WO2014057014A1 - Storage device for temporarily storing thermal energy, and method for operating a storage device - Google Patents

Storage device for temporarily storing thermal energy, and method for operating a storage device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014057014A1
WO2014057014A1 PCT/EP2013/071116 EP2013071116W WO2014057014A1 WO 2014057014 A1 WO2014057014 A1 WO 2014057014A1 EP 2013071116 W EP2013071116 W EP 2013071116W WO 2014057014 A1 WO2014057014 A1 WO 2014057014A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
heat
storage
heat supply
characterized
working medium
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2013/071116
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Wolfram R. BAUER
Rainer HOLMIG
Michael METT
Ludwig WEISSFLOG
Original Assignee
Cm-Institute (Civilisations Matter) E.V.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE201210218634 priority Critical patent/DE102012218634A1/en
Priority to DE102012218634.4 priority
Application filed by Cm-Institute (Civilisations Matter) E.V. filed Critical Cm-Institute (Civilisations Matter) E.V.
Publication of WO2014057014A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014057014A1/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H7/00Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release
    • F24H7/02Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water
    • F24H7/04Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water with forced circulation of the transfer fluid
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D11/00Central heating systems using heat accumulated in storage masses
    • F24D11/002Central heating systems using heat accumulated in storage masses water heating system
    • F24D11/003Central heating systems using heat accumulated in storage masses water heating system combined with solar energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D20/0056Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using solid heat storage material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D2200/00Heat sources or energy sources
    • F24D2200/14Solar energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D2200/00Heat sources or energy sources
    • F24D2200/15Wind energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D2020/0065Details, e.g. particular heat storage tanks, auxiliary members within tanks
    • F28D2020/0069Distributing arrangements; Fluid deflecting means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F21/00Constructions of heat-exchange apparatus characterised by the selection of particular materials
    • F28F21/04Constructions of heat-exchange apparatus characterised by the selection of particular materials of ceramic; of concrete; of natural stone
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/14Thermal storage
    • Y02E60/142Sensible heat storage

Abstract

The invention relates to a storage device (1) for temporarily storing thermal energy, comprising at least one solid heat storage device (21), in particular a concrete thermal storage device. At least one heat supply line (28, 29) for a first working medium is arranged in at least some sections of the solid heat storage device (21), and at least one heat removal line (30, 31), which is fluidically separate from the heat supply line (28, 29), for a second working medium is arranged in at least some sections of the solid heat storage device. The invention further relates to a method for operating a storage device (1).

Description

 Storage means for storing thermal energy and methods of operating a storage means

The invention relates to a storage device for intermediate storage of thermal energy, with at least one solid heat store, in particular a concrete heat store. The invention further relates to a method for operating a memory device. Storage devices or heat storage devices are used for storage or intermediate storage of thermal energy, for example from industrial processes and / or regenerative energy sources. In the latter case, the primary energy, namely solar energy, is only temporarily available. In unfavorable weather conditions and at night the solar heat supply is omitted over an indefinite period of time. By means of the storage device such a period can be bridged without primary energy, so that the provision of thermal energy over at least a portion of the period is possible. For temporary storage of the thermal energy by means of storage devices different concepts for heat storage are known. These can be embodied, for example, as a fluid heat storage, latent heat storage, sorption heat storage or solid heat storage. The heat storage thermal energy is supplied and stored in this, so that it can be removed again at a later date.

In the low-temperature range, for example up to about 100 ° C, especially fluid heat storage are used, which work with the storage medium water. Water has a high specific heat capacity capacity and a relatively low viscosity. The achievable maximum temperature when using water as a storage medium is determined by the pressure-dependent boiling point, because boiling of the storage medium is usually to be avoided. In the low pressure range, ie at atmospheric pressure, therefore, only low maximum temperatures of up to about 95 ° C can be realized. In this case, average energy densities up to about 80 kW / m 3 are achieved. As a fluid heat storage using water as a storage medium, for example, hot water heat storage, geothermal heat storage, gravel / water heat storage and Aquiferwärme- memory to call.

In the middle temperature range, that is to say at temperatures of at least 100 ° C. to about 330 ° C., latent heat accumulators are used whose storage material is present as phase change material and thus changes its state of aggregation when it is heated and accordingly also when cooled in the range of a specific phase change temperature. Such phase change materials can for example consist of inorganic substances, such as salt hydrates or metals, or organic substances, such as fatty acids or paraffin. Latent heat storage systems achieve energy densities of up to about 200 kW / m 3 . Another alternative is fluid heat storage, which use liquid salts as a storage medium. However, these only achieve lower energy densities than thermodynamic heat accumulators, in particular the fluid heat accumulators described above.

In the high temperature range, ie at temperatures of over 400 ° C, sorption heat storage are mainly used. These heat accumulators work thermochemically and store the heat with the help of endothermic and exothermic reactions. They allow long-term heat storage with low energy losses. The storage medium used are silica gels, metal hydrides or zeolites. In sorption heat storage heat at high temperatures can temperatures and with extremely high energy densities of up to 500 kW / m 3 .

A further option for storing heat in the high-temperature range is solid-state heat storage. For example, concrete is used as the storage material, so that a concrete heat store is present. Such a concrete heat accumulator can store heat at temperatures of over 400 ° C at an energy density of about 30 kW / m 3 for several days. In the solid heat storage are for this purpose before pipelines, which can be traversed by a working medium or heat transfer medium. With the aid of the working medium, either heat can be supplied to or taken from the solid heat store.

It is an object of the invention to propose a storage device for the intermediate storage of thermal energy, which has the advantage over the known storage devices that the stored heat can be used more flexibly. In particular, both the feeding and the removal of heat should be able to be made arbitrarily. This is achieved according to the invention with a memory device having the features of claim 1. In this case, it is provided that at least one heat supply line for a first working medium and at least one heat extraction line separate from the heat supply line for a second working medium are arranged at least in regions in the solid heat store. The heat supply line and the heat extraction line consist of pipelines and represent a Mehrkrei- sige piping system, which is arranged in the concrete heat storage. With the aid of this piping system, optimized loading and unloading of the solid heat storage with or from thermal energy is possible. Both the heat supply line and the heat extraction line are less least partially arranged in the solid heat storage, in particular embedded in these or poured. The latter embodiment is, for example, when the solid heat storage is designed as concrete heat storage; but it can also be used in other heat storage applications.

