WO2012119479A1 - 一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体 - Google Patents

一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012119479A1
WO2012119479A1 PCT/CN2012/000178 CN2012000178W WO2012119479A1 WO 2012119479 A1 WO2012119479 A1 WO 2012119479A1 CN 2012000178 W CN2012000178 W CN 2012000178W WO 2012119479 A1 WO2012119479 A1 WO 2012119479A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
wall
protective layer
steel bars
indoor
layer
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CN2012/000178
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
吴淑环
Original Assignee
哈尔滨吴淑环建设工程技术研究有限公司
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Priority claimed from CN2011101669669A external-priority patent/CN102677794A/zh
Application filed by 哈尔滨吴淑环建设工程技术研究有限公司 filed Critical 哈尔滨吴淑环建设工程技术研究有限公司
Priority to US14/003,570 priority Critical patent/US20140000204A1/en
Publication of WO2012119479A1 publication Critical patent/WO2012119479A1/zh

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/04Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres
    • E04C2/044Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres of concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection; Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection; Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/762Exterior insulation of exterior walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection; Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection; Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/762Exterior insulation of exterior walls
    • E04B1/7629Details of the mechanical connection of the insulation to the wall
    • E04B1/7633Dowels with enlarged insulation retaining head
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/88Curtain walls

Definitions

  • the invention relates to an external thermal insulation composite wall of a building, in particular to a supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall body.
  • the thin plastering insulation wall is a wall insulation technology that relies only on adhesive bonding, and the technical means is single, and its structure has defects that cannot be overcome by itself, resulting in poor fireproofing and poor structural safety.
  • the thin plaster insulation wall is the least thermal bridge and the best energy-saving insulation, but there are still many thermal bridges.
  • the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall is increased to 0.1 ⁇ 0.2 w/m 2 k, and the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall is difficult to reach 0.4.
  • the door and window openings are like the human neck. The winter is cold, the neck is surrounded by the fur collar, and the thin plastering insulation wall is pasted with the insulation board sheet. It is like the neck is only wrapped around the scarf, and the heat loss is still much. 2)
  • the structural joints must pass through the insulation layer to connect with the base wall, and increase the heat transfer, which is unfavorable for energy-saving insulation.
  • the average heat transfer coefficient is difficult to reach 0.7 or less w/m 2 k.
  • Other energy-saving walls have more thermal bridges than thin plastering walls, such as sandwich insulation walls, insulated block walls, and thermal insulation walls with mineral wool sandwiched between light steel keels mounted on the frame structure.
  • These insulation walls not only have a door window thermal bridge larger than a thin plaster insulation wall, but also a concrete prosthetic bridge along the perimeter of the building.
  • These walls are like cotton trousers, but the "waist" - concrete pick The fascia is also exposed.
  • the thermal resistance is still much smaller than the thermal resistance of the main wall, and the thermal bridge is still large.
  • the thermal bridge of the sandwich insulation wall is too large.
  • Even if the EPS board is 300mm thick, the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall is not 0.4 w/m 2 .k.
  • Patent 1 Patent No. ZL200410002698.7, the invention titled "Anti-seismic thermal insulation composite wall with support and reinforced concrete outer protective layer” patent.
  • Patent 2 Patent No. ZL200610153289.6, the patent entitled “Bundled Composite Thermal Insulation Wall with Support”.
  • Patent 3 Patent Application No. 201019185057.2, entitled “A Supported Exterior Wall External Thermal Insulation Composite Wall” patent.
  • This patent proposes a heat-insulated bridge structure for doors and windows, which can eliminate or reduce the heat lost around the hole.
  • the above patents have the following problems:
  • the wall technology of the above patents has a common component: supporting cantilever beams, steel supports cantilever beams or Concrete supports cantilever beams.
  • Patent 1 The supporting cantilever beam of Patent 1 is steel support 2, see Figure 2, Figure 5, Figure 7 of this patent is a steel support welded by steel or steel plate (should be steel support, "support” is a typo).
  • Patent 2 is referred to as a concrete support cantilever beam 2, see Figure 27 of the patent;
  • Patent 3 is referred to as a concrete support cantilever beam 1-5, see Figure 2 of the patent, Figure 1 of the present invention.
  • the steel-supported cantilever beam has too much heat transfer, which is unfavorable for energy-saving insulation and consumes too much steel. Because of the influence of the decorative structure of the installed stone curtain wall, the patent 1 uses steel support. When installing curtain wall decorations, billboards, anti-theft fences, sun visors and heavy decorations on composite insulation walls, structural joints increase heat transfer too much, and consume more steel and are prone to corrosion. In the future, unless the wall is removed, Otherwise, it cannot be repaired, and 50 years of durability cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, in the subsequent patents, it is changed to concrete support cantilever beam.
  • the concrete supported cantilever beam is a concrete overhanging member disposed perpendicular to the main structure of the building, and its inner end is fixed to the main structure of the building, as shown in Fig. 1 of the present invention.
  • the concrete support cantilever beam is set to solve the following problems:
  • the concrete support cantilever beam outer end steel plate is welded to hang outdoor steel bars, and the steel wire mesh is tied with the outdoor steel bars to form a curtain wall with hanging steel bars and steel wire plastering, which has good structural safety.
  • Each concrete room requires about 3 concrete-supported cantilever beams.
  • a 10,000-square-meter building has an external wall area of about 3,000 m 2 , and about 1,500 to 1,800 holes need to be opened in the formwork. If the on-site formwork is installed with concrete-supported cantilever beams, the steel bars supporting the cantilever beams are anchored in the concrete, which is more damaging to the formwork, time-consuming and laborious, and the formwork is not installed. If precasting the same amount of concrete to support the cantilever beam, prefabrication and transportation of the site are required, and the steel plate is welded to the pre-embedded steel plate on the main structure at the back end.
  • the wall insulation system is classified into decorative materials in Europe.
  • the fire protection limit is not required for the plaster protection layer.
  • the thin plastering insulation wall of organic insulation materials is not safe, especially in the event of accidents such as war and terrorist activities, which will put the country in an extremely passive and dangerous situation, which is unfavorable to the national defense strategy. Therefore, some countries do not agree with thin plastering walls, building non-energy-saving buildings, or using other energy-saving thermal insulation walls as described above, which is detrimental to global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • the patent application of the patent applicant does not propose a fireproof construction measure, such as no proposed support for the cantilever beam of concrete.
  • the fire endurance requirement does not meet the fire endurance requirements when the existing structural planting bar is installed with organic structural rubber. If the fire-resisting limit of the supporting cantilever beam hanging from the outer protective layer is lower than the protective layer, it is not good for fire prevention; there is no fire-proof partition in the organic thermal insulation layer. When a fire occurs, the fire may spread in the thermal insulation layer to reduce the fire. The loss is unfavorable.
  • the rigidity of the anchor and the plastic connecting bridge are not good, especially when the EPS board shrinks and melts during the fire, the anchor and the plastic connecting bridge melt quickly, and the external plastering layer still has the risk of falling off. This shows that the current energy-saving wall technology generally does not solve the safety problem of the outer protective layer.
  • the invention relates to a supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall: the invention comprises a base wall, a support, an insulation layer, a tensile net, a steel bar, a protective layer, an inner and outer pull wire and a building main structure;
  • the base wall is a concrete wall, a load-bearing masonry wall, a non-load-bearing lightweight masonry infill wall or a steel skeleton, a wood skeleton and a bamboo-wood skeleton wall;
  • the insulation layer is a polymer insulation material, a plant straw board, a paper honeycomb board, Mineral wool, foam glass, foamed cement, thermal insulation mortar or rubber polystyrene particles, the inner and outer layers of the insulation layer may be a composite of two materials, and the insulation layers at different positions may be different materials;
  • the tensile net is a metal mesh or alkali-resistant mesh or basalt fiber mesh;
  • the protective layer is cement mortar or fine stone concrete
  • the support is a cantilever steel truss, the cantilever steel truss is provided with a slanting rod, and the inner end of the support is connected with the main structure of the building or the base wall, and is supported at a certain interval on the main structure of the building or the base wall;
  • the outer layer of the insulation layer is provided with a protective layer, and the protective layer is connected with the insulation layer;
  • the vertical reinforcement is connected with the support, or the vertical reinforcement is connected with the cantilevered main structure or the foundation, at the door and window opening
  • Vertical reinforcement is provided on the side;
  • the horizontal reinforcement has one of the following installation methods or the following two installation methods: 1) Horizontal reinforcement or curved reinforcement is located above and below the outdoor door and window opening; 2) Horizontal reinforcement is located Between the vertical reinforcement of the wall outside the door and window opening; the two ends of the horizontal reinforcement are connected with the vertical reinforcement, or the two ends of the horizontal reinforcement are connected with the support, and the vertical reinforcement can also be connected with the horizontal
  • the insulation layer is not only located outside the base wall and the main structure of the building, but also can reduce the thickness of the masonry wall, that is, the base wall 1, and the insulation layer is also located in the frame structure of the main structure of the building.
