshwater passage 134, the brine passage 138, the anode passage 132, and the cathode passage 138 to prevent gap variation.
상기 양극유로(132)와 상기 음극유로(138)에는 전극용액이 순환하며, 상기 전극용액은 상기 염수유로(116)에 흐르는 염수와 동일한 양이온을 가진다. 따라서, 상기 전극용액은 나트륨이온(Na+)을 가진다.An electrode solution circulates in the anode flow passage 132 and the cathode flow passage 138, and the electrode solution has the same cation as the brine flowing in the brine flow passage 116. Thus, the electrode solution has sodium ions (Na + ).
이러한, 전극용액은 나트륨이온의 출입에 따른 전자의 잉여량 또는 부족량은 상기 전극용액에서 특정이온의 산화와 환원으로 보충하게 된다. 예를 들어, 전극용액으로 페로시안화물(Fe(CN)6)의 전해질과 NaCl의 혼합용액을 사용할 경우에는, Fe2+와 Fe3+ 사이의 전환으로 보충하게 된다. 그리고, 상기 염수에는 음이온으로써 염소이온(Cl-)이 포함된다. 상기 전해질을 대신하여 Na2SO4, FeCl2, EDTA 등의 전해질을 사용할 수 있다.In the electrode solution, the excess or shortage of electrons due to the access of sodium ions is supplemented by oxidation and reduction of specific ions in the electrode solution. For example, when a mixed solution of an electrolyte of ferrocyanide (Fe (CN) 6 ) and NaCl is used as an electrode solution, it is supplemented by conversion between Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . In addition, the salt water includes chlorine ion (Cl ) as an anion. Instead of the electrolyte, an electrolyte such as Na 2 SO 4 , FeCl 2 , EDTA, or the like may be used.
에노드(anode) 전극인 양극유로(132)과 케소드(cathode) 전극인 음극유로(138)의 사이에, 순차적으로 배치되는 담수유로(132)와 염수유로(136)에서 도 2과 같은 이온의 이동이 일어난다. 즉, 양이온교환막(Cation Exchange membrane)(133,137)을 통해서는 Na+와 같은 양이온이 이동하고, 음이온 교환막(Anion Exchange membrane)(135)에서는 Cl- 와 같은 음이온이 이동하게 된다. 따라서, 상기 양극유로(132)의 양이온은 담수유로(132)로 이동하고, 염수유로(136)의 양이온이 음극유로(138)로 이동하게 된다. 또한, 염수유로(136)의 음이온은 상기 담수유로(134)로 이동하게 된다. 결과적으로, 염(salt)의 농도가 높은 염수부분에서 염의 농도가 낮은 담수부분으로 이온이 이동하면서 양이온은 오른쪽 케소드(Cathode)전극 방향으로 향하며, 이와 반대로 음이온은 왼쪽 에노드 (Anode) 전극방향으로 향하게 된다. 이를 통해 이온전류(Ion current)가 오른쪽에서 왼쪽으로 흐르게 되면, 양극유로(132)에서는 산화반응이 일어나면서 전해질로부터 전자를 얻게되고 음극유로(138)에서는 환원반응이 일어나면서 전해질로 전자를 주게 된다. 이때 전자는 외부 도선을 따라 흐르게 되므로 전류를 발생시키는 것이다. 이 때 발생된 전기의 전압은 상기 양극집전체(131)와 상기 음극집전체(139)에 연결되는 전압계(140)에 의해 측정할 수 있다.Between the anode channel 132, which is an anode electrode, and the cathode channel 138, which is a cathode electrode 138, the ions shown in FIG. 2 are sequentially disposed in the fresh water channel 132 and the brine channel 136. Movement takes place. That is, cations such as Na + migrate through the cation exchange membranes 133 and 137, and anions such as Cl move in the anion exchange membrane 135. Accordingly, the positive ions of the positive electrode channel 132 move to the freshwater channel 132, and the positive ions of the brine channel 136 move to the negative electrode channel 138. In addition, the anion of the brine flow channel 136 is moved to the fresh water channel 134. As a result, the ions move from the brine portion with a high salt concentration to the freshwater portion with a low salt concentration and the cations are directed toward the right cathode electrode, while the anions are directed toward the left anode electrode. You will be directed to. When the ion current flows from the right side to the left side, the anode flow channel 132 undergoes an oxidation reaction to obtain electrons from the electrolyte, and the cathode flow path 138 provides electrons to the electrolyte while the reduction reaction occurs. . At this time, electrons flow along the external conductors, thereby generating a current. The voltage of electricity generated at this time may be measured by the voltmeter 140 connected to the positive electrode current collector 131 and the negative electrode current collector 139.