The heat supply line is designed for the first working medium and the heat extraction line for the second working medium. The second working medium is preferably different from the first working medium. In an alternative embodiment, however, it may correspond to the first working medium. In order to achieve the above advantages, the heat supply and the heat extraction line are fluidly separated from each other. Apart from any leaks and the like, therefore, the second working medium is strictly separated from the first working medium.

By using multiple, fluidly separated from each other pipes and a corresponding control and / or regulation, the loading with heat and the removal of heat both temporally succession, in particular immediately successive or spaced successively, as well as simultaneously. It may be provided for charging the solid heat storage to supply more heat than is removed in the same period, while this may be reversed at least partially filled heat storage. In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the heat supply line at least two heat supply tubes and the heat extraction line has at least two heat removal tubes, the solid heat storage from a first end face to a first end opposite the second end face at least partially, in particular completely, pass through, in each case two of the heat supply tubes in the region of the first end face and two each of the heat extraction tubes re in the region of the second end side are fluidly connected to each other. Both the heat supply tubes and the heat removal tubes thus preferably pass through the solids heat store in the longitudinal direction completely and extend at least from the first end side to the second end face of the solid heat store. However, they can also extend beyond the first end face and / or the second end face in order to facilitate the described fluidic connection of two of the heat supply tubes or of two each of the heat removal tubes. Alternatively, however, of course, the fluidic connection between the two heat supply or -entnahmerohren also be embedded in the solid heat storage or a heat storage material of the solid heat storage. The heat supply line and the heat extraction line preferably have a number of heat supply tubes or heat removal tubes, which corresponds to a multiple of two. The heat supply line thus extends, if it has only two heat supply tubes, from the second end side at least to the first end side and back again. If the heat supply line has a multiple of the two heat supply tubes, then it runs correspondingly, for example, several times meandering between the second end side and the first end side. The same applies to the heat removal line, which, however, extends from the first end face at least to the second end face and back again to the first end face.

In one embodiment of the invention, it is provided that a plurality of heat supply lines and / or a plurality of heat extraction lines are provided. Thus, it is not merely intended to separate the heat supply line fluidly from the heat extraction line. Rather, in addition, a plurality of fluidly separated from each other Wärmezuführleitungen or realized a plurality of fluidly separated heat extraction lines, in addition to selectively introduce the supplied via the first working fluid heat in the solid heat storage and / or analogous to remove the heat also targeted by means of the second working medium from this. In this case, the plurality of heat supply lines can be acted upon independently of one another by the first working medium. The same applies to the multiple heat extraction lines and the second working medium. For example, as many heat supply lines as heat extraction lines are provided in the solid heat storage.

A further embodiment of the invention provides that at least one of the heat supply lines, for example in the region of the second end side, is connected to a heat supply inlet connection or a heat supply outlet connection of the storage device via at least one valve of a heat supply distribution device. By means of the heat supply distribution means, the first working medium, which is provided at the heat supply inlet port, can be flexibly distributed to the heat supply pipes. For this purpose, the Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung the valve, which is associated with the at least one of the heat supply lines.

Particularly preferably, all the heat supply lines each have such a valve, which may be designed, for example, as a multi-way valve. In particular, the valve is provided fluidically between the heat supply line and the heat supply inlet connection. Alternatively, however, it may be disposed between the heat supply pipe and the heat supply outlet port. Even with such a configuration, there is the possibility to distribute the first working medium targeted to the heat supply lines. Preferably, the valve is designed such that not only a complete release or complete Interrupting the running over the valve flow connection is possible, but rather that a setting of any selectable mass flow is realized by the valve.

A further embodiment of the invention provides that at least two of the heat supply lines, in particular all heat supply lines, for example in the region of the second end face, are connected via at least one multiway valve to a heat supply distribution line, the heat supply distribution line having the heat supply inlet connection and the heat supply outlet connection. Each of the at least two heat supply lines preferably opens into the heat supply distribution line on both sides. At at least one of these mouth points, the multi-way valve is provided. Alternatively, of course, there may be such a multi-way valve at each discharge point. The multi-way valve is preferably designed as a 3/2-way valve. Accordingly, the mass flow of the first working medium can be adjusted from the Wärmezuführverteilleitung in the heat supply by means of the multi-way valve or the multi-way valves. This adjustment preferably takes place in a controlling and / or regulating manner. With such a configuration, the flow communication between the heat supply line on one side and the heat supply inlet port and / or the heat supply outlet port on the other side can be completely interrupted. In this case, provision can be made, for example, for there to be an immediate flow connection between the heat supply inlet connection and the heat supply outlet connection, which therefore does not run over the heat supply lines. It is also possible to connect the heat supply lines with each other individually or in any combination with the heat supply inlet port and the heat supply outlet port. Accordingly, the solid state heat storage can be very targeted heat supplied by the first working medium at the desired location. In a further embodiment of the invention, it is provided that at least one of the heat extraction lines, for example in the region of the first end side, is connected to a heat extraction inlet connection or a heat extraction outlet connection of the storage device via at least one valve of a heat removal distribution device. Additionally or alternatively, it is provided that at least two of the heat supply lines, in particular all heat supply lines, for example in the region of the second end face, are connected via at least one multiway valve to a heat removal distribution line, the heat removal distribution line having the heat removal inlet connection and the heat removal outlet connection. The above explanations for the heat supply lines, the heat supply distribution line and the heat supply inlet connection and the heat supply outlet connection are thus transferable analogously to the heat extraction lines, the heat extraction distribution line and the heat extraction inlet connection and the heat extraction outlet connection.

An advantageous development of the invention provides that the heat supply tubes and the heat extraction tubes are formed by pipes which are arranged in the vertical direction in a plurality of rows in the solid heat storage, wherein at least some of the pipes of adjacent rows are arranged in the horizontal direction in alignment or offset from each other , So considered is the solid heat storage in cross section. The pipelines are preferably arranged parallel to one another over the entire longitudinal extent of the solid heat accumulator and, as already indicated above, extend at least from the first end side to the second end face of the solid heat accumulator opposite this. Particularly preferably, all the pipelines of a circuit, ie the heat supply line (s) or the heat extraction line (s), in particular all the pipes of the solid heat storage, the same Dimensions on, in particular with regard to their diameter and / or their length.