  • the insulation layer is not only located outside the base wall and the main structure of the building, but also can reduce the thickness of the masonry wall, that is, the base wall 1, and the insulation layer is also located in the frame structure of the main structure of the building.
  • the invention replaces the original concrete supporting cantilever beam with a cantilever steel truss, and the cantilever steel truss is provided with a diagonal rod.
  • the support in the supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall of the invention is a cantilever steel truss, which is neither a steel support made of steel plate or profile steel nor a concrete supported cantilever beam of the prior art. It is a steel truss made of steel rods.
  • the cantilevered steel truss is provided with a slanting rod, and one end is fixed with the main structure of the building or with the base wall to become a cantilever steel truss.
  • the invention uses the steel truss in the wall technology, and the difference from the disclosed technology is: From the design theory, the cantilever steel truss is designed according to the steel structure and the truss theory, rather than the concrete structure theory.
  • the concrete supported cantilever beam is designed, the cantilever steel truss is provided with a slanting bar, and the concrete cantilever beam does not need to be provided with a slanting bar. From the construction method, the construction and installation of the cantilever steel truss is completely different from the original concrete supporting cantilever beam of the disclosed technology. In terms of technical effect, the cantilevered steel truss can not only bear the functional requirements of the original concrete-supported cantilever beam, but also avoid the shortcomings of the concrete supporting cantilever beam, and expand the scope of use (such as the steel skeleton and the wood skeleton). The base wall of the bamboo and wood skeleton is connected, which is not available in the original concrete-supported cantilever beam.
  • the diagonal tie rods improve the shear resistance of the composite wall and are beneficial to the earthquake resistance of the building. These effects are not available in the concrete supported cantilever beams of the prior art.
  • the supported outer wall external thermal insulation composite wall of the invention has the following installation methods for the cantilever steel truss: 1) welding the pre-embedded steel plate and the cantilever steel truss in the main structure or the base wall of the building, See Figure 2. 2) Or set a ring or fastener on the outside of the embedded steel plate, as shown in Figure 18.
  • the inner end of the cantilevered steel truss is worn in the ring or fixed by the fastener, which can reduce the welding workload, especially when the encryption is set, the cantilever steel truss
  • the steel rod is very thin as ⁇ 4 galvanized steel bar, and can not be applied to the welding of ⁇ 4 steel bars.
  • Pre-embedded steel bars or planting bars can be installed directly on the main structure of the building.
  • the rods of the cantilevered steel truss are conveniently constructed, so that the existing building energy-saving renovation project can conveniently use the supported external thermal insulation composite wall.
  • the base wall of the external wall thermal insulation composite wall which does not disclose the supported structure is a steel skeleton, a wood skeleton and a bamboo-wood skeleton-filled wall structure.
  • the disclosed technology does not propose a supported outer thermal insulation wall having no base wall on the window of the second embodiment of the present invention, and a supported outer thermal insulation balcony fence structure without a balcony fence.
  • the disclosed technology does not propose a structure in which the vertical wall of the outer wall can be vertically greened and the solar photovoltaic panel can be installed on the composite wall of the present invention.
  • the disclosed technology does not propose a structure in which a fire barrier is provided in the insulation layer, which may spread in the insulation layer when the fire occurs: there is no requirement for the fire limit of the concrete support cantilever beam, and the fire endurance time cannot be ensured. Inside, the safety of the suspended protective layer.
  • the disclosed technology does not disclose a structure in which the outer layer of the outer wall thermal insulation composite wall has no reinforcing bars, and the tensile net is directly connected to the outer end of the support.
  • the supporting external wall thermal insulation composite wall of the invention has the advantages of convenient construction, low cost, good structural safety and convenient design on the outer wall when supporting the cantilever steel truss:
  • the present invention can be applied to the case where the reinforcing bars are provided in the protective layer, and can also be applied to the case where the reinforcing bars are not provided in the embodiment 9.
  • Cantilevered steel trusses are structurally stressed members that meet the structural limit state design requirements and have the same safety as the building main structure:
  • the plastic connecting bridge is not a structural force member, and the safety of the two is incomparable.
  • the outer protective layer of the invention has good structural safety, and the cantilever steel truss support can be installed on the vertical steel bar of the window sill, and the thermal insulation board can be filled to form a large window sill, the outdoor sill is safe, and the thin ash insulation wall foot It is not safe to step on the outdoor window sill.
  • the support of the invention as a cantilever steel truss not only can bear the functional requirements of the original concrete supporting cantilever beam, but also avoids the disadvantages of the concrete supporting the cantilever beam and expands the scope of use.
  • the invention provides a fireproof isolation belt in the composite wall insulation layer, and the protection layer supported by the suspension is safe in the fire endurance time, thereby forming a closed fireproof small partition structure.
  • the composite wall of the present invention is in the concrete At the same time of energy saving, fire safety is good, energy-saving and heat-insulating walls will not threaten the national defense war, and countries can safely carry out wall insulation.
  • the support of the present invention is subjected to a small force under normal conditions, and the support actually functions when a fire occurs. It can be said that the support is a structural suspension member prepared for ensuring fire safety.
  • a heat insulating sand pad or other heat insulating material satisfying the fire endurance requirement such as a heat insulating mortar
  • a fireproof isolation belt is used as a fireproof isolation belt, and generally 30 mm can meet the requirement of a fire limit of not less than lh.
  • the fireproof isolation belt is thin, only 10% of the 300mm wide fireproof insulation belt of the thin plastering wall, the material consumption is small, the construction is convenient, and the construction cost is low.
  • Fireproof isolation belts can also be installed according to fire protection requirements. For example, horizontal fire barriers can be set for each floor, and vertical fire barriers can be set for indoor fire protection zones or single households to form closed small fire zones.
  • the invention can ensure the safety of installing the window on the insulation layer of the hole, and is beneficial to avoid the common quality problem of plastering and cracking at the corner of the hole, forming a heat-insulated bridge structure of the hole, and energy saving and good insulation. It is recommended that the local insulation layer of the hole be made of flame retardant phenolic resin. Because of its good fireproof performance and thermal conductivity of only 0.022 w/mk, the thermal bridge of the hole can be completely eliminated, and even the linear heat transfer coefficient of the hole is negative (ie, the thermal resistance around the hole is greater than that of the main Wall thermal resistance), energy saving and good insulation. The comparison between the invention and the thin plastering insulation wall energy-saving insulation is shown in Table 1.
  • the composite wall of the hole heat bridge of the invention is "0" and the energy saving and heat preservation comparison table of the thin plastering insulation wall
  • the third heat transfer wall of the thin plastering insulation wall increases the heat transfer value by 0.152 w/m 2 . k according to the formula of DB6/1270 (D.0.1) according to the “Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Heilongjiang Republic” (D.0.1).
  • Table D.0.7 The reference value of the linear heat transfer coefficient ⁇ is 0.11w/mk when the EPS plate thickness is not less than 120mm, assuming a 3.6m open space, a layer ⁇ 2.8m, a floor-to-ceiling window 1.8x2.3, a window-to-wall ratio of 0.414 .
  • the outer protective layer of the invention has steel bars, the structure of installing external wall hangings such as decorative curtain walls, billboards or solar photovoltaic panels on the outer thermal insulation wall is also solved, and the structural connecting members do not have to pass through the thermal insulation layer, and can directly and externally
  • the steel plate on the protective layer is connected, and the wall with the hanging wall on the outer wall can also achieve a low heat transfer coefficient.
  • the curtain wall decoration of the present invention can also meet the requirements of low heat transfer coefficient.
  • the steel with the thermal insulation layer and the thin plastering wall is placed in the insulation layer.
  • the average spacing of the channel steel is lm
  • the wall thickness is 5mm
  • the quantity of steel in the insulation layer per unit area is 50cm 2 .
  • Steel wire mesh frame sandwich panel insulation layer inner steel wire area 8.28 cm 2 8 times, steel grid cement sandwich panel increase EPS plate thermal conductivity 60%, plus the heat bridge around the hole, even the use of inorganic insulation layer to meet the curtain wall decoration fire requirements It is also difficult to meet the energy-saving requirements of buildings in heating areas.