상기 양극유로(132)와 상기 음극유로(138)에는 전극활물질이 분산된 상태이며, 이 전극활물질을 통해 이온의 흡착이 더욱 용이해진다. 이러한 전극활물질로는 다공성 탄소(활성탄, 카본파이버, 탄소에어로젤, 탄소나노튜브, 그래핀 등), 흑연분말, 금속산화물 분말 등이 사용될 수 있다. 상기 전극활물질은 상기 염분차발전장치(114)를 지나서 서로 농도차가 없어진 이후에 별도의 수거장치(예를 들어, 필터)로 각각 수거하여 재활용할 수 있다. Electrode active materials are dispersed in the positive electrode channel 132 and the negative electrode channel 138, and ions are more easily adsorbed through the electrode active material. As the electrode active material, porous carbon (activated carbon, carbon fiber, carbon aerogel, carbon nanotube, graphene, etc.), graphite powder, metal oxide powder, or the like may be used. The electrode active material may be collected and recycled separately by a separate collection device (for example, a filter) after the salt difference generator 114 passes through the concentration difference.
따라서, 상기 발전셀(130)을 이용한 염분차발전장치(114)에 의해 농축염수와 담수에 의해 발전이 가능하게 된다. 이 때 발생하는 전기는 도 3에 도시된 바와 같이, 온도가 17℃일 때 0.40 W/㎡이고, 온도가 35℃일 때 0.68 W/㎡로 전력밀도는 시간에 따라 대략 일정하게 유지된다.Therefore, power generation by concentrated brine and fresh water is possible by the salt differential power generator 114 using the power generation cell 130. The electricity generated at this time is 0.40 W / m 2 when the temperature is 17 ° C. and 0.68 W / m 2 when the temperature is 35 ° C., as shown in FIG. 3.
그리고, 염분차발전장치(114)를 지나면 농축염수와 담수는 서로 이온을 교환하여 다시 농축염수에 비해 농도가 낮아진 염수가 돼서, 상기 염수저장장치(112)에 저장된다. 상기 염수저장장치(112)에 저장된 염수는 다시 상기 농축장치(106)로 공급돼서, 축전과 방전의 사이클이 완성된다.When the brine generator 114 passes, the concentrated brine and fresh water exchange ions with each other to become brine having a lower concentration than that of the brine, and is stored in the brine storage device 112. The brine stored in the brine storage device 112 is supplied to the concentrator 106 again, and the cycle of power storage and discharge is completed.
또, 상기 농축장치(106)로 분리되는 농축염수는 농축염수배출밸브(118)을 통해 배출되어 유용자원(소금, 미네랄)소금의 생산에 사용될 수 있으며, 담수는 담수배출밸브(120)를 통해 배출되어 식용수로 활용될 수 있다. 이 때, 부족해진 농축수 또는 담수는 외부의 염수공급원과 연결되는 염수공급밸브로 상기 농축장치(106)에 공급하거나, 상기 외부의 담수공급원과 연결되는 담수공급밸브(122)로 상기 염분차발전장치(114)에 공급할 수 있다.In addition, the concentrated brine separated by the concentrator 106 is discharged through the concentrated brine discharge valve 118 can be used for the production of useful resources (salt, mineral) salt, fresh water through the fresh water discharge valve 120 It can be discharged and used as drinking water. At this time, the depleted concentrated water or fresh water is supplied to the concentrator 106 by a salt water supply valve connected to an external salt water supply source, or the salt differential power generation by a fresh water supply valve 122 connected to the external fresh water supply source. May be supplied to the device 114.