The pipelines can now be arranged arbitrarily in principle in the solid heat storage. However, they are preferably organized in several rows, with several of the pipes always being arranged in the horizontal direction next to one another at the same height, ie at the same vertical position. The pipelines of a row are preferably arranged spaced apart in the horizontal direction. The pipes therefore do not directly adjoin one another, so that between them the heat storage material of the solid heat storage is present. The pipes from each other in the vertical direction immediately adjacent rows are now also spaced from each other, for example, aligned with each other, ie at the same position in the horizontal direction, or offset in this direction to each other. In the case of the last-mentioned embodiment, the pipelines of one of the rows are located in the horizontal direction, for example centrally between the pipelines of the immediately adjacent row. Furthermore, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, a plurality of solid-state heat storage can be provided, wherein the pipes of the solid-state heat storage fluidically connected to each other in series or in parallel. The storage device is therefore modular and can be composed of any number of solid-state heat storage devices as a function of the amount of heat to be stored. The present in the solid state heat storage pipes are preferably fluidically connected to each other, so that the pipes of the plurality of solid heat storage are connected either in series or in parallel. A combination of parallel connection and series connection can also be provided. Preferably, identical solid-state heat Memory used, so that the pipes of one of the solid state heat storage can be fluidly connected to the corresponding with respect to their position of the other pipes of the solid state heat storage or are connected.

An advantageous development of the invention provides that the plurality of solid-state heat storage is assigned a common Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung and / or a common Wärmeentnahme- distribution, or that at least a portion of the solid heat storage separate Wärmezuführverteileinrich- and / or separate heat extraction distribution devices are provided. The common Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung or heat removal distribution device has the advantage that the storage device has a relatively simple construction, because the plurality of solid heat storage must be connected only to the common Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung or heat removal distribution device. In this way, the storage capacity of the storage device can be easily scaled. For example, the plurality of heat accumulators which are connected to the common heat supply distribution device and / or heat removal distribution device are in fluidic parallel connection and / or series connection. Particularly preferably, both the common heat supply distribution device and the common heat removal distribution device are present. Between these, the solid-state heat storage are arranged fluidically.

If the separate heat supply distribution devices or heat extraction distribution devices are present for the at least one part of the solid-state heat accumulator, then the respective working medium can, for example, be targeted to the desired solid-state heat accumulator or the desired solid state heat storage. store and additionally be supplied to the desired heat supply or heat extraction line. Thus, while the common heat supply distribution device or heat extraction distribution device permits simple scaling of the storage device without increasing the complexity of the fluidic connection, the heat can be supplied or removed in a particularly targeted manner with the separate heat supply distribution devices or heat extraction distribution devices. A development of the invention provides that the pipes consist of a material which has a greater thermal conductivity than the material of the solid heat storage. The material of the solid state heat storage can also be referred to as a heat storage material. The piping material is preferably different from the heat storage material. Due to the better thermal conductivity of the material of the pipes in comparison with the heat storage material, the heat can be efficiently supplied or removed by means of the respective working medium.

An advantageous embodiment of the invention provides that the solid heat storage of concrete, ceramic, mineral bulk, steel or a mixture of these materials. In principle, the solid-state heat accumulator can consist of any desired material which is always present in the temperature range of the solid-state heat accumulator to be expected during operation of the storage device, ie in the solid state of matter. For example, concrete is used as heat storage material, so that the solid-state heat storage is designed as concrete heat storage. Of course, at least one additive, at least one filler and / or at least one additive can be added to the concrete in order, on the one hand, to achieve a dense concrete matrix and, on the other hand, a high thermal conductivity; or a desired vapor permeability too enable. The aggregate is especially gravel or sand, which is selected depending on local conditions. For example, heavy minerals and / or metal compounds can be used as additives. For example, heavy minerals are minerals having a density of at least 2.65 g / cm 3 or at least 2.9 g / cm 3 . As heavy minerals, for example, metal oxides and / or silicate compounds, in particular in any combination, are used.

In a further embodiment of the invention, it is provided that a plurality of heat extraction inlet connections and a plurality of heat extraction outlet connections are provided, which can be fluidly connected to at least one heat extraction line. A heat consumer is connected to the storage device via a respective heat removal inlet connection and a heat extraction outlet connection. If there are now several heat removal inlet connections and several heat extraction outlet connections, then several of these heat consumers can be supplied or operated by means of heat removed from the storage device, in particular independently of one another. It is therefore not necessary to connect a plurality of heat consumers fluidically in parallel or in series together to a heat extraction inlet connection and a heat extraction outlet connection. Nevertheless, in an alternative embodiment of the invention is of course possible. It is advantageous if the heat extraction inlet connections and heat extraction outlet connections can be fluidically optionally or flexibly connected to the heat extraction lines. For example, at least one heat extraction line can be fluidly connected to one of the heat extraction inlet connections and one of the heat extraction outlet connections. However, it is particularly preferable for each of the heat removal inlet connections and the heat extraction inlet meauslassanschlüsse connectable with several heat extraction lines. In a preferred embodiment, this is simultaneously possible, so that, for example, a first heat consumer can be supplied with heat removed via a first heat extraction line and a second heat consumer can be supplied with heat removed via a second heat extraction line. Accordingly, the consumers can be operated simultaneously and completely independently of each other, as long as the storage device or the solid heat storage has a sufficient charge level.

A preferred embodiment of the invention provides that only one Wärmezuführeinlassanschluss and only one Wärmezuführaus- lassanschluss are provided. Thus, for example, while the removal of the heat may be provided via the plurality of heat extraction inlet ports and the plurality of heat extraction outlet ports, the supply of heat is realized only via a circuit which passes over the heat supply inlet port and the heat supply outlet port. Accordingly, if a plurality of heat sources are to be provided, they are fluidically parallel to one another or connected in series. An independent heating of different areas of the solid state heat storage with heat from different heat sources is therefore preferably not provided.