  • Table 1 that the energy-saving and heat-insulating effect of the composite wall of the present invention exceeds that of the thin plastering heat-insulating wall, and naturally exceeds other energy-saving wall technologies.
  • the invention is advantageous for building earthquake resistance and reducing construction cost.
  • the first embodiment of the present invention can form an external thermal insulation seismic wall, and the steel bar and the steel wire plastering layer outside the thermal insulation layer are bundled on the base wall and the main structure, and the layers are bonded together.
  • the wall that fills the wall during an earthquake will not go outwards or collapse inward.
  • the thickness of the base wall is reduced.
  • the insulation layer is not only located on the outer side of the base wall and the main structure of the building, but also when the insulation layer is located in the frame structure beam column opening of the main structure of the building, the elastic insulation layer such as the EPS board can be Consuming seismic energy to increase the safety reserve of the frame structure during earthquakes.
  • the seismic wall is lighter in weight and can meet the design requirements of the structural limit state, and the seismic wall with the seismic performance exceeding the first embodiment can be selected according to different seismic fortification intensity.
  • the anti-seismic technology of the wall is based on Gangkegang, which is expensive, and there is no requirement that the infill wall meets the structural limit state design. There is no anti-seismic wall technology in the wall technology.
  • the seismic wall of the invention greatly reduces the weight of the base wall and reduces the energy consumption during the construction phase, and is important for the earthquake resistance of the building and the horizontal displacement of the concrete layer, and can also reduce the construction cost of the main structure of the building, especially the seismic zone is greatly reduced.
  • the global earthquakes continue every year, and the frame-filled wall body adopts the seismic wall of the present invention, which is of great significance for ensuring earthquake safety.
  • the supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall of the invention is convenient for vertical greening and beautifying the wall, convenient for installing solar photovoltaic panels, etc., and has significance for developing renewable energy and reducing global greenhouse gas mixing.
  • the roof area is small, relying entirely on the installation of solar photovoltaic panels on the roof, the area of the solar water heater is not enough, and the outer wall area is large, but in the past it was difficult to ensure the safety when installing the external wall hanging on the external thermal insulation wall. Add a lot of heat transfer.
  • the invention makes it easy to install the hanging object on the outer wall, and install the hanging object on the outer wall It is also possible to construct a low-energy wall, and the wall is energy-saving and heat-insulated. See Table 1 on page 6.
  • the invention also makes vertical greening on the outer wall possible without destroying the outer wall.
  • Wall technology is a systematic project. It is not a kind of insulation material that can solve all problems. Each insulation material has its own advantages and disadvantages, each with its application range and value. Modern science and technology is developing towards a multidisciplinary and cross-cutting trend. Only technology systems and materials are combined. Multiple technologies are combined with various materials to take advantage of different materials, avoid their shortcomings, and optimize wall structure. Can break through the bottleneck of wall technology. Simply relying on new wall materials cannot fully solve the problem of wall technology because it cannot optimize the wall structure.
  • the invention is based on the above ideas, adopts a plurality of technical means combining structural means and chemical bonding, and combines with various materials to optimize the wall structure, and the energy-saving heat preservation can exceed the current best thermal insulation wall of the plastering wall.
  • Body with outstanding structural safety, good fire safety, will not threaten the strategic safety of countries, help promote energy-saving and emission reduction of buildings around the world, and is of great significance to building earthquake resistance.
  • the invention is a new wall energy-saving thermal insulation technology from the structure, but the construction method is mature technology in the current construction technology, the construction feasibility is no suspense, and the quality assurance is multi-faceted, and the invention is convenient to construct. Reduce the cost, wide application, and broad application prospects.
  • Patent 1 is a schematic view showing the construction of a concrete-supported cantilever beam of Patent 2, Patent 3 in the background art;
  • Figure 2 is a schematic view showing the structure of a cantilever steel truss
  • FIG. 3 is a layout view of a steel wall truss and a steel bar of a composite wall according to Embodiment 1;
  • Figure 4 is a cross-sectional perspective view of the external thermal insulation composite wall with a cantilever steel truss at the solid wall, and at the same time, a schematic diagram of the implementation of the fifth cantilever steel truss replaced by diagonal steel bars;
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of a wall according to an embodiment, wherein a heat bridge is formed at the hole, and a cement mortar is plastered outside the window;
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of the wall of the embodiment, wherein the hole has a heat bridge, and the window is provided with an insulating material to cover the hole insulation layer. Same thermal bridge as the thin plaster insulation wall;
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of a wall body according to an embodiment, wherein the hole is insulated and broken, and the insulating material is installed outside the window to cover the insulation structure of the hole;
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of a wall body of the first embodiment; a thermal bridge with cement mortar plastering outside the edge of the base wall of the opening, a cement mortar plastering outside the window, and a thermal bridge larger than a thin plastering thermal wall thermal bridge;
  • FIG. 9 is a layout view of a composite wall cantilever steel truss and an outdoor double steel bar in the first embodiment
  • the base wall is a thin-filled wall of the frame structure, and the vertical cross-sectional view of the external thermal insulation wall formed; and the vertical cross-section of the wall of the second embodiment is not shown.
  • the under-slab insulation layer 3 is installed under the beam plate of the main structure 10 of the building, and the inner side of the insulation layer 3 is provided with a section of the steel mesh layer 10-1 connected to the beam plate of the main structure 1 of the building.
  • FIG. 11 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of a wall according to Embodiment 1, wherein the base wall is a thin-filled wall of the frame structure, forming an external thermal insulation seismic wall;
  • 12 is a schematic vertical cross-sectional view of a wall body according to Embodiment 1, wherein the base wall is a steel skeleton-filled wall body, and an external heat-insulating seismic wall is formed.
  • the figure shows a C-shaped steel, and a cement fiber board can be installed on the outside of the C-shaped steel.
  • the insulation layer is bonded to the cement fiber board;
  • the steel skeleton may or may not be filled with mineral wool, and the fireproof board such as gypsum board, calcium silicate board, etc. may be installed on the indoor side of the steel skeleton;
  • Figure B is a plan view of a composite wall cantilevered steel truss and an outdoor steel bar when the opening is curved;
  • Figure 14 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the plastic anchor mounting structure of the third embodiment;
  • Figure 15 is a vertical sectional view of a supported outdoor insulated balcony panel of Embodiment 2;
  • Figure 16 is a cross-sectional view showing the mounting method of the bracket 19 of the third embodiment for pulling the indoor and outdoor tensile nets together;
  • Figure 17 is a cross-sectional view showing the installation of the clip 18 for accurately mounting the tension in the third embodiment;
  • a schematic diagram of a fastener for mounting a cantilever steel truss supported on the outside of the embedded steel plate, the anchor steel bar embedded in the concrete is not shown in the figure;
  • Figure 19 is a schematic view of a cantilevered steel truss with a slanted bar under pressure. Although it can meet the stress requirements and the force is unreasonable, it is generally not applied:
  • Figure 20 is a schematic view showing the installation of the four diagonally drawn rod members of the fourth embodiment
  • Fig. 21 is a structural diagram of a multi-section of a cantilever steel truss when the outer wall shape of the outer layer is changed by the thickness of different insulation layers;
  • Figure 22 is a cross-sectional view of the outer wall when the cantilevered steel truss of Figure 21 is applied.
  • Figure 23 is a vertical sectional view of the composite wall of the tenth embodiment
  • Figure 24 is a horizontal sectional view of a composite wall of Embodiment 10.
  • 25 is a steel bar setting diagram of a solid wall indoor (without doors and windows) of the composite wall according to Embodiment 10, wherein a broken line indicates an outdoor reinforcing bar, and a solid line indicates an indoor reinforcing bar;
  • Figure 26 is a composite wall of the first, tenth or eleventh embodiment.
  • the vertical reinforcing bars are arranged in an encrypted manner, the vertical reinforcing bars are also connected with the horizontal reinforcing bars, and the outdoor supporting, the reinforcing bars and the inner and outer pulling wires are arranged.
  • Figure 27 is a horizontal sectional view of a composite wall according to Embodiment 11;
  • Figure 28 is a vertical sectional view of a composite wall in the eleventh embodiment.
  • the tensile nets shown in the drawings are located in the middle of the protective layer.
  • Two anchor bolts are shown in the figure.
  • the anchors in Figures 5 to 8 should be all plastic, otherwise heat transfer is increased.
  • Figure 10 and Figure 11 The coat is made of plastic, and the end is a warhead that is shot by a nail. The anchoring force is very large. These two anchor bolts have no effect on the wall energy-saving insulation. If the core rod is metal, the heat transfer is increased.
