WO2012149634A1 - Cross-laminated timber panel - Google Patents

Cross-laminated timber panel Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012149634A1
WO2012149634A1 PCT/CA2012/000385 CA2012000385W WO2012149634A1 WO 2012149634 A1 WO2012149634 A1 WO 2012149634A1 CA 2012000385 W CA2012000385 W CA 2012000385W WO 2012149634 A1 WO2012149634 A1 WO 2012149634A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
layer
timber
panel
layers
laminated
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CA2012/000385
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michel-Arnaud D'ABBADIE D'ARRAST
Kevin BELOW
Pierre SÉVIGNY
Original Assignee
D Abbadie D Arrast Michel-Arnaud
Below Kevin
Sevigny Pierre
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201161481398P priority Critical
Priority to US61/481,398 priority
Application filed by D Abbadie D Arrast Michel-Arnaud, Below Kevin, Sevigny Pierre filed Critical D Abbadie D Arrast Michel-Arnaud
Publication of WO2012149634A1 publication Critical patent/WO2012149634A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/10Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products
    • E04C2/12Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of wood, fibres, chips, vegetable stems, or the like; of plastics; of foamed products of solid wood
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B15/00Layered products comprising a layer of metal
    • B32B15/04Layered products comprising a layer of metal comprising metal as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B15/10Layered products comprising a layer of metal comprising metal as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of wood
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B21/00Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board
    • B32B21/04Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B21/042Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of wood
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B21/00Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board
    • B32B21/04Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B21/047Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of foam
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B21/00Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board
    • B32B21/04Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B21/08Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board comprising wood as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of synthetic resin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B21/00Layered products comprising a layer of wood, e.g. wood board, veneer, wood particle board
    • B32B21/10Next to a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B7/00Layered products characterised by the relation between layers; Layered products characterised by the relative orientation of features between layers, or by the relative values of a measurable parameter between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical, chemical or physicochemical properties; Layered products characterised by the interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/03Layered products characterised by the relation between layers; Layered products characterised by the relative orientation of features between layers, or by the relative values of a measurable parameter between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical, chemical or physicochemical properties; Layered products characterised by the interconnection of layers with respect to the orientation of features
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B7/00Layered products characterised by the relation between layers; Layered products characterised by the relative orientation of features between layers, or by the relative values of a measurable parameter between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical, chemical or physicochemical properties; Layered products characterised by the interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/04Interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/12Interconnection of layers using interposed adhesives or interposed materials with bonding properties
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/10Inorganic fibres
    • B32B2262/101Glass fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2266/00Composition of foam
    • B32B2266/02Organic
    • B32B2266/0214Materials belonging to B32B27/00
    • B32B2266/0221Vinyl resin
    • B32B2266/0228Aromatic vinyl resin, e.g. styrenic (co)polymers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/10Properties of the layers or laminate having particular acoustical properties
    • B32B2307/102Insulating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/30Properties of the layers or laminate having particular thermal properties
    • B32B2307/306Resistant to heat
    • B32B2307/3065Flame resistant or retardant, fire resistant or retardant
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/50Properties of the layers or laminate having particular mechanical properties
    • B32B2307/56Damping, energy absorption
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/70Other properties
    • B32B2307/764Insect repellent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2607/00Walls, panels

Abstract

The present document describes a cross-laminated timber panel comprising at least a first and a third timber layers each oriented in different directions including at least one timber; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer and a mildew-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer.

Description

CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER PANEL
BACKGROUND
(a) Field
[0001] The subject matter disclosed generally relates to cross-laminated timber panels. More specifically, the subject matter disclosed relates to an optimized cross-laminated timber panel.
(b) Related Prior Art
[0002] Cross-laminated timber is widely used in residential and light engineering structures in situations where large beam depths are required, such as long span openings in houses.
[0003] Large section timber is becoming more expensive and more difficult to obtain, and manufacturers have found it necessary to laminate smaller sections of lumber together to make the larger section sizes more readily available.