Advantageously, at least one temperature sensor is embedded in the solid-state heat store. By means of the temperature sensor, the temperature of the solid state heat storage or at least a portion of the solid state heat storage can be determined. Based on the temperature determined by means of the temperature sensor, the supply and / or removal of heat from the solid-state heat store can then be controlled and / or regulated. Finally, provision can be made for a heating device, in particular an electrical heating device, to be fluidically connected or connectable to at least one heat supply line. The heating device is preferably supplied with regeneratively generated energy. For example, it is connected to the side facing away from the solid heat storage side of the Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung to this or the Wärmezuführeinlassanschluss and the Wärmezuführauslassanschluss. For example, the heater is directly connected to both the heat supply inlet port and the heat supply outlet port. Accordingly, heat can also be supplied to a plurality of solid-state heat accumulators by means of the, in particular single, heating device of the storage device, ie these can be heated. The heater can also be present for several solid state heat storage as a central heating. The heating device is preferably arranged in parallel or in series with another heat source. The heating device is present in particular as an electrical heating device, which is preferably supplied with electrical energy from a regenerative energy source, for example a wind power plant or the like.

The invention further relates to a method for operating a storage device for temporarily storing thermal energy, in particular a storage device according to the above statements, wherein the storage device has at least one solid heat storage, in particular a concrete heat storage. It is provided that in the solid heat storage at least one heat supply for a first working fluid and at least one fluidically separated from the heat supply line heat extraction line for a second Arbeitsmedi- are arranged at least partially, wherein the mass flow of the first working medium through the heat supply and the mass flow of the second working medium be set independently by the heat extraction line. The advantages of the storage device have already been discussed. Both the method and the memory device can be developed in accordance with the above explanations, so that reference is made to this extent. By setting the mass flows independently of one another, heat can be selectively supplied to and removed from the solid heat store, in particular simultaneously or one after the other, for example immediately thereafter or with a time interval.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the mass flows are adjusted such that the maximum temperature of the first working medium is different from the maximum temperature of the second working medium, especially if the solid heat storage is simultaneously supplied heat via the first working medium and removed via the second working medium , The maximum temperature is to be understood as the highest temperature which occurs under normal operating conditions of the storage device in the respective working medium in the region of the storage device. The maximum temperature of the first working medium will therefore occur, for example, at the heat supply inlet connection and the maximum temperature of the second working medium in the heat extraction line and / or the heat extraction outlet connection.

Preferably, the maximum temperature of the first working medium is greater than the maximum temperature of the second working medium. For example, the maximum temperature of the first working medium is at least 300 ° C, at least 350 ° C or at least 400 ° C, while the maximum temperature of the second working medium is at most 100 ° C. The mass flows of the first working medium and the second working medium are now adjusted so that the said condition is met. This should in particular be the case even if the solid heat storage at the same time - via the first working medium - supplied heat and - on the second working fluid - is taken, so the mass flows of the two working media are each greater than zero by the solid heat storage.

A development of the invention provides that the first working medium is selected differently from the second working medium, in particular as the first working medium a first oil, preferably a thermal oil, and as the second working medium water, a water-containing solution or a second oil, in particular a thermal oil, is used. As already indicated above, the temperature ranges which occur in the two working media should be different from one another. This applies in particular to the maximum temperatures that occur in the first and the second working medium. For this reason, the working media are adapted to the different temperature ranges. In this way, operation of the storage device at low pressure both in the heat supply line and in the heat extraction line is possible especially in the medium temperature range and in the high temperature range. The pressures in the heat supply line as well as in the heat extraction line preferably at least approximately correspond to the ambient pressure or only deviate slightly therefrom. Accordingly, the solid heat storage or arranged in this pipeline must not be designed pressure-resistant.

However, this means that no phase transition of the working media may take place during operation of the storage device. For this reason, for example, the first oil selected as the first working medium. This preferably has a boiling point which is above the maximum temperature of the first working medium, particularly preferably clearly above it. For example, the boiling point is at a temperature that is at least 1, 1; at least 1, 25; or at least 1.5, is greater than the maximum temperature. This property is used, for example, by the Thermal oil fulfilled. While any high temperature solid oil can be used as the thermal oil, either mineral oils (for cost reasons), synthetic oils (due to their low corrosivity) or biological oils are preferred. The first working medium is, for example, a high-temperature thermal oil.

As a second working medium, for example, water or a water-containing solution can be used. This is the case, in particular, when the maximum temperature of the second working medium is low, that is, for example, less than 100 ° C., in particular less than 95 ° C. Alternatively, the second oil can be used as a second working medium. The second oil may correspond to the first oil, for example as thermal oil. In particular, the second working medium is a medium-temperature thermal oil. An advantageous development of the invention provides that the solid heat storage is divided into a plurality of logical heat storage segments, each having at least one heat supply and at least one heat extraction line, wherein the temperature of each heat storage segment is determined by at least one temperature sensor. The mass flows of the working media should be adjustable by the heat supply and the heat extraction line of each heat storage segment independently of the mass flows of the other heat storage segments. The at least one heat removal line is preferably thermally coupled to the at least one heat supply line, in particular the heat extraction line is the heat removal line closest to the heat supply line - at least in cross section.

Each heat storage segment also has a temperature sensor. This is preferably arranged such that it is influenced as little as possible by the other heat storage segments or their temperature. For example, the temperature Ratursensor - seen in cross section - arranged centrally in the respective heat storage segment. From the determined by means of the temperature sensor, in particular measured, the temperature present in the respective heat storage segment amount of heat or the remaining heat capacity can be determined or at least approximately estimated. In this case, for example, additionally an ambient temperature in the environment of the storage device is taken into account. Thus, based on the temperature, the mass flows of the working media can be adjusted in such a way that, for example, no thermal overloading of the heat storage segment occurs and / or the conditions described above with respect to the maximum temperatures are maintained.