특히, 의도적으로 상기 담수를 제거하고, 추가로 염수를 제공하면, 상기 전력저장장치(100)의 계(system) 내에 전체 염의 양이 증가하여, 농축염수의 염도를 증가시킬 수 있다. 이 결과, 담수와 농축염수간 농도차를 크게 하여, 발전효율을 상승시키는 것이 가능하다.In particular, by deliberately removing the fresh water and providing additional brine, the total salt content in the system of the power storage device 100 may be increased, thereby increasing the salinity of concentrated brine. As a result, it is possible to increase the concentration difference between fresh water and concentrated brine and to increase the power generation efficiency.
또한, 도 1과 같이 염수 또는/동시에 담수 저장장치에 열교환기를 설치하여 발전소 폐열이나, 또는 단일 발전기를 통해 열에너지를 공급할 경우, 도 3에 도시된 바와 같이 염분차 발전 효율을 상온에서 보다 훨씬 더 상승시킬 수 있다. 즉, 염수 또는/동시에 담수를 가열 보관으로 출력을 높게 유지할 수 있기 때문에 저장장치의 규모를 작게 할 수 있으며, 또한, 발전장치의 규모를 줄일 수 있다. 이 때 보관온도는 온도에 따른 증기압력을 고려하여 온도를 결정하거나 증발량을 낮추기 위한 장치(미도시)가 추가할 수도 있다.In addition, in the case of supplying heat energy through power plant waste heat or a single generator by installing a heat exchanger in a brine or / or a fresh water storage device at the same time as in FIG. 1, as shown in FIG. You can. That is, the output of the brine or / or fresh water can be kept high by heating and storing, so that the size of the storage device can be reduced, and the size of the power generator can be reduced. At this time, the storage temperature may be added to the device (not shown) for determining the temperature in consideration of the steam pressure according to the temperature or to reduce the evaporation amount.
상기와 같이, 본 발명의 바람직한 실시예를 참조하여 설명하였지만 해당 기술 분야의 숙련된 당업자라면 하기의 특허청구범위에 기재된 본 발명의 사상 및 영역으로부터 벗어나지 않는 범위 내에서 본 발명을 다양하게 수정 및 변경시킬 수 있음을 이해할 수 있을 것이다.As described above, it has been described with reference to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but those skilled in the art various modifications and changes of the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention described in the claims below I can understand that you can.
[부호의 설명][Description of the code]
100: 전력저장장치 102: 저장부100: power storage device 102: storage unit
104: 발전부 106: 농축장치104: power generation unit 106: concentration device
108: 담수저장장치 110: 농축염수저장장치108: fresh water storage device 110: concentrated brine storage device
112: 염수저장장치 114: 염분차발전장치112: brine storage unit 114: salt differential generator
116: 염수공급밸브 118: 농축염수배출밸브116: brine supply valve 118: concentrated brine discharge valve
120: 담수배출밸브 122: 담수공급밸브120: fresh water discharge valve 122: fresh water supply valve
124,126: 열교환라인 128: 담수버퍼탱크124,126: heat exchange line 128: freshwater buffer tank
130: 농도차 발전셀 131: 양극집전체130: concentration difference generation cell 131: positive electrode current collector
132: 양극유로 133,137: 양이온분리막132: anode flow channel 133, 137: cationic separation membrane
134: 담수유로 135: 음이온분리막134: fresh water flow path 135: anion separation membrane
136: 염수유로 138: 음극유로136: brine flow path 138: cathode flow path
139: 음극집전체 140: 전압계139: negative electrode collector 140: voltmeter

Claims (5)

  1. 염수를 농축분리하여 농축염수와 담수를 공급하는 농축장치;A concentrator for concentrating and separating brine to supply concentrated brine and fresh water;
    상기 농축장치로부터 공급되는 농축염수 및 담수를 각각 저장하는 농축염수저장장치 및 담수저장장치;A concentrated brine storage device and a fresh water storage device for storing the concentrated brine and fresh water supplied from the concentration device, respectively;
    상기 농축염수저장장치 및 상기 담수저장장치와 연결되어서, 상기 농축염수와 담수 사이의 농도차를 이용하여 발전하는 염분차발전장치; 및A salt differential generator connected to the concentrated brine storage device and the fresh water storage device and generating power using a difference in concentration between the concentrated brine and fresh water; And
    상기 염분차발전장치를 통과한 염수를 저장하고, 상기 농축장치로 염수를 공급하는 염수저장장치를 포함하며,A brine storage device for storing the brine passing through the salt differential generator and supplying the brine to the concentrator,
    상기 농축염수, 상기 염수, 상기 담수 중 선택된 어느 하나 이상은 열교환라인에 의해 가열되는 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템.At least one selected from the concentrated brine, the brine, and the fresh water is a super-capacity power storage system using brine, characterized in that the heating by heat exchange line.