  • a supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall body of the present embodiment comprises a base wall 1 , a support 1-5 , an insulation layer 3 , and a tensile net 5 .
  • the base wall 1 is a concrete wall, load-bearing masonry wall, non-load-bearing lightweight masonry infill wall or steel skeleton, wood skeleton and bamboo a wall of wood skeleton;
  • the insulation layer 3 is a polymer insulation material, plant straw Plate, paper honeycomb board, mineral wool, foam glass, foamed cement, thermal insulation mortar or rubber polystyrene particles, the inner and outer layers of the insulation layer 3 may be a composite of two materials, and the insulation layer 3 at different positions may be different materials ( For example, the insulation of the broken bridge opening window can be made of flame retardant phenolic resin, while the other parts of the insulation layer are made of EPS board);
  • the steel reinforcement 4 includes vertical steel reinforcement 4-1, horizontal steel reinforcement 4-2 or curved steel reinforcement 4-3 ( When the door window is curved, the curved steel bar 4-3); the tensile net 5 is an alkali resistant mesh or metal mesh or basalt fiber mesh;
  • the protective layer 8 is an alkali resistant mesh or metal mesh or basalt
  • the support 1-5 is a cantilever steel truss, the cantilever steel truss is provided with a diagonal rod, and the inner end of the support 1-5 is connected with the main structure 10 of the building or the base wall 1 in the main structure 10 or the base wall 1
  • the support layer 1-5 is arranged at a certain interval; the heat insulation layer 3 is fixed on the outer side of the base wall 1 and the main structure 10 of the building; the outer layer of the heat insulation layer 3 is provided with a protective layer 8, and the protective layer 8 is connected with the heat insulation layer 3;
  • -1 is connected to the support 1-5 (welded connection, or hook connection), or the vertical reinforcement 4-1 is connected to the overhanging main structure 10 or to the foundation, and vertical reinforcement 4 is provided on the side of the door and window opening 1;
  • the horizontal steel bar 4-2 has one of the following installation methods or the following two installation methods: 1), horizontal steel bar 4-2 or curved steel bar 4-3 is located above and below the outdoor door and window opening; 2), The horizontal reinforcing bar 4
  • vertical reinforcement 4-1 Or / and horizontal steel bars 4-2 or curved steel bars 4-3 are single steel bars or double steel bars in parallel, with steel bars between the parallel double steel bars, or / and welded steel plates between the parallel steel bars Or block-shaped steel;
  • the tensile net 5 is fixedly connected to the steel bar 4 (bundling or by bonding with the plaster protective layer); the steel bar 4 and the tensile net 5 are buried in the protective layer 8, or the alkali-resistant mesh cloth Or the basalt fiber web is attached to the surface of the protective layer 8;
  • the tensile net 5 may be selected by one or two or three kinds of materials at the same time, and different tensile nets 5 may be installed at different positions;
  • the inner and outer pull wires 9 The inner end is anchored to the main structure 10 of the building or the base wall 1 , and the outer end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is connected with the steel bar 4 , or the outer end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is also connected with the tens
  • the thermal insulation layer 3 is not only located outside the base wall 1 and the main structure 10 of the building, but also can reduce the thickness of the masonry wall, that is, the base wall 1, and the thermal insulation layer 3 can also be located.
  • the frame structure of the building main structure 10 is inside the beam column opening.
  • the thickness of the wall of the infill wall of the masonry can be reduced.
  • the wall thickness of the infill wall is 90 mm, as shown in Fig. 10.
  • the base wall is a steel skeleton, a wood skeleton or a bamboo skeleton wall
  • the steel skeleton, the wood skeleton or the bamboo skeleton is located inside the outer edge of the beam plate of the main structure of the building, as shown in Fig. 12.
  • Both Figure 10 and Figure 12 can form an earthquake-resistant wall.
  • the seismic wall needs to be bonded or tightly connected to the main structure of the building, so that the seismic action of the main structure can be transmitted to the insulation layer, and the elastic insulation layer can absorb the seismic function.
  • the thermal insulation layer of the present embodiment can be compacted or bonded to the beam and column of the main structure of the building to form a seismic wall; when there is a gap between the thermal insulation layer and the beam and column of the main structure of the building, the earthquake is consumed. Poor ability.
  • the supported exterior wall exterior insulation composite wall door and window opening has the following three kinds of structures: 1), in the hole protection
  • the warm layer 3 has a protective layer 8, and the tensile net 5 is buried in the hole protective layer 8, or the alkali-resistant mesh cloth and the basalt fiber web are adhered to the surface of the protective layer 8, the tensile net 5 and the side wall of the opening.
  • the base wall 1 or the main structure 10 of the building is connected, the doors and windows are installed on the base wall 1 , or the doors and windows are installed on the protective layer 8 of the side wall of the opening, forming a heat bridge structure at the opening, as shown in Fig. 5 and Fig.
  • the protective layer 8 is not disposed on the insulating layer 3 of the opening, the door and window are installed on the base wall 1 , and the thermal insulation strip or the protective layer 8 is installed on the outer side of the door and window, and the thermal opening structure is formed at the opening, as shown in FIG. 6 .
  • Figure 6 when installing the insulation bar on the outside of the door and window, the heat bridge of the hole is equivalent to the thin plastering insulation wall;
  • No protective layer 8 is provided on the insulation layer 3 of the hole, the door and window are installed on the insulation layer 3 of the hole, and the outside of the door and window is insulated.
  • the door and window opening structure is selected.
  • the mesh of the hole tensile is not provided, because the inner and outer pull wires pull the joint reinforcement and the base wall, and there is no need to set the insulation around the hole. Tensile net.
  • the plaster protection layer is provided on the insulation layer of the hole, it is preferable to set the tensile resistance of the mesh.
  • the two sides of the door window and the upper part can be a single steel bar, but it is recommended to have two steel bars under the window sill to increase the rigidity of the protective layer under the window sill.
  • the vertical steel bar 4-1, the horizontal steel bar 4-2 or the curved steel bar 4-3 need to be installed in parallel.
  • Rebar the distance between the parallel double bars is about 100mm, and the steel plate or section steel is installed between the parallel double bars.
  • the distance between the double bars needs to meet the decoration needs.
  • the cantilever steel truss support can be a plane cantilever steel truss:
  • the cantilever steel truss support can be a space suspension composed of two plane cantilever steel trusses. The steel truss is picked up, and the two vertical steel bars are respectively connected with two parallel plane steel trusses, or connected with other forms of space steel trusses, or with steel plates at the outer ends of the steel trusses. Between the parallel reinforcing bars, the steel bars are arranged to form a small truss structure or a steel plate or a partially welded block-shaped steel.
  • the structural joints of the external wall hangings can be directly connected with the steel plate or the block-shaped steel without passing through the insulation layer and the building body.
  • the structure is connected, thereby greatly increasing the energy-saving and heat-insulating effect of the wall, and determining which part of the steel bar is a parallel of two steel bars according to the position required for use.
  • each cantilevered steel truss bears a small hanging force, so it can be partially filled with concrete to install cantilever steel truss support in the light-filled wall of the masonry.
  • the base wall is a steel skeleton, a wood skeleton-filled wall, and a bamboo-wood skeleton, bolted steel plates are connected to the cantilever steel trusses on the steel, wood or bamboo skeleton, or the steel rods of the cantilever steel trusses are directly connected with the screw.
  • Steel skeleton, wooden skeleton connection is a steel skeleton, a wood skeleton-filled wall, and a bamboo-wood skeleton.
  • the cantilevered steel truss of Figure 21 can be used to form a facade effect with varying facades.
  • the vertical force is shown in Figure 2.
  • the vertical steel rod at the outer end of the cantilever steel truss is a rod with internal force "0", and the outer end is provided with a "0" rod to facilitate the installation of tensile nets and steel bars.
  • the steel rods of the cantilevered steel trusses can be chrome-plated and galvanized. However, in addition to the large supply of ⁇ 4 galvanized steel bars, the chrome-plated and galvanized anti-corrosion of other specifications of steel rods must be carried out in specialized factories, which is inconvenient to apply.
  • the insulation layer around the cantilever steel truss can be cut off to form a gap (or called a groove), and cement polymer mortar is poured into the gap, and the cement polymer mortar protects the steel rod of the cantilever steel truss from corrosion. Since the loss of stability of the steel structure is a risk that is easy to occur, it needs to be calculated according to the steel structure and the internal force of the truss.
  • the cantilevered steel truss is bonded to the cement polymer mortar and has high rigidity, which is beneficial to avoid the loss of stability of the cantilever steel truss.
  • the ⁇ 8 steel bar can be used to make the diagonal rod.