[0004] Laminating a number of smaller sections of timber together to make a larger member decreases the possibility of inherent weaknesses due to natural wood defects and also decreases the disparity in the strength of structural timber members because laminating effectively averages the varying properties of the timber used. However, when joining shorter sections of timber together to make a single lamination, the joints themselves become a point of inherent weakness.
[0005] Cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel construction is the next level in quality and speed of construction. Cross-laminated timber is a building system component that will transform construction methods and materials in North America. Wall, floor and roof elements manufactured in a climate-controlled facility and transported to building sites for rapid assembly can dramatically increase quality control in the building process.
[0006] The use of CLT, along with products and related technologies in insulation and building systems, can easily achieve the goals of energy conservation standards set by the "Low Energy", "Passive House", "Energy 0" goals that will become mandatory in a very near future in Europe (2015) and most likely in North America.
[0007] There is clearly a need for a resistant cross-laminated timber panel having at least one layer including an insulation layer, a structural layer, a fire- resistance layer, a layer for receiving pipes and wires, a mildew-resistant layer or/and an insect-resistant layer.
[0008] There is therefore a need for improvements in the field of laminated timber, CLT, and related technologies for building systems.
SUMMARY
[0009] According to an embodiment, there is provided a cross-laminated timber panel comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers each at least partially oriented in different directions including at least one timber; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect- resistant layer and a mildew-resistant layer, a fire-resistant layer.
[0010] According to another embodiment, there is provided a cross- laminated timber panel with an opening comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers each at least partially oriented in different directions including at least one timber, said first and third timber layers comprising an opening; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect- resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer, said second layer comprising an opening.
[0011] According to another embodiment, there is provided a cross- laminated timber panel comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers oriented one direction including at least one timber; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire- resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer.
[0012] According to another embodiment, there is provided a cross- laminated timber panel with an opening comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers oriented in one direction including at least one timber, said first and third timber layers comprising an opening; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire- resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer, said second layer comprising an opening.
[0013] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the second layer is a second timber layer at least partially oriented in the same direction as said first or third layers, said second layer including at least one timber.
[0014] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the second layer is a second timber layer oriented in a different direction from said first or third layers, said second layer including at least one timber.
[0015] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the timber layer is made of Lamboard™
[0016] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the second layer comprises at least one of polyvinyl chloride, plastic material, foam, Styrofoam™, metal, metallic material, composite material, fibreglass, wood material, polymeric material and a combination thereof.
[0017] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the first timber layer further comprises more than two timbers oriented in a first direction.
[0018] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the second timber layer further comprises more than two timbers oriented in a second direction.
[0019] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the first timber layer is perpendicular to the second timber layer.
[0020] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein at least one of the first or third layers is made of Lamboard™ wood.
[0021] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein said second layer is made of Lamboard™ wood.
[0022] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein said glue is a reactive adhesive.
[0023] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the reactive adhesive comprises an insect repellent or an agent toxic to insects.
[0024] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the reactive adhesive comprises boric acid. [0025] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the insulation layer comprises at least one of a humidity layer, a sound barrier, a floor insulator, an insulation membrane, a temperature-control membrane, a thermal insulation and a vibration barrier.
[0026] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the structural layer comprises at least one of an earthquake-resistant layer, a fire-resistant membrane and a structural beam layer.
[0027] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer comprises at least one of a layer for receiving pipes and wires and a layer for receiving sand, and a layer for receiving an insulation material.
[0028] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the layers are fully oriented in different directions.
[0029] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above, wherein at least parts of two layers are forming a beam-like structure.
[0030] According to another embodiment, there is provided the cross- laminated timber panel as described above,
[0031] According to another embodiment, there is provided a Lamboard™ laminated timber panel comprising timbers aligned in one direction and fixed side by side with glue.
[0032] According to another embodiment, there is provided the
Lamboard™ laminated timber panel as described above, wherein the glue used is less than about 1% of the final volume of the Lamboard1 M laminated timber panel.
[0033] The following terms are defined below.
[0034] The term "second layer" is intended to mean any layer laminated with glue between two timber layers and selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer.