  2. 제1항에 있어서, 상기 농축장치로 공급되는 염수는 상기 염수저장장치 또는 염수공급원으로부터 공급되는 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템.The supercapacity power storage system using a brine of claim 1, wherein the brine supplied to the concentrator is supplied from the brine storage device or a brine supply source.
  3. 제1항에 있어서, 상기 염분차발전장치로 공급되는 담수는 상기 담수저장장치 또는 담수공급원으로부터 공급되는 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템.The system of claim 1, wherein the fresh water supplied to the salt power generation device is supplied from the freshwater storage device or a freshwater supply source.
  4. 제1항에 있어서, 상기 발전장치는 하나 이상의 발전셀을 포함하고,The power generating apparatus of claim 1, wherein the power generating apparatus includes at least one power generating cell.
    상기 발전셀은 The power generation cell
    전극용액이 이동하는 양극유로;An anode flow path to which the electrode solution moves;
    상기 양극유로와 이격되어 마주보도록 배치되고, 전극용액이 이동하는 음극유로; 및 A cathode channel disposed to face the anode channel and spaced apart from each other, and to move an electrode solution; And
    상기 양극유로와 상기 음극유로 사이, 상기 양극유로로부터 담수가 흐르는 담수유로와 염수가 흐르는 염수유로가 교대로 배치되되 상기 음극유로에는 염수유로가 접하고,Between the positive electrode channel and the negative electrode channel, a freshwater channel through which fresh water flows from the positive electrode channel and a brine channel through which salt water flows are alternately disposed, and the salt channel is in contact with the negative channel.
    상기 양극유로와 상기 음극유로의 전극세정용액은 폐루프를 이루도록 순환되며,The electrode cleaning solution of the positive electrode channel and the negative electrode channel is circulated to form a closed loop,
    상기 양극유로와 상기 담수유로 사이 및 상기 음극유로와 상기 염수수로 사이에는 양이온교환막이 배치되고, 상기 양극유로에서 상기 음극유로로의 방향을 기준으로 담수유로와 염수유로의 순으로 배치되면 상기 담수유로와 상기 염수유로 사이에는 음이온교환막이 배치되고, 상기 양극유로에서 상기 음극유로로의 방향을 기준으로 염수유로와 담수유로의 순으로 배치되면 상기 염수유로와 상기 담수유로 사이에는 양이온교환막이 배치되며,A cation exchange membrane is disposed between the anode flow passage and the freshwater flow passage, and between the cathode flow passage and the brine flow passage, and the fresh water flow passage is disposed in the order of the freshwater flow passage and the brine flow passage based on the direction from the anode flow passage to the cathode flow passage. And an anion exchange membrane is disposed between the brine flow path, and a cation exchange membrane is disposed between the brine flow path and the fresh water flow path in the order of the brine flow path and the fresh water flow path based on the direction of the anode flow path to the cathode flow path.
    상기 전극용액의 양이온과 상기 염수의 양이온은 동일한 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템.The cation of the electrode solution and the cation of the brine is a super capacity power storage system using the brine, characterized in that the same.
  5. 제4항에 있어서, 상기 양극유로 및 상기 음극유로에는 전극활물질이 포함되는 것을 특징으로 하는 염수를 이용한 초대용량 전력저장시스템.5. The ultra-capacity power storage system according to claim 4, wherein the cathode flow channel and the cathode flow path include an electrode active material.
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