  • the cantilever steel truss may be made of ⁇ 4 galvanized steel to meet the stress requirements.
  • the steel rod can be installed through the circular hole of Figure 18.
  • the outer slabs of the outer slabs are the fixed ends of the vertical reinforced bars, that is, the vertical reinforced bars are directly fixed to the concrete slabs of the main structure of the building.
  • fixed vertical reinforcement such as drilled or fixed reinforcement or pre-embedded steel.
  • Vertical reinforcement can also be connected to adjacent cantilevered steel trusses by diagonally-stretched steel bars, as shown in Figure 3 for vertical reinforcement of the corners of the building.
  • the horizontal steel bar is arranged outside the hole to facilitate the wire meshing. When the distance between the adjacent vertical vertical bars is relatively close, No horizontal reinforcement can be set.
  • the horizontal steel bar can be ⁇ 4 galvanized steel bar, and the ⁇ 4 steel bar is convenient to connect with the steel bars on both sides. When it is necessary to set a horizontal reinforcing bar with a large diameter, the horizontal reinforcing bar and the reinforcing bars on both sides of the opening are welded to the connecting steel plate.
  • the inner end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is anchored to the main structure 10 of the building or the base wall 1 in the following three ways, one of which is selected, or the first) or the third) or the second and third) Ways:
  • Indoor reinforcement 7 can be set, indoor reinforcement 7 includes indoor vertical reinforcement 7-1, indoor horizontal reinforcement 7-2; indoor vertical reinforcement 7-1 is located at the corner of interior door window, indoor vertical reinforcement 7-1 and building main structure 10
  • the upper and lower floors are fixed, and the indoor vertical steel bars 7-1 are also anchored in the gray joints of the base wall 1 by anchoring steel bars, as shown in Fig. 11;
  • the indoor horizontal steel bars 7-2 are located at the upper and lower sides of the door window and connected to the vertical steel bars 7-1 on both sides;
  • the inner end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is fixed to the indoor reinforcing bar 7, and the outer end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is fixed to the outdoor reinforcing bar 4.
  • the inner and outer pull wires can be entangled with stainless steel wire of ⁇ 2.0 ⁇ 3.0, and the stainless steel wire area of ⁇ 2 of 304# stainless steel has a tensile load capacity of about 1.4 ⁇ .
  • the inner and outer pull wires When the inner and outer pull wires are connected to the tensile net, they can be bundled with stainless steel wire of about ⁇ 1.0.
  • a small bracket 19 made of scrap iron or plastic can be placed between the metal mesh and the insulating layer, as shown in Fig. 16. The inner and outer pull wires are connected to the small bracket through the heat insulating layer, and then connected with the tensile net to ensure tensile strength. The distance between the net and the insulation layer is accurate.
  • the inner and outer pull wires can be metal wires such as stainless steel wire, chemical fiber ropes, plastic ropes, and stainless steel wires for permanent pull-up.
  • the support can be combined with The main structure of the building is connected, and the support can also be connected to the steel skeleton.
  • the inner and outer pull wires can be connected to the steel frame (for example, to the self-tapping screws on the steel frame).
  • the steel skeleton, the wood skeleton, and the bamboo-wood skeleton-filled wall can be used as the base wall to fill the mineral wool insulation as usual.
  • the steel skeleton is provided with cement fiber board, calcium silicate board or gypsum board on both sides, and the thermal insulation board and the outer layer of the skeleton are as Cement fiberboard, calcium silicate board, etc.
  • inorganic thermal insulation materials include rock wool, foam glass, foamed cement, thermal insulation mortar, etc.
  • the insulation layer of different parts of the invention may be different insulation materials, for example, the insulation layer of the main wall body is an EPS board, and the insulation layer around the opening of the heat insulation broken bridge bridge should be a fireproof material with good fireproof performance, such as thermal insulation mortar and rubber powder polyphenylene. Particles, rock wool, foam glass, non-flammable phenolic resin and other insulation materials with good fireproof performance not only have thermal insulation effect but also fireproof effect, so the insulation layers in different positions can be different materials.
  • the cement mortar or fine stone concrete protective layer is connected with the thermal insulation layer in the following two ways. According to the construction convenience, one of them may be selected or used at the same time: 1), bonding connection. 2) On the surface of the insulation layer, there is a dovetail groove connected to the protective layer.
  • the tensile net 5 can be installed with one or three kinds of materials at the same time", for example, a galvanized steel wire mesh of ⁇ 2 wire diameter, lOOx 100mm mesh, and a mesh of 10xl0mm ⁇ 30x30mm mesh and ARNP (165) are selected. Alkali mesh cloth with application, low price, and good technical effect. Because each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, the application of the two tensile nets can play their respective advantages and make up for each other's deficiencies, which is beneficial to prolong the durability of the composite wall and facilitate the installation of alkali-resistant mesh.
  • basalt wire and basalt cloth There are already basalt wire and basalt cloth. Undoubtedly, basalt fiber mesh woven with basalt wire will appear.
  • the basalt wire has excellent aging resistance, high temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance, and excellent mechanical properties.
  • the basalt fiber mesh woven by basalt wire will appear.
  • the net can be used to share the galvanized steel wire mesh with the basalt fiber mesh to make up for the shortcomings of corrosion of the galvanized steel wire mesh for long-term use. As technology advances, there may be other nets suitable for tensile webs for use in the composite walls of the present invention.
  • Embodiment 2 Referring to FIG. 10 and FIG. 15 , the difference between this embodiment and the first embodiment is that the present embodiment adds a beam insulation layer 3 , a protective layer 10-1 , an indoor vertical reinforcement 7-1 , and an indoor horizontal reinforcement .
  • the protective layer 10-1 is cement mortar or fine stone concrete, or modified cement mortar or modified fine stone concrete;
  • the layer 10-1 is provided with an indoor vertical steel bar 7-1 or a tensile net 5, and the indoor vertical steel bar 7-1 is connected with the building main structure 10; the beam plate is insulated under the beam plate of the building main structure 10.
  • the layer 3, or the insulating layer 3 is also installed on the upper end of the balcony of the main structure 10 of the building, and the inner side of the insulating layer 3 is provided with a protective layer 10-1 connected to the end of the beam or balcony of the main structure 1 of the building.
  • Layer 3 is connected to protective layer 10-1; window in protective layer 10-1
  • the indoor horizontal steel bar 7-2 is installed at the mouth, the indoor vertical steel bar 7-1 is connected with the indoor horizontal steel bar 7-2; the indoor horizontal steel bar 7-2 located at the concrete balcony bar is anchored with the base wall 1 or the building main structure 10 (With the shape of the balcony, it can be bent and anchored to the base wall or the main structure of the building;)
  • the indoor horizontal steel bars 7-2 on the outer wall are anchored at both ends of the door window in the base wall 1 (such as Anchored in the masonry crevices on both sides of the door window); the inner end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is connected with the indoor horizontal rebar 7-2, the outer end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is connected with the rebar 4, or the outer end of the inner and outer pull wires 9 is also tensile
  • the net 5 is connected to form a supported outer thermal insulation wall without a base wall on the window, or a support outer thermal insulation balcony baffle without
  • a supported external thermal insulation wall having no base wall on the window is formed, and the construction is simple, that is, the thermal insulation layer is used to replace the masonry above the door window, and the indoor side of the thermal insulation layer is provided with a steel mesh connected with the main structure of the building. Plaster protective layer, low cost, see Figure 10.
  • the main structure of the building is a balcony slab, which cancels the amount of concrete slab casting on the balcony window, reduces the cost and convenience of construction, and has no balcony slab thermal bridge at all, forming a composite insulation balcony bar. Plate construction, see Figure 15.
  • Embodiment 3 Referring to FIG. 3 to FIG. 15, the difference between this embodiment and the first or second embodiment is: the present embodiment adds anchor bolts 40 and connecting wires 14; anchor bolts 40 pass through the thermal insulation layer 3 and the base wall The body 1 or the main structure 10 of the building is fixed, and the connecting wire 14 passes through the hole in the outer sleeve 40-1 of the anchor bolt, and the anchor bolt 40 is connected with the outdoor reinforcing bar 7 and the outdoor tensile net 5; A small bracket 19 is disposed between the net 5 and the insulating layer 3.
  • the connecting wire 14 connects the anchor stud 40 with the small bracket 19 and the tensile net 5; the connecting wire 14 is a metal wire or a plastic wire or a chemical fiber wire.
  • the purpose of this embodiment is to accurately mount the wire mesh so that it is centered on the protective layer. Due to the curvature of the wire mesh, no measures can be taken to locate the center of the protective layer.