[0035] The term "timber layer " is intended to mean at least two, but most specifically a plurality of timbers fixed together with glue and generally oriented in the same direction.
[0036] The term "reactive adhesive" is intended to mean an adhesive which provides the formation of strong bonds involving a chemical reaction and capable of bearing a required load. For example, the reactive adhesive can react chemically with the humidity or moisture present in the timber or sprayed on the timber to form a strong chemical bond.
[0037] The term "beam-like structure" is intended to mean a portion of a cross-laminated timber panel having at least a portion of adjacent layers in a same direction, providing a structural beam. A cross-and parallel-laminated timber panel (or CPLT) includes at least one "beam-like structure".
[0038] Features and advantages of the subject matter hereof will become more apparent in light of the following detailed description of selected embodiments, as illustrated in the accompanying figures. As will be realised, the subject matter disclosed and claimed is capable of modifications in various respects, all without departing from the scope of the claims. Accordingly, the drawings and the description are to be regarded as illustrative in nature and not as restrictive and the full scope of the subject matter is set forth in the claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0039] Further features and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in combination with the appended drawings, in which:
[0040] Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to one embodiment;
[0041] Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0042] Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a second layer connected between cross-laminated timber panels according to another embodiment;
[0043] Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber structure according to another embodiment;
[0044] Fig. 5A is a schematic view of a monolithic hollow layer according to another embodiment;
[0045] Fig. 5B is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers according to another embodiment;
[0046] Fig. 5C is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers according to another embodiment;
[0047] Fig. 5D is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers according to another embodiment;
[0048] Fig. 5E is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0049] Fig. 5F is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0050] Fig. 5G is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment; [0051] Fig. 5H is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0052] Fig. 5I is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0053] Fig. 5J is a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to another embodiment;
[0054] Fig. 6 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0055] Fig. 7 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0056] Fig. 8 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0057] Fig. 9 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0058] Fig. 10 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0059] Fig. 11 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0060] Fig. 12 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0061] Fig. 13 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0062] Fig. 14 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment; [0063] Fig. 15 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment;
[0064] Fig. 16 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment; and
[0065] Fig. 17 is a schematic view of cross-laminated panel according to another embodiment.
[0066] It will be noted that throughout the appended drawings, like features are identified by like reference numerals.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
[0067] In embodiments there are disclosed an optimized cross-laminated timber panel and cross-laminated timber panel.
[0068] Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to Fig. 1 , there is shown a cross-laminated timber panel 10 for insulating or optimizing building structures which includes timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 and timber layers oriented in a second direction 14. More specifically, the embodiment of Fig. 1 includes three timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 and two timber layers oriented in a second direction 14. It is to be noted that the timber layers oriented in a second direction 14 are interspaced between the timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 for providing a cross-laminated timber panel 10.
[0069] It is to be noted that the timber layer oriented in a first direction 12 includes timbers oriented in a first direction 18 and that the timber layer oriented in a second direction 14 includes timbers oriented in a second direction 20. Also, the timbers oriented in a first direction 18 are parallel to each other. On the other hand, the timbers oriented in a second direction 20 are parallel to each other. Note is to be made that a timber layer oriented in a first direction 12 is usually perpendicular to a timber layer oriented in a second direction 14, so that the timbers oriented in a first direction 18 are perpendicular to the timbers oriented in a second direction 20 for providing an optimized insulation or an optimized cross- laminated timber panel 10.
[0070] Moreover, the cross-laminated timber panel 10 of Fig. 1 includes an adhesive material (not shown) for providing strong bonds and for involving a chemical reaction between the timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 and the timber layers oriented in a second direction 12. It thus provides a cross- laminated timber panel 10 capable of 100% air-tightness. Solid wood, in its definition, provides air-tightness. In the manufacturing of a 5-layer panel, the cross-laminated timber panel provides the 100% air-tightness ensuring that all spaces between timbers are well sealed. This may also be achieved with a 3- layer panel. In the manufacturing of a CLT, the cross-lamination and the glue provide the 100% air-tightness ensuring that all spaces between timbers are well sealed.