An advantageous development of the invention provides that at least in a first operating mode for a colder of the heat storage segments increases the mass flow through the respective Wärmezuführleitung and / or reduced the mass flow through the respective heat extraction line and / or for a warmer of the heat storage segments of the mass flow through the respective heat supply line reduced and / or the mass flow through the respective heat extraction line is increased. The increasing or decreasing of the mass flow takes place in each case with respect to the corresponding mass flow of the at least one further heat storage segment. Thus, if it is determined that at least one of the heat storage segments has a lower temperature than the further heat storage segment, it is at least temporarily supplied to a larger amount of heat per unit time or a smaller amount of heat per unit time taken as this further heat storage segment. This is done by appropriately adjusting the mass flow through the heat supply line and / or the mass flow through the heat extraction line of the heat storage segment. By analogy, it is of course possible to proceed if it is determined that at least one of the heat storage segments is warmer than at least one other. In this case, the heat storage segment, a smaller amount of heat per unit time supplied and / or a larger amount of heat per unit time can be removed. This is also done by appropriately adjusting the mass flow through the heat supply line or the heat extraction line. In particular, a uniform temperature distribution over the heat storage segments is achieved with the above-mentioned procedure, so that the second working medium can be taken out at the same mass flows for different heat storage segments, each with the same or at least a similar temperature. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is provided that, at least in a second mode of operation, the mass flow through the heat supply line is adjusted to supply a specific amount of heat to a first one of the heat storage segments, the mass flow passing through the heat extraction line of at least one other of the heat storage segments for removal of a particular one Heat extraction amount that is greater than or equal to the heat supply amount is set. The quantity of heat removed from the other of the heat storage segments in the form of the heat removal quantity is thus at least partially supplied to the first of the heat storage segments in the form of the heat supply quantity. The heat removal amount may be greater than the amount of heat supply, so that the heat storage segment stored in this heat - with sufficient charge level - is removed. For example, it can be provided that for the further of the heat storage segments of the mass flow is adjusted by the heat supply such that the directly in the further the Heat storage segments introduced heat input quantity is smaller than the heat removal amount removed this. In particular, the heat supply amount supplied to the other of the heat storage segments is equal to zero and consequently the mass flow through the heat supply line is also equal to zero.

The heat storage segments describe, as already explained above, only a logical division of the solid heat storage. Accordingly, the individual heat storage segments are connected or coupled to one another in a heat-transmitting manner. Preferably, the first and the further of the heat storage segments are arranged immediately adjacent to each other, so that the first of the heat storage segments supplied Wärmezuführmenge can pass through heat conduction into the other of the heat storage segments, where it is removed in the form of Wärmeentnahmemen- ge.

Thus, there is only an indirect supply of heat in the other of the heat storage segments from the first of the heat storage segments. In this way, for example, the first of the heat storage segments can be brought to a high temperature and yet the second working medium can be acted upon only with a lower temperature, so that its predetermined maximum temperature is not reached even at low mass flow, namely because it is not the first of the Heat storage segments, but only passes through the other of the heat storage segments.

In a further development of the invention, it is provided that, at least in the second operating mode, the mass flows through the heat supply lines and the heat extraction lines are set such that the sum of the heat supply amounts is equal to or greater than the sum of the heat removal quantities. Such a procedure is particularly in the case of the second mode of operation described above, in which not all heating Memory segments directly via the corresponding heat supply lines heat is supplied, useful. For example, it is now provided to supply at least one heat storage segment, preferably a plurality of heat storage segments, each a supply of heat, these heat supply amounts are greater than the total, the heat storage, so all heat storage segments, extracted heat removal. In this way, at least one heat storage segment, preferably a plurality of heat storage segments, maintained at a constant temperature or further heated, while another of the heat storage segments heat is removed, in particular without him directly supplying heat.

In other words, it can be provided that, at least in the second mode of operation, the mass flow through the heat supply line is set to be greater than zero only for a portion of the heat storage segments, while the mass flow through the heat extraction line for at least one of the heat storage segments, for which the mass flow through the heat supply equal Zero is set greater than zero. The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings, without any limitation of the invention. Showing:

FIG. 1 shows a schematic representation of a storage device for temporarily storing thermal energy in a first embodiment, wherein a first switching configuration is present,

FIG. 2 shows the memory device in a second embodiment,

FIG. 3 shows the storage device known from FIG. 1 in a second switching configuration; FIG. 4 shows the memory device known from FIG. 1 in a third switching configuration,

5 shows the storage device in a third embodiment, FIGS. 6 to 8 show a cross section through a region of a solid heat storage of the storage device with a first pipeline configuration, and FIG

Figures 9 to 1 1, the cross section through the solid heat storage with a second pipeline configuration. FIG. 1 shows a schematic representation of a memory device 1 in a first embodiment. In addition, two heat sources 2 and 3 are shown, which are fluidically connected to the storage device 1. The heat source 2 serves as a primary heat source, the heat source 3 as a secondary heat source. Shown is also a heat consumer 4, which is also connected to the storage device 1 fluidly. The primary heat source 2 is present for example in the form of at least one solar collector 5, which is connected via pipes 6 and 7 to a heat supply inlet 8 and a heat supply outlet 9 of the storage device 1. The pipes 6 and 7 are fluidly connected to each other via the secondary heat source 3 or connectable.

In the pipes 6 and 7 and therefore also in the solar collector 5, a first working medium is present, which can be supplied to the storage device 1 via the heat supply inlet 8 and can be removed via the heat supply outlet 9. The first working medium can be heated in the solar collector 5. In addition, it can be passed through the secondary heat source 3 for further heating. Alternatively, the first working medium heated exclusively by means of the secondary heat source 3. The secondary heat source 3 is present for example in the form of a heater 10. The heating device 10 is operated in particular electrically and is designed in this respect as an electric heater. The heating device 10 is preferably supplied with electrical energy which originates from regenerative energy sources 11 and 12.

The consumer 4 is fluidly connected via pipes 13 and 14 to a heat extraction outlet 15 and a heat extraction inlet 16 of the storage device 1. A second working medium is present in the pipes 13 and 14, which can be removed from the storage device 1 via the heat removal outlet connection 15 and supplied via the heat removal inlet connection 16. The main flow directions present in the pipelines 6 and 7 as well as 15 and 16 are indicated by way of example by the arrows 17, 18, 19 and 20.