  • the anchor bolts not only play the role of fixing the insulation layer and the structure of the main body of the building, but also play the role of pulling the anchor bolts with the tensile net.
  • the utility model has the advantages that the anchor pin and the connecting wire and the tensile net can be connected at any time according to the needs of the installation steel mesh during construction, and the construction is convenient, and the labor and material costs are reduced.
  • the inner and outer pull wires 9, the anchor studs 40 and the connecting wires 14 all play the role of inner and outer pull, but the problems solved are different.
  • the inner and outer pull wires 9 are mainly used to fix the steel bars outside the insulation layer.
  • the anchor bolts are easier to install than the inner and outer pull wires. 9 They are mainly used for fixing the tensile net.
  • a barbed bar 18 (generally made of plastic) is provided, and the barb of the card member 18 is fixed to the insulation layer 3. The outer end is fastened to the tensile net 5 to fix the tensile web 5 and the thermal insulation layer 3.
  • Embodiment 4 Referring to FIG. 20, the difference between this embodiment and one of the first to third embodiments is: the present embodiment adds a shear-resistant diagonal member 4 ⁇ 4 ; the shear-resistant diagonal member 4 ⁇ 4 is steel, steel plate or section steel; the shear-resistant diagonal member 4-4 is disposed obliquely, and the shear-resistant diagonal member 4 ⁇ 4 is connected with the support 1-5, or the shear-resistant diagonal member 4 ⁇ 4 is connected with the main structure 10 of the building (when the main body structure of the outer cantilever is 10 or the foundation beam protrudes outside the composite wall); the shear-resistant diagonal rod member 4 ⁇ 4 is located in the protective layer 8, or is resistant to shearing.
  • the diagonal members 4 to 4 are located outside the protective layer 8.
  • the shear-resistant diagonal tie rods are conveniently attached to the steel rods of the cantilevered steel trusses or to the steel plates or sections installed at the outer ends, which are not available in the disclosed concrete-supported cantilever beams.
  • the embodiment can further improve the shear bearing capacity of the composite wall in the plane of the wall, and is beneficial to earthquake resistance of the building. It is also possible to arrange shear-resistant diagonal steel bars or sections on the indoor side of the base wall to further improve the shear resistance of the wall.
  • Embodiment 5 Referring to FIG. 4 and FIG. 5 to FIG. 8 , the difference between this embodiment and one of the first to fourth embodiments is that: the support 1-5 of the cantilever steel truss of the present embodiment is 1-5- 1 Replacement, the oblique steel bar 1-5-1 obliquely passes through the insulation layer 3 to scrape the cement polymer mortar, and the oblique steel bar 1-5-1 is bonded with the cement polymer mortar to increase the hanging outdoor protective layer.
  • the stiffness of 8 prevents the oblique reinforcement 1-5-1 from exceeding the allowable deformation.
  • the present embodiment can be employed.
  • Embodiment 6 differs from one of Embodiments 1 to 5 in that:
  • the support 1-5 of the present embodiment can also be installed in the following parts, and is determined according to the use requirements: 1), the inner end of the support 1-5 Reinforced with the reinforcing steel 4 in the outer protective layer of the composite wall, or / and fixed with the shear-resistant diagonal member 4 ⁇ 4; 2), the inner end of the supporting 1-5 is located in the outer protective layer plastering tensile net Within 5, the inner ends of supports 1-5 meet the anchor length requirements.
  • the building facade can be enriched according to Fig. 21, Fig. 22 or this embodiment, and it is convenient to choose according to the decoration needs and construction. Although a thin plaster insulation line can be attached, the polymer adhesive of the thin plaster protection layer is poor in durability under ultraviolet light.
  • Embodiment 7 In this embodiment, structural joints for installing external wall hangings on steel plates or sections welded on 1-5 or steel bars 4 (usually steel bars 4 are juxtaposed double steel bars), such as curtain wall decoration, solar photovoltaic panels, Solar water heaters, billboards and planting racks for greening.
  • the vertical wall greening can be carried out on the outer wall planting frame, such as the outer side of the planting rack, the outer side of the balcony bar, the two sides of the window, and the vertical greening of the outer wall on the outdoor window sill.
  • Embodiment 8 FIG. 4 to FIG. 8 , FIG. 10 , and FIG. 12 , the difference between this embodiment and one of the first to seventh embodiments is that the thermal insulation composite wall of the present embodiment further adopts a fireproof structural measure, There are two ways to prevent fireproof construction measures: choose one or both:
  • a fireproof insulation belt 11 is provided in the insulation layer 3, the fire insulation insulation belt 11 is an insulation material that meets the fire resistance limit, or is cement mortar or concrete (this is not suitable for warm areas);
  • a vertical fireproof barrier 11-2 is disposed between the insulation layers 3, and the vertical fire insulation barrier 11-2 isolates the insulation layers 3 on both sides;
  • the fire insulation barrier 11 has a protective layer 8 on the outside, the fire insulation barrier 11 and the protective layer 8 connections, forming a fire zone structure;
  • Support 1-5 or diagonal reinforcement 1-5-1 and protective layer 8 meet the fire endurance requirements.
  • Supports 1-5 may also be concrete-supported cantilever beams that meet the fire endurance requirements.
  • Fireproof paint can be applied to the steel rod of the cantilever steel truss to meet the fire endurance, but the construction is inconvenient.
  • the cement polymer sand is poured into the gap around the cantilever steel truss to a certain thickness, which not only meets the fire endurance requirements, but also protects the steel rod from corrosion and increases the rigidity.
  • the protective layer of the thin plastering insulation wall has a short fireproof time and is an open fireproof large partition, and the range of the sacrificial layer is too large. Even if the thin plastering wall insulation strip is 300mm high, it will not necessarily block the fire, because the wind is not fixed when the fire occurs.
  • the fire-resistant barrier material selected by the invention has different fire-resistant time limits for different engineering requirements Different, the thickness of the fire barrier is different.
  • the fireproof insulation belt in the insulation material can be insulated mortar, rubber powder polystyrene particles, etc.
  • the thickness of the fire insulation barrier is generally about 30mm, which can meet the requirement of fire resistance of not less than 1 hour. The material consumption is small, convenient construction, low cost and easy to guarantee. Fireproof isolation belt engineering quality, convenient to set up fire isolation zone, horizontal fire isolation zone can be set on each floor, vertical fire isolation zone can be set corresponding to indoor fire zone or single household.
  • Embodiment 9 The difference between this embodiment and one of the first to eighth embodiments is that the protective layer 8 of the supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall has no reinforcing bar 4, and the tensile net 5 is directly Connected to the support 1-5, or a short reinforcing bar on the support 1-5, the tensile net 5 is connected with the short steel bar; the protective layer 8 may also be a thin plaster protective layer, or a rubber powder polyphenyl granule Or for thermal insulation mortar.
  • the thickness of the protective layer can be reduced. If the steel bar has a steel bar, the thickness of the protective layer is 25 to 30 mm, and when the steel bar is not provided, the thickness of the protective layer is 10 to 20 mm.
  • the protective layer can be not only cement mortar or fine stone concrete, but also modified cement mortar or modified fine stone concrete, and can also be a thin plaster protective layer (such as 3 ⁇ plastering and heat-insulating wall with EPS board) 5mm thick protective layer is equivalent), or the protective layer is rubber powder polystyrene particles or thermal insulation mortar.
  • the protective layer of the embodiment is a thin plaster protective layer
  • a fireproof adhesive can be used to form a thin plaster protective layer, which can also meet certain fire endurance requirements.
  • the present embodiment can solve the problem that the energy-saving wall technology such as the rubber powder polyphenyl granule is used to fix the rigidity of the joint of the metal mesh in the outer protective layer.
  • Embodiment 10 Referring to FIG. 23 to FIG. 25, the difference between this embodiment and one of the first to the ninth embodiments is that the base wall 1 of the supported external wall external thermal insulation composite wall is connected with the main body of the building.
  • the insulating layer 3 is connected to the protective layer 10-1 (generally bonded);
  • the inner reinforcing bar 7 is provided in the protective layer 10-1, and the indoor reinforcing bar 7 includes the indoor vertical reinforcing bar 7 -1, indoor horizontal reinforcement 7-2, indoor vertical reinforcement 7-1 is fixed with the upper and lower floors of the main structure 10 of the building, the indoor horizontal reinforcement 7-2 is connected with the vertical reinforcement 7-1 on both sides; It is fixed with the indoor steel bar 7, the outdoor steel bar 4, and the indoor steel bar 7 and the outdoor steel bar 4 are pulled together;
  • the protective layer 10-1 is cement mortar or fine stone concrete, or modified cement sand or modified fine Stone concrete
  • connection between the protective layer 10-1 and the main structure 10 of the building has the following three modes:
  • Indoor vertical steel bars 7-1 are installed on both sides of the door and window openings, and indoor vertical steel bars 7-1 are also arranged at certain intervals (such as gables).