[0071] Now referring to Fig. 2, there is shown another embodiment of a cross-laminated timber panel 10 for insulating or optimizing building structures which includes timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 and timber layers oriented in a second direction 14. More specifically, the embodiment of Fig. 2 includes two timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 and only one timber layer oriented in a second direction 14. It is to be noted that the timber layer oriented in a second direction 14 is interspaced between the timber layers oriented in a first direction 12 for providing a cross-laminated timber panel 10. It is to be noted that by using Lamboard™ wood product in the cross-laminated timber panel 10 assembly, several improvements can be achieved. For example, the higher strength of high-grade Lamboard™ may, under certain conditions, allow the use of fewer timber layers 12 and 14, where the five-layer cross- laminated timber panel 10 of Fig. 1 would normally be used, making the panels thinner and lighter. The production cost will be reduced by using less material and having to assemble fewer timber layers 12 and 14 in the final cross- laminated timber panel 10. [0072] Moreover, the cross-laminated timber panel 10 of Fig. 3 includes a second layer 22 sandwiched between a timber layer 12 or 14 and another timber layer 12 or 14. The second layer 22 may be, without limitations, a polyvinyl chloride, a plastic material, foam, a Styrofoam™, a metal, a metallic material, a composite material, fibreglass, a wood material, a Lamboard™ type of wood or polymeric material, or a combination thereof. Now referring to Fig. 4, there is shown a laminated timber structure 24 which may be used as pre-fabricated structural wall, roof and floor panels. The laminated timber structure 24 may include one or a plurality of cross-laminated timber panels 0 and one opening 26 or a plurality of openings 26. Openings 26 may be included only in the cross- laminated panels 10, or also in the second layer 22. Openings 26 may be, without limitations, a door, a window, an aeration trap, an electric opening and the like.
[0073] The production process is simple and the cross-laminated panel 10 is usually produced with an uneven number of timber layers 12 and 14, usually, 3, 5 or more. However, there is no scientific reason to exclude even numbers of timber layers 12 and 14, which, in certain situations, may even be advantageous.
[0074] It is to be noted that the second layer 22 may be, without limitations, a beam, an earthquake-resistant element, floor insulation, an insulation membrane, a humidity membrane, a temperature-control membrane, a fire-resistance membrane, a sound barrier, a thermal insulation or a vibration barrier.
[0075] Also, in the choice of adhesive material, one component may be boric acid. This adhesive material is classed as a reactive adhesive. The reactive adhesive may be an insect repellent and may include boric acid, borax, aspartame, nicotine and/or copper sulphate. It can also, as an insect repellent, be used chalk powder, lime, quicklime or calcium carbonate added to the glue to prevent insects from penetrating further into the walls. The curing of these products is the formation of a strong bond capable of bearing the required loads and involves a chemical reaction. A modern adhesive must have a long shelf life but must cure in a very short time when used. Reactive adhesives meet this standard because during or just before application, a second component is mixed in to initiate the chemical reaction. This is the case with this adhesive as well, but it need not be a concern for the user, because the second component is moisture, and moisture is normally present in adequate quantity in the atmosphere and particularly in wood. The adhesive can be applied directly from the container and the curing reaction begins as soon as it comes into contact with moisture.
[0076] The proper selection of glue is an important component of the optimized cross-laminated timber panel 10. The adhesive material (not shown) resists temperature and humidity variations and does not release noxious vapours during its aging process. It is also easily adaptable to the production technique of the cross-laminated timber panel 10.
[0077] During production, the glued timber layers 12 and 14 may be either left under a proper amount of pressure to cure or may be nailed or stapled or held with screws to set without requiring a press. However, a specific pressure or torque of these attachment systems is required so as not to create irregularities in the overall cross-laminated timber panel 10.
[0078] Also, by using high-grade Lamboard™ wood in the two vertical external timber layers 12 or 14, "hollow-core" panels may be produced for interior partitions significantly reducing construction costs or "hybrid insulated" panels for outside walls, permitting substantial reductions in wall thickness.