The memory device 1 serves for the intermediate storage of thermal energy. For this purpose, it has at least one solid heat storage 21, which is designed for example as a concrete heat storage. The solid heat storage 21 consists of a heat storage material 22, in which pipes 23 are embedded. A part of these pipes 23 now forms heat supply tubes 24, another part heat removal tubes 25. Preferably, as many heat supply tubes 24 as heat removal tubes 25 are provided. The pipes 23 - consequently the Wärmezuführroh- re 24 and the heat extraction tubes 25 - pass through the solid heat storage from a first end face 26 to a second opposite end face 27. The end faces 26 and 27 are each penetrated by each of the pipes 23. In the illustrated schematic representation of the solid heat storage 21, two heat supply tubes 24 form a first heat supply line 28 and two heat supply tubes 24 form a second heat supply. Guide 29. For this purpose, the two heat supply tubes

24 each of the first heat supply line 28 and the second heat supply line 29 on the first end face 26 fluidly connected to each other. Each of the heat supply lines 28 and 29 thus extends from the second end face 27 to the first end face 26 and back to the second end face 27. The representation chosen here is purely exemplary. Thus, the heat supply lines 28 and 29 may each consist of more than two heat supply tubes 24, which lie, for example, before and / or behind the drawing plane. Also, contrary to the illustration, each of the heat supply lines 28 and 29 can run several times between the second end face 27 and the first end face and consist of a corresponding number of heat supply tubes 24 for this purpose. Similarly, two of the heat extraction tubes 25 form a first heat extraction line 30 and two more of the heat extraction tubes 25, a second heat extraction line 31st The heat extraction pipes

25 each of the first heat extraction line 30 and the second heat extraction line 31 are fluidically connected to each other in the region of the second end face 27. Accordingly, the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 extend from the first end face 26 to the second end face 27 and back to the first end face 26. Again, the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 have further heat extraction tubes 25, which are present for example in front of or behind the plane , The comments on the heat supply lines 28 and 29 are complementary to the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 are used. This also applies vice versa.

Of course, alternatively, only one heat supply line or more than two heat supply lines and / or only one heat extraction line or more than two heat extraction lines may be present in the solid heat storage 21. The solid-state heat accumulator 21 is assigned both a heat supply distribution device 32 and a heat extraction distribution device 33. The Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung 32 has at least one valve 34, the heat extraction manifold 33 via at least one valve 35. The valve 34 is fluidly between the heat supply lines 28 and 29, for example, on the second end face 27 before. By contrast, the valve 35 is fluidically provided between the heat extraction lines 30 and 31, that is, for example, on the first end face 26. On the side facing away from the valve 34, the first heat supply line 28 is connected, for example, directly to the heat supply inlet connection 8. On the other hand, the second heat supply line 29 is fluidly connected directly to the heat supply outlet connection 9 on its side facing away from the valve 34.

Via the valve 34, an additional flow connection to the heat supply inlet connection 8 can now be produced, which opens between the heat supply lines 28 and 29. For this purpose, the valve 34 is formed for example as a multi-way valve, in particular as a 3/2-way valve. By means of the valve 34, either only the heat supply line 28 or, alternatively, both heat supply lines 28 and 29 can be acted upon by the first working medium supplied by the heat supply inlet connection 8. The same applies to the heat extraction lines 30 and 33 and the valve 35. This is fluidically arranged between the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 and also as a multi-way valve, in particular as a 3/2-way valve is formed. The first heat extraction line 30 is connected directly to the heat removal inlet connection 16, while the second heat extraction line 31 is connected to the heat extraction outlet connection 15. The valve 35 is fluidically interposed between the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 is provided and allows the production of an additional flow connection, which has its starting point between the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 and leads to the heat extraction outlet port 15. The second working medium introduced through the heat removal inlet connection 16 can correspondingly pass through only the first heat extraction line 30 or both heat extraction lines 30 and 31 before it subsequently exits through the heat extraction outlet connection 15. The secondary heat source 3 or the heating device 10 can either be arranged between the heat supply inlet connection 8 and the heat supply outlet connection 9 on one side and the heat source 2 on the other side, as shown. In this case, it can either be connected in series or parallel to the heat source 2. Alternatively, it may also be present on the side of the heat supply inlet connection 8 or the heat supply outlet connection 9 facing the solid heat storage 21. If there are several solid-state heat accumulators 21, then the heating device 10 can be installed for them as a central auxiliary heater. For adjusting the mass flow of the first working medium by the secondary heat source 3, at least one valve 36, but preferably two valves 36 and 37 are provided, which are designed for example as multi-way valves, in particular as 3/2-way valves. In addition, for the first Arbeitsmedi- and the second working medium in each case a not shown here conveyor, for example, an electrically operated pump or the like, is provided.

FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of the memory device 1. In the following, only the difference from the first embodiment will be discussed, so that reference is made in principle to the description of the second embodiment to the above description of the first embodiment. The difference is that instead of the valve 34, valves 38, 39, 40 and 41 and, instead of the valve 35, valves 42, 43, 44 and 45 are provided. The valves 38 to 45 are again preferably designed as multi-way valves, in particular as 3/2-way valves. The heat supply line 28 is connected via the valves 38 and 39 and the second heat supply line 29 via the valves 40 and 41 to a heat supply distribution line 46 which has the heat supply inlet connection 8 at one end and the heat supply outlet connection 9 at its other end. Thus, each of the heat supply pipes 28 and 29 is connected to the heat supply distribution pipe 46 via two valves 38 and 39, 40 and 41, respectively. It should be noted that only one valve per heat supply line 28 or 29 is sufficient. For example, therefore, one of the valves 38 and 39 and / or one of the valves 40 and 41 can be dispensed with without impairing the functionality of the memory device 1.

By means of the valves 38 to 41, which belong to the heat supply distribution device 32, each of the heat supply lines 28 and 29 can be acted upon individually or in any desired combination with the first working medium fed through the heat supply inlet connection 8. In contrast to the first embodiment, therefore, only the first heat supply line 28 can be flowed through by the first working medium during operation of the storage device 1. The same applies to the heat extraction lines 30 and 31, which are connected via the valves 42 to 45 to a heat removal device 47 having on its one side the heat extraction outlet port 15 and on its other side the heat extraction inlet port 16. Again, at least one of the valves 42 and 43 or 44 and 45 can be dispensed with because one valve per heat exchanger is already provided. receiving line 30 or 31 is sufficient to ensure the desired functionality.

Various switching configurations for the first embodiment of the memory device 1 will be explained with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4. While FIG. 1 shows a switching configuration in which a respective mass flow of greater than zero is present through corresponding adjustment of the valve 34 both through both heat supply lines 28 and 29 and through both heat extraction lines 30 and 31, FIG Switching configuration, the valve 34 is set such that only the second heat supply line 29 is acted upon by the first working medium. The first heat supply line 28, however, is not flowed through, the mass flow is thus at least approximately equal to zero for this. The same applies to the heat extraction lines 30 and 31. Here, the valve 35 is set such that only the first heat extraction line 30, but not the second heat extraction line 31 is flowed through by the second working medium. The mass flow of the second working medium is therefore equal to zero in the second heat removal line 31.