  • the indoor vertical steel bars 7-1 correspond to the outdoor vertical steel bars 4-1.
  • the indoor horizontal steel bar 7-2 is located at the upper and lower sides of the door window and connected to the vertical steel bars 7-1 on both sides, or has a tensile net 5 in the protective layer 10-1 or on the surface;
  • the insulating layer 3 and the bonding layer 12 of the beam plate or/and the column of the building main structure 10 are provided with a tensile net 5-1, and the tensile net 5-1 is in the bonding layer.
  • the anchor length requirement is satisfied in 12; the tensile net 5-1 is stretched and bent, and is bonded to the protective layer 10-1; there is also a tensile net 5 or a tensile net 5 in the protective layer 10-1 or on the surface.
  • -1 and the tensile net 5 meet the lap length requirements, see Figure 23;
  • anchor steel bars 2 are arranged between the indoor vertical steel bars 7-1, and the anchor steel bars 2 are anchored in the beam plates or/and columns of the building main structure 10, anchoring steel bars 2 and buildings Main structure 10
  • the protective layer 10-1 meets the anchor length requirement, the anchoring steel bar 2 is located in the protective layer 10-1; the protective layer 10-1 or the surface is provided with a tensile net 5;
  • the tensile net 5 and the tensile net 5-1 are metal mesh or alkali resistant mesh or basalt fiber mesh; the tensile net 5 and the tensile mesh 5-1 may be selected from one or 2 or Three kinds of simultaneous materials are installed, and different tensile nets 5 and tensile nets 5-1 can be installed at different positions; the above structure forms a lightweight external thermal insulation wall.
  • the adhesive of the adhesive layer 12 of the present embodiment is usually a cement polymer mortar.
  • the present embodiment when the peripheral section of the heat insulating layer is bonded or squeezed to the structure of the main structure of the building, and the joint between the heat insulating layer is adhered or squeezed, the present embodiment also forms a seismic wall. If the insulation layer is not bonded to the main structure, it not only consumes seismic energy, but also cracks are likely to occur around the composite wall and the main structure.
  • the corresponding indoor vertical reinforcing bars 7-1 can be parallel double reinforcing bars or single reinforcing bars (since the distance is short, the connection is convenient, and the indoor and outdoor reinforcing bars are correspondingly set.)
  • the inner and outer pull wires 9 pull the indoor steel bars and the outdoor steel bars obliquely.
  • the external thermal insulation seismic wall of the first embodiment can consume seismic energy and is beneficial to the earthquake resistance of the building, but cannot meet the structural limit state design.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment can meet the design requirements of the structural limit state, and the seismic performance is higher than that of the external thermal insulation wall of the first embodiment.
  • the composite thermal insulation board test was carried out in the structural laboratory of Harbin Institute of Technology.
  • the simple supported composite thermal insulation span was 3m
  • the intermediate thermal insulation layer was 140mm thick
  • 30mm cement mortar No. C20
  • the cement mortar was sandwiched with wire diameter. It is ⁇ 1.6
  • the mesh is a 25x25mm galvanized welded wire mesh.
  • the destructive test proves that the normal cross-section damage occurs when the load reaches 12KN / m 2 , and the deflection is 3mm when the loading reaches 2.5KN / m 2 , which meets the normal use limit state design.
  • the test results are close to the theoretical analysis results.
  • the elastic modulus of the EPS board is 2.5Mpa, which may be inaccurate). If the support is a rigid anchor or a two-way plate, the deflection is smaller.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment can be designed to meet the normal use limit state.
  • the support of the composite wall is a rigid support or a simple support, and the specification and spacing of the anchor steel 2 are determined.
  • the anchor steel 2 is usually a ⁇ 4 galvanized iron wire, and the different spacing can be used to resist the tension of the mesh. Correspondence, see Table 3 on page 19.
  • the mounting density of the outdoor vertical reinforcing bar 7-1 and the corresponding indoor vertical reinforcing bar 6-1 is encrypted. See Figure 26.
  • the indoor protective layer 10-1 is arranged.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment is analyzed in five aspects below.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment When the load of the horizontal load on the composite wall is combined, the composite wall of the present embodiment is very light in weight. According to the combination of wind load combination and wind load and horizontal earthquake action in Beijing, China, the combined value of wind load It is far greater than the combined value of horizontal seismic action, that is, the combined value of wind load plays a controlling role. As long as the composite wall is in The combination of wind loads is safe, so the composite wall of the present embodiment is also safe during an earthquake.
  • the design of the positive section bending resistance is very simple.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment has a section height far greater than the height of the general concrete slab because of the insulation layer in the middle, the bending arm is large, and the combined value of the horizontal wind load is much smaller than The combined value of the slab load and the small amount of reinforcement are used. Therefore, the "stretched net" can meet the requirements of the inner and outer reinforcement of the composite wall in most cases, but the reinforcement of the door and window openings should be strengthened.
  • the "tension-resistant net” can be converted into steel, such as the Chinese “alkali-resistant glass fiber mesh” JCT841-2007 standard, resistant
  • the area of steel that can be replaced by alkali mesh cloth is shown in Table 2 (for reference only).
  • the insulation layer is EPS and the tensile net is a steel mesh
  • / £ is the design value of tensile strength of EPS board, which is O.IN/mm 2 (tentative);
  • the tensile strength of the EPS board is related to the following factors: 1) Density, the higher the density, the higher the tensile strength, the density of the EPS board should not be less than 20 kg m 3 ; 2) The meltability is better. As long as the quality of the EPS board is guaranteed, it can meet the design requirements of the limit state of the oblique section bearing capacity according to the above formula.
  • the coefficient of 0.8 in the formula also requires the construction industry experts. Together, it may be different at that time.
  • the shear bearing capacity in the plane of the composite wall shall consist of two parts: 1) the shear-resistant bearing capacity of the tensile net provided in the protective layer 10-1; 2) the elastic insulating layer in the frame beam and column
  • the EPS board resists shear bearing capacity in the plane of the composite wall.
  • the protective layer 10-1 there are ⁇ 2, meshed 25x25, 30x30, 40x40, 50x50, 100x100 galvanized welded wire mesh, and ⁇ 4 galvanized steel bar is used as the anchoring steel bar for the floor and column, steel wire and ⁇ 4 steel bar.
  • the tensile strength design values are all taken as 210 N/mm 2 .
  • the mesh is 25x25,
  • the area of the steel wire in the ⁇ 2 steel mesh is "; (only the area of the inner side wire is calculated, the shear resistance of the outer wire mesh of the main structure is not counted), at a height of 3 m, respectively, 377 mm 2 314 mm 2 , 236 mm 2 , 188 mm 2 , 84 mm 2 , according to the rigid support, the distance between the ⁇ 4 galvanized anchor bars anchored to the main structure is 100mm, 120mm, 160mm, 200mm, 200mm.
  • the shear capacity of the steel wire mesh is calculated according to the formula. See Table 3.
  • the data in Table 3 does not count the shear capacity of the plaster layer. As long as the strength of the plaster protection layer is ensured, and the mortar and the tensile net are wrapped, and the tensile net and the main structure are anchored.
  • the composite wall of the present embodiment has anti-shear bearing capacity in the plane, and has a limitation The ability of the building to shift horizontally.
  • the tensile strength of the elastic insulation layer such as the EPS board is close to that of the masonry wall.
  • the EPS board itself has anti-shear bearing capacity, but the shear resistance of the EPS board in the plane of the composite wall is currently not counted.
  • the shear bearing capacity is distributed according to the stiffness. How to calculate the stiffness of the composite wall in this embodiment, and how the influence of different insulation materials and thickness on the stiffness needs to be determined through experiments.
  • the EPS board is a heat-insulating material with good elasticity, low cost and good durability. It is recommended to use a flexible polymer insulation material such as a flame-retardant EPS board as the insulation layer.
  • the welding spark will not ignite the flame-retardant EPS board during the construction stage, but The flame-retardant EPS board can not resist the large-area flame formed when the fire occurs, and it still burns when the ignition point of the EPS board is more than 500 Q C.
  • the fire is not reduced, and the fireproof construction measures of the eighth embodiment of the present invention are adopted to ensure long-term Fire safety in use.
  • This embodiment reduces the building weight and reduces the energy consumption during the construction phase.