[0079] Adding semi-rigid wood insulation and large floor planks into one assembly may dramatically reduce vibrations and impact sound transmission in 100%-wood floor assemblies, reducing the need for cement or gypsum-based or anhydride toppings and rubber isolation membranes in residential flooring assemblies. [0080] Cross-laminated timber has traditionally been an assembly of timber layers 12, 14 glued together, and subsequently grooved on the surface for the passage of wires and pipes. However, in the construction process, any one of the timber layers 12 or 14 of this wood panel can be machined using a router or a CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine tool to allow the passage of wires and pipes within the thickness of the assembled panel without substantially diminishing its overall structural resistance. The purpose is to create empty spaces inside the cross-laminated timber panel 10 for the passage of wires and pipes as well as to reduce the quantity of wood used in the panel. These empty spaces can be filled with different insulators to create a noise barrier. It is important to use insulation which will maintain its long-term dimensional integrity (compared with unstable insulation which will compact in time, leaving an air gap and losing its effectiveness), and which will control temperature, humidity, vibration and the like. Foam, such as Styrofoam™, can be introduced in these cavities and glued following the normal CLT manner. The hollow core is thus completely filled with foam. This cross-laminated timber panel 10 is highly resistant, very solid and provides an improved thermal insulation, reduced vibration and a good sound barrier with superior characteristics.
[0081] Cross-laminated timber panels 10 can be reinforced in several ways. Besides the Lamboard™, a layer of fibreglass, carbon fibre, Kevlar, synthetic fibres may be glued between the two external timber layers 12 or 14 for a significant strength gain without the need for a thicker cross-laminated timber panel 10.
[0082] Moreover, between two of these timber layers 12 or 14, a membrane (such as PVC or any plastic) may be added to protect against humidity and temperature variations as the second layer 22. Fire-resistance layers can also be added as the second layer 22. [0083] Cross-laminated timber panels 10 are made to be easily assembled but also easily dismantled, so demolition (deconstruction at decommissioning) of building generates less waste, requires less energy and creates less pollution.
[0084] Cross-laminated timber panels 10 are usually made of 3 or 5 laminated timber layers 12 or 14 of wood of the same thickness. A hybrid cross- laminated timber layer 10 with the incorporation of one or more layer(s) 22 of Lamboard™ or other material increases resistance which diminishes the need to use a thicker cross-laminated timber panel 10 for more resistance. Cross- laminated timber panels 10 may be produced with different types of wood, different numbers of layers (2, 3, 4, 5, or more) and different thicknesses of wood, depending on the specific requirements of each and every component of the overall construction assembly thus permitting significant cost and weight reductions. The external layers 12 or 14 of a cross-laminated timber panel 10 are the most important in flexure as for a floor since they greatly influence the resistance of the complete assembly. Using the cross-laminated timber panel 10, thinner slabs of wood may be used.
[0085] The Lamboard™ is manufactured using a modified Relam product. Local defects in black spruce lumber resulting in low structural grading are removed, and the resulting high-grade wood is recycled as edge-glued finger- jointed panels of desired width and length. The glue used in the joints represent less than 1% of the final volume (much less than the common 15 to 20% of comparable engineered wood products), so the Lamboard™ product is said to be of 99% recycled material.
[0086] Moreover, beam-like structure may be integrated in the fabrication of cross-laminated timber panels 10 as the second layer 22 or as a plurality of layers. The second layer 22 may be, without limitations, wood (in larger shape and grain oriented perpendicular to the rest of the structure and horizontal to the weight to be supported by the structure), metal, Lamboard™ or plastic, to work as a support beam for other elements. This improved cross-laminated timber panel 10 is lighter and provides earthquake resistance, eliminates beams and supports different types of structures over openings of the construction. This type of assembly will create "Cross- and Parallel-Laminated Timber panels (CPLT) "(Fig 5B).