In this case, the pipelines 23 are provided in the solid-state heat accumulator 21 or connected to one another such that the first heat supply line 28 with the second heat-extraction line 31 and the second heat-supply line 29 with the first heat-extraction line 30 are each present in a heat-storage segment 48 or 49. The present in the heat storage segments 48 and 49 heat supply tubes 24 and heat extraction tubes 25 are thermally associated with each other. For example, at least one of the heat supply tubes 24 of the heat storage segment 48 is located between two heat removal tubes 25 of the same heat storage segment 48 or 49. Conversely, of course, lent at least one of the heat extraction tubes 25 each heat storage segment 48 and 49 between two heat supply tubes 24 may be arranged. This applies at least to the longitudinal section of the solid heat storage 21 shown here. In the illustrated switching configuration, only the heat storage segment 49 heat is supplied and removed. Heat is not (directly) introduced into the heat storage segment 48, nor is it removed (directly) from it. Of course, however, by heat conduction heat from the heat storage segment 49 in the heat storage segment 48 and vice versa arrive. Accordingly, an indirect supply or removal of heat may result.

FIG. 4 shows a further switching configuration for the first embodiment of the memory device 1. The valve 34 is in the same switching position as for the switching configuration described above. Accordingly, only the heat storage segment 49 heat is supplied, namely by means of the heat supply 29. In contrast to the switching configuration described with reference to FIG 3, it is now provided to adjust the valve 35 such that both the heat storage segment 48 and the heat storage segment 49 of the second working medium be flowed through, although the heat storage segment 48 is not heated. In this way, for example - depending on the temperature of the heat storage segment 48 - the heat storage segment 48 indirectly by means of the second working medium and / or by heat conduction from the heat storage segment 49 are heated and simultaneously the second working medium during the passage of the heat storage segment 48 to a for the heat consumer 4 suitable temperature can be brought ture, which is lower than after passing through the heat storage segment 49th In such a switching configuration, it may also be provided that a total heat removal amount, which is composed of the individual, for the heat storage segments 48 and 49 heat removal amounts, is greater than the total amount of heat supply, which consists of the heat supply amounts for the individual heat storage segments 48 and 49th composed. Accordingly, the amount of heat stored in the solid-state heat storage 21 decreases. However, this is only possible if the heat storage segment 48, for example due to a previous charge, has a higher temperature than the second working medium when it enters the heat storage segment 48.

FIG. 5 shows a further embodiment of the memory device 1, which is fundamentally similar to the embodiment presented with reference to FIG. In the following, for this reason, only the differences are discussed and otherwise referred to the above statements.

In this embodiment, it is now provided that in addition to the heat consumer 4, a further heat consumer 50 is present, which is connected via a heat removal outlet 51 and a heat removal inlet port 52 and pipes 53 and 54 with the storage device 1 fluidly. In the heat extraction distribution device 33, a further valve 55 is provided in addition to the valve 35. Via the valve 35, the second heat extraction line 31 with the heat extraction outlet 15 and thus the heat consumer 4 fluidly connectable. Via the valve 55, the heat extraction line 30 with the heat extraction outlet port 51 and finally the heat consumer 50 fluidly connectable. Each of the heat consumers 4 and 50 is thus one of the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 assigned, in particular assigned exclusively. This means that with one of the heat consumers 4 and 50 fluidly connectable heat extraction line 30 or 31 is not connectable to the other heat consumer 50 and 4 respectively. In an alternative embodiment (not shown here), however, this can be provided by a corresponding design of the heat removal distribution device 33. In this case, each of the heat consumer 4 and 50 with each and / or any combination of the heat extraction lines 30 and 31 or possibly further provided heat extraction lines are fluidically connected.

Of course, more than two heat consumers 4 and 50 may be provided, wherein preferably the number of heat extraction lines 30 and 31 at least the number of heat consumers 4 and 50 is equal to or greater, in particular an integer multiple. Of course, an embodiment of the memory device 1, to which a plurality of heat consumers can be connected, be transferred to each of the embodiments described above, ie in particular also to the embodiment of Figure 2.

Figures 6 to 1 1 show two different pipe configurations, wherein a region of the solid heat storage 21 is shown in cross section. Visible are the only partially identified by reference numerals pipes 23, which are present in the heat storage material 22. The pipes 23 are arranged in a plurality of rows 56, 57 and 58, which are identified only by way of example. It is clear that in the piping configuration of FIG. 6, the pipelines 23 of rows 57, 57 and 58 immediately adjacent to each other are aligned with one another in the horizontal direction.

FIG. 7 shows the assignment of the pipelines 13 known from FIG. 6. The pipelines 23 of the rows 56 and 58 are known as Heat supply tubes 24 formed while the pipes 23 of the row 57, so lying between the rows 56 and 58 series, as heat extraction tubes 25 are present.

FIG. 8 shows a further configuration in which a part of the pipelines 23 are designed as further heat removal tubes 59 or alternatively as further heat supply tubes. These can be flowed through independently of the heat supply tubes 24 and 25 by the first working medium or the second working medium. For example, the heat extraction tubes 25 for the embodiment shown in Figure 5 the heat consumer 4 and the heat extraction tubes 59 associated with the heat consumer 50.

Figure 9 shows an alternative piping configuration. Again, the pipes 23 in rows 56, 57 and 58 are arranged. Here, however, the pipes 23 of immediately adjacent to each other rows 56 and 57 and 57 and 58 are arranged offset from one another in the horizontal direction. In this case, it may additionally be provided that the pipes 23 are again arranged in alignment with one another by rows 56 and 58 which are not directly adjacent to each other, again in the horizontal direction.

Various divisions of the pipes 23 in the heat supply tubes 24 and heat removal tubes 25 and optionally heat removal tubes 59 can be seen in FIGS. 10 and 11. For these, what has been said about FIGS. 7 and 8 applies accordingly.

Claims

claims
1 . Storage device (1) for intermediate storage of thermal energy, with at least one solid heat storage (21), in particular a concrete heat storage, characterized in that in the solid heat storage (21) at least one heat supply (28,29) for a first working medium and at least one fluidic from the heat supply (28,29) separate heat extraction line (30,31) are arranged at least partially for a second working medium.
2. Storage device according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat supply line (28,29) has at least two heat supply tubes (24) and the heat extraction line (30,31) at least two heat removal tubes (25), the solid heat storage (21) from a first end face (26) at least partially, in particular completely, pass through up to one of the first end face (26) opposite the second end face (27), wherein in each case two of the heat supply tubes (24) in the region of the first end face (26) and in each case two of the heat removal tubes (25) in the region of the second end face (27) are fluidically connected to each other.
3. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a plurality of heat supply lines (28,29) and / or a plurality of heat extraction lines (30,31) are provided.
4. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the heat Supply lines (28,29) via at least one valve (34) of a Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung (32) to a Wärmezuführeinlassanschluss (8) or a Wärmezuführauslassanschluss (9) of the memory device (1) is connected.
5. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least two of the heat supply lines (28,29), in particular all Wärmezuführleitungen (28,29), in each case via at least one multi-way valve (38,39,40,41) to a Wärmezuführverteilleitung ( 46), the heat supply distribution line (46) having the heat supply inlet port (8) and the heat supply outlet port (9).
6. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the heat extraction lines (30,31) via at least one valve (35) of a heat extraction distribution device (33) to a heat extraction inlet port (16) or a heat extraction outlet port (15) of the storage device (1) is connected.
7. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least two of the heat supply lines (28,29), in particular all heat supply lines (28,29) via at least one multi-way valve (42,43,44,45) to a Heat extraction distribution line (47) are connected, wherein the heat extraction distribution line (47) the heat extraction inlet connection (16) and the heat extraction outlet connection (15).
8. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the heat supply tubes (24) and the heat extraction tubes (25) are formed by conduits (23) arranged vertically in a plurality of rows (56, 57, 58) in the solid heat store (21), at least some of the conduits (23) adjacent to each other (FIGS. 56, 57, 57,58) are arranged in the horizontal direction in alignment or offset from one another.
9. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a plurality of solid heat storage (21) are provided, wherein the pipes (23) of the solid heat storage (21) are fluidically connected to each other in series or in parallel.
10. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the plurality of solid heat storage (21) is assigned a common Wärmezuführverteileinrichtung and / or common heat removal distribution device, or that for at least a portion of the solid heat storage (21) separate Wärmezuführverteileinrichtungen and / or heat extraction distribution facilities are provided.
1 1. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the pipes (23) consist of a material which has a greater thermal conductivity than the material of the solid heat storage (21).
12. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the solid heat storage (21) consists of concrete, ceramic, mineral bulk material, steel or a mixture of these materials.
13. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a plurality of heat removal inlet connections (16) and a plurality of heat extraction outlet connections (15) are provided, which can be fluidly connected to at least one heat extraction line (30, 31).
14. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that only one Wärmezuführeinlass- connection (8) and only one Wärmezuführauslassanschluss (9) is provided.
15. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the solid heat storage (21) at least one temperature sensor is embedded.
16. Storage device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a heating device (10), in particular an electric heater, with at least one heat supply (28,29) fluidly connected or connectable.
17. A method for operating a memory device (1) for temporarily storing thermal energy, in particular a memory device (1) according to one or more of the preceding claims, wherein the memory device (1) at least one solid heat storage (21), in particular a concrete heat storage, characterized characterized in that at least one heat supply line (28, 29) for a first working medium and at least one heat extraction line (30, 31) for a second working medium are at least one heat extraction line (28, 29) in the solid heat store (21). are arranged richly, wherein the mass flow of the first working medium through the heat supply (28,29) and the mass flow of the second working medium through the heat extraction line (30,31) are set independently.
18. The method according to claim 17, characterized in that the mass flows are adjusted such that the maximum temperature of the first working medium is different from the maximum temperature of the second working medium, in particular if the solid heat storage (21) simultaneously supplied heat via the first working medium and on the second working medium is removed.
19. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first working medium is selected differently from the second working medium, in particular as a first working medium a first oil, preferably a thermal oil, and as a second working medium water, a water-containing solution or a second oil , in particular a thermal oil, is used.
20. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the solid heat storage (21) into a plurality of logical heat storage segments (48,49) is divided, each having at least one heat supply (28,29) and at least one heat extraction line (30,31) wherein the temperature of each heat storage segment (48, 49) is determined by means of at least one temperature sensor.
21. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that, at least in a first operating mode, for a colder one of the heat storage segments (48, 49) of the heat storage segments (48, 49). senstrom through the respective heat supply (28,29) increases and / or the mass flow through the respective heat extraction line (30,31) reduced and / or for a warmer of the heat storage segments (48,49), the mass flow through the respective heat supply line (30, 31) reduced and / or the mass flow through the respective heat extraction line (30,31) is increased.
22. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least in a second mode, the mass flow through the heat supply (28,29) for supplying a certain amount of heat to a first of the heat storage segments (48,49) is set, wherein the mass flow through the heat extraction line (30, 31) of at least one other of the heat storage segments (49, 48) is set to extract a predetermined heat extraction amount that is greater than or equal to the heat supply amount.
23. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least in the second mode, the mass flows through the heat supply (28,29) and the heat extraction lines (30,31) are set such that the sum of the heat supply amounts to the sum of the heat extraction amounts or greater than this.
24. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least in the second mode, the mass flow through the heat supply (28,29) only for a portion of the heat storage segments (48,49) is set greater than zero, while the mass flow through the Heat extraction line (30,31) for at least one of the heat storage segments (48,49), for which the mass flow through the heat supply line (28,29) is equal to zero, is set greater than zero.
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CN104266340A (en) * 2014-10-23 2015-01-07 海南大学 Wind-power rotary disc type viscous friction water heater
CN104266340B (en) * 2014-10-23 2016-08-17 海南大学 A kind of Wind-driven rotating disc-type viscous friction water heater
BE1024015B1 (en) * 2016-07-29 2017-10-27 Cesi Power Exchanger Heat exchanger for thermal solar sensor
WO2018019858A1 (en) * 2016-07-29 2018-02-01 Cesi Power Exchanger Heat exchanger for a thermal solar collector

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