[0087] Also, fig. 5A is a schematic view of a monolithic hollow layer 28 according to another embodiment. Fig. 5B is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers 30 according to another embodiment. Fig. 5C is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers 32 according to another embodiment; and fig. 5D is a schematic view of laminated hollow layers 34 according to another embodiment. It is to be noted that in the hollow core layers 28, 30, 32 or 34, insulation layers may be made by introducing sand for example, or any insulation material. Moreover, Figs. 5E to 5J present a perspective view of a cross-laminated timber panel according to other embodiments 36, 38, 40, 42, 44 and 46.
[0088] Also, Figs. 6 to 17 show different embodiments of a cross- laminated timber panel.
[0089] Another of the key features of CLT panels resides in the capacity of treating each layer in a specific manner and then assembling these into different forms of final products.
[0090] Among the key advantages related to fabricating and using laminated timber and CLT in construction are:
[0091] · Lower carbon footprint through carbon sequestration in the wood panel;
[0092] · Lower energy consumption and pollution levels during manufacture compared to steel and concrete;
[0093] · Lower construction cost of structure, by shortening on-site erection time;
[0094] · Appreciable time saving in the overall construction process; [0095] • Excellent thermal insulation platform by its air-tightness;
[0096] • Very good sound insulation qualities;
[0097] • Energy saving in operation because of its thermal inertia;
[0098] • Minimal waste and noise during construction process;
[0099] • Excellent wind and seismic resistance;
[00100] · Good fire resistance;
[00101] · Possible "no eco cost" deconstruction and total recuperation; and
[00102] · Possibility of using lumber that would otherwise be unsuitable in standard construction materials (low grade, beetle-killed, specific species, etc.).
[00103] While preferred embodiments have been described above and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, it will be evident to those skilled in the art that modifications may be made without departing from this disclosure. Such modifications are considered as possible variants comprised in the scope of the disclosure.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. A cross-laminated timber panel comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers each at least partially oriented in different directions including at least one timber; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer and a mildew-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer.
2. A cross-laminated timber panel with an opening comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers each at least partially oriented in different directions including at least one timber, said first and third timber layers comprising an opening; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer, said second layer comprising an opening.
3. A cross-laminated timber panel comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers oriented in one direction including at least one timber; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer.
4. A cross-laminated timber panel with an opening comprising: at least a first and a third timber layers oriented in one direction including at least one timber, said first and third timber layers comprising an opening; at least one second layer laminated with glue between said first and third timber layers comprising at least one layer selected from the group consisting of an insulation layer, a structural layer, a hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer, an insect-resistant layer, a fire-resistance layer and a mildew-resistant layer, said second layer comprising an opening.
5. The panel of claim 1 or 2, wherein the second layer is a second timber layer oriented in a direction same as said first or third layers direction, said second layer including at least one timber.
6. The panel of claim 3 or 4, wherein the second layer is a second timber layer oriented at least partially in a direction different from said first or third layers direction, said second layer including at least one timber.
7. The panel of claims 5 or 6, wherein the timber layer is made of Lamboard™
8. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second layer comprises at least one of polyvinyl chloride, plastic material, foam, Styrofoam™, metal, metallic material, composite material, fibreglass, wood material, polymeric material and a combination thereof.
9. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the first timber layer further comprises more than two side-glued timbers oriented in a first direction.
10. The panel of claims 5 or 6, wherein the second timber layer further comprises more than two side-glued timbers oriented in a second direction.
11. The panel of claims 5 or 6, wherein the first timber layer is perpendicular to the second timber layer.
12. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein at least one of the first or third layers is made of Lamboard™ wood.
13. The panel of claims 5 or 6, wherein said second layer is made of Lamboard™ wood.
14. The panel of anyone of claims 1 to 4, wherein said glue is a reactive adhesive.
15. The panel of claim 14, wherein the reactive adhesive comprises an insect repellent or an agent toxic to insects.
16. The panel of claim 14, wherein the reactive adhesive comprises boric acid.
17. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the insulation layer comprises at least one of a humidity layer, a sound barrier, a floor insulator, an insulation membrane, a temperature-control membrane, a thermal isolation and a vibration barrier.
18. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the structural layer comprises at least one of an earthquake-resistance layer, a fire-resistance layer and a structural beam layer.
19. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the hollow-core or partially hollow-core layer comprises at least one of a layer for receiving pipes and wires and a layer for receiving sand, a layer for receiving an insulation material.
20. The panel of any one of claim 1 or 2, wherein the layers are fully oriented in different directions.
21. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein at least parts of two layers are forming a beam-like structure.
22. The panel of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein all the layers are forming a beam-like structure.
23. A Lamboard™ laminated timber panel comprising:
timbers aligned in one direction and fixed side by side with glue.
24. The Lamboard™ of claim 23, wherein the glue used is less than about 1% of the final volume of the Lamboard™ laminated timber panel.
PCT/CA2012/000385 2011-05-02 2012-05-01 Cross-laminated timber panel WO2012149634A1 (en)

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CN103433982A (en) * 2013-07-23 2013-12-11 南京林业大学 Processing method of crosswise laminated plate
ITPD20120200A1 (en) * 2012-06-22 2013-12-23 Doriano Canella Structural panel in reinforced wood
CN103556771A (en) * 2013-10-16 2014-02-05 南京工业大学 Unidirectional orthogonal laminated wood with vertically embedded FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) reinforced plywood
CN103556772A (en) * 2013-10-16 2014-02-05 南京工业大学 Strip FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic) longitudinal reinforced unidirectional orthogonal glue-laminated wood
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CN106514810A (en) * 2015-09-10 2017-03-22 迁安市大树木业有限责任公司 Production process for alternately-laminated building block
JP6274543B1 (en) * 2017-03-02 2018-02-07 創造技術株式会社 Orthogonal laminated plate and joining structure for joining orthogonal laminated plate and planar member at right angles
IT201700053565A1 (en) * 2017-05-17 2018-11-17 Rubner Holzbau S P A Multi-layer bearing element for building use and a method for its realization
EP3478899A4 (en) * 2016-06-30 2020-03-25 Markku Heinonen Box-type element
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CN101811380A (en) * 2009-12-29 2010-08-25 青岛马士基集装箱工业有限公司 Method for tight connection of metal sheet and foaming layer and structure thereof
ITPD20120200A1 (en) * 2012-06-22 2013-12-23 Doriano Canella Structural panel in reinforced wood
WO2013190498A1 (en) * 2012-06-22 2013-12-27 Canella Doriano Structural panel in reinforced wood
CN103433982A (en) * 2013-07-23 2013-12-11 南京林业大学 Processing method of crosswise laminated plate
CN103556771A (en) * 2013-10-16 2014-02-05 南京工业大学 Unidirectional orthogonal laminated wood with vertically embedded FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) reinforced plywood
CN103556772A (en) * 2013-10-16 2014-02-05 南京工业大学 Strip FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic) longitudinal reinforced unidirectional orthogonal glue-laminated wood
CN104400876A (en) * 2014-10-20 2015-03-11 贵州恒力源林业科技有限公司 Manufacturing method for fiberboard
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CN104400877A (en) * 2014-10-20 2015-03-11 贵州恒力源林业科技有限公司 Density board manufacturing method
CN106514810A (en) * 2015-09-10 2017-03-22 迁安市大树木业有限责任公司 Production process for alternately-laminated building block
EP3478899A4 (en) * 2016-06-30 2020-03-25 Markku Heinonen Box-type element
JP6274543B1 (en) * 2017-03-02 2018-02-07 創造技術株式会社 Orthogonal laminated plate and joining structure for joining orthogonal laminated plate and planar member at right angles
IT201700053565A1 (en) * 2017-05-17 2018-11-17 Rubner Holzbau S P A Multi-layer bearing element for building use and a method for its realization
US20200215784A1 (en) * 2019-01-09 2020-07-09 Six Minutes LLC Cross-laminated timber having a conduit therein
WO2020146210A1 (en) * 2019-01-09 2020-07-16 Six Minutes LLC Cross-laminated timber having a conduit therein

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