  • the insulation layer can consume seismic energy and has shear resistance in the plane of the composite wall. This embodiment has important significance for earthquake resistance of buildings and limits horizontal displacement of high-rise buildings, and also greatly reduces the cost of building main structures in seismic buildings.
  • the thickness of the composite wall is determined according to the following principles:
  • the embodiment can meet the structural limit state design requirements, and the wall has a very low heat transfer coefficient.
  • the thickness of the insulation layer “a” located in the frame is different (Fig. 10, Fig. 12, Fig. 23), and the effect on the vibration isolation may be different.
  • the “a” is large, the vibration absorption effect may be better, and the test is to be quantitatively analyzed.
  • the spacing of the indoor vertical steel bars 7.1 is larger than the regulation (for example, greater than the Chinese "Code for Design of Concrete Structures" GB50010
  • the lock is locked with a steel bar, and the composite wall is locked at a certain distance.
  • the safety of the composite wall is lighter than the current briquetting thickness of 200mm. Block walls are much safer and are safe for many buildings with little wind, but this type of construction is not It is determined according to the structural formula and is not a composite wall that meets the design requirements of the limit state. If the indoor vertical reinforcement
  • the spacing of 7-1 is not greater than the specified (for example, not more than 250mm), which can meet the design requirements of the limit state, but the steel content is inevitably far greater than the theoretical calculation value of the bending design, which is wasteful, and the number of pre-embedded steel bars and installed steel bars is large. Too much trouble, high cost, not applicable.
  • Fig. 23 is a measure of anchoring the composite wall to the building main structure 10 by means of a tensile net 5-1, and also by anchoring the reinforcing bars 2, such that The number of indoor vertical steel bars 7-1 can be greatly reduced. For example, it may be stipulated that the distance between the outdoor vertical steel bars and the indoor vertical steel bars is not more than 1.8 m.
  • the 2) and 3) structures not only meet the design requirements of the structural limit state, but also have a small amount of steel, and are convenient for construction. Tensile nets are used both as indoor and outdoor reinforcements and also as a barrier.
  • the infill wall has not met the design requirements of the limit state, and its safety is incomparable with the structures of the 2nd and 3rd.
  • the 2) and 3) structures enable the composite wall to be anchored not only to the upper and lower floors but also to the two columns to form a two-way plate.
  • the composite wall becomes a two-way plate pair. It is very beneficial to meet the force requirements, and the internal force of the composite wall under the horizontal load can be greatly reduced.
  • the composite wall of this embodiment it is advisable to use a large insulation board to reduce the indirect seam of the insulation board.
  • the insulation layer can be bonded with polyurethane foam, which is fast and easy to construct: or cement polymer glue bonding (requires bonding surface) Matching), or bonding with thermal insulation sand, or cement polymer mortar bonding (not suitable for heating areas), but the paste speed is slow.
  • a moisture-proof layer on the composite wall such as a poly-plastic composite film (PET//AL//PET) or (PET//AL) on the indoor wall, and then install a light steel keel gypsum board.
  • the electrical wiring is arranged inside the keel.
  • Embodiment 11 Referring to FIG. 27 and FIG. 28, the difference between the embodiment and the eleventh embodiment is as follows: In this embodiment, there is a masonry wall 1-1, an insulation layer 3 and a masonry on the indoor side of the thermal insulation layer 3. The wall 1-1 is connected, and the protective layer 10-1 is provided on the indoor side of the masonry wall 1-1, and the masonry wall 1-1 is connected to the protective layer 10-1.
  • the present embodiment is applicable to an outer wall located on the first floor of a building, and has better anti-theft and anti-impact performance.
  • the present embodiment is basically a base wall 1 of the first embodiment.
  • a reinforcing mesh-polished protective layer 10-1 which is anchored to the main structure of the building is provided.
  • the difference between Fig. 27 and Fig. 11 is that the inner protective layer 10-1 of the masonry wall of Fig. 27 has a tensile net connected to the main structure of the building (connected by anchoring steel bars 2, or an anti-resistance is installed in the bonding layer 12).
  • Figure 28 differs from Figure 10 in that Figure 28 is provided with anchoring reinforcement 2 in the plastering layer inside the masonry wall, and anchoring reinforcement 2 in the protective layer 10-1 It is connected to the main structure of the building, and Figure 10 has no anchor steel 2 connected to the main structure of the building.
  • Embodiment 12 The difference between this embodiment and one of the first to eleventh embodiments is that the molecular thermal insulation is The surface of the material insulation layer 3 is painted or sprayed with a first-time interfacial agent having flame retardant properties. The thickness of the first layer of the interface agent should satisfy that the insulation layer 3 is not ignited when there is a welding spark, and the fire safety during the construction phase is ensured.
  • the first pass agent coated on the heat insulating layer is used to increase the fireproof ability of the polymer heat insulating layer, and the inorganic powder is added in the first pass interface agent, and sand and high calcium powder may be added in addition to the cement.
  • Mica, silica fume, etc., especially mica has good hiding power.
  • the modified cement mortar or modified fine stone concrete refers to: 1) a cement mortar modified by adding an admixture, fly ash, stone powder, water repellent, water retaining agent, cracking fiber and the like.
  • the crack-resistant fiber is polypropylene chopped fiber, alkali-resistant glass chopped fiber, basalt fiber and hemp knife.
  • a cement polymer sand pad or cement polymer concrete formed by adding a water retaining agent or a polymer adhesive.
  • cement polymer elastic mortar or cement polymer elastic concrete as the protective layer for the position of the steel bar, such as the edge of the door window.
  • connection between the tensile net and the steel bar of the present invention means that the tensile net is bonded to the steel bar, or the alkali resistant mesh or basalt fiber mesh is adhered in the protective layer or the surface, the alkali resistant mesh or the basalt fiber mesh and The protective layer is bonded, and the protective layer is connected with the outdoor steel bar and the indoor steel bar to connect the alkali-resistant mesh cloth with the steel bar.
  • the groove can be cut on the insulation layer of the steel bar to thicken the local plaster near the steel bar.
  • the thermal insulation layer is a polymer thermal insulation material
  • the adhesion between the protective layer and the thermal insulation layer is adhered by the coating interface agent, and the interface agent should be constructed according to the patent of the invention patent No. ZL200810170949.0.
  • a groove is formed on the surface of the heat insulating layer to connect the protective layer to the heat insulating layer.
  • the joints between the insulation layers are bonded by polyurethane foam glue, and there are grooves and protrusions at the joints of the heat insulation layers. The grooves and the protrusions can be stuck to each other, and the installation speed is fast.
  • the thickness of the polymer elastic mortar is about 10mm, and the alkali-resistant mesh cloth is suitable. It has good fireproofing, good crack resistance and good durability.
  • Cement polymer elastic mortar is suitable for pure acrylic emulsion with a glass transition temperature of -10 ⁇ 25 degrees, good durability and good elasticity.
  • the inside and outside of the insulation layer can be a composite of two materials, such as the thermal insulation layer of the polymer insulation material and the paper honeycomb board or the thermal insulation mortar or the rubber powder polyphenyl particles. Since the EPS board shrinks at 70 degrees, in the particularly hot summer area, a heat-resistant insulation layer can be added to the EPS board to protect the EPS board, and a heat-reflective coating can be applied to the exterior of the composite wall.
  • door and window openings waterproof, especially the window sill is very important to set the waterproof layer, such as the polyethylene propylene waterproof membrane on the window sill, after the completion of the waterproof layer, then install windows and window insulation strips or cement mortar ash protective layer, and insulation outside the window A thin strip or a cement mortar plastering protective layer is filled with an elastic sealing waterproof material between the door and the window.
  • the flame-retardant phenolic resin installed on the window sill is seamless, and it is also possible to prevent the waterproofing of the window sill from being installed.

Description

说 明 书
一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体 技术领域
本发明涉及建筑的外保温复合墙体, 特别是一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体。 背景技术
薄抹灰保温墙体是仅依靠胶粘剂粘结的墙体保温技术, 技术手段单一, 其构造存在 自身无法克服的缺陷, 导致防火不好, 结构安全性差。 薄抹灰保温墙体与当前其它节 能墙体技术比是热桥最少、节能保温最好的, 但是其热桥仍较多。如: 1) 因门窗口侧 边保温层比主墙体薄得多, 故该处成为热量易流失的通道, 即使窗户安装与基层墙体 取齐可略有改善, 但基层墙体外角距离室外冷点的热阻仍远远小于主墙体热阻, 窗墙 比 0.3^0.5时, 增加墙体平均传耐热系数达 0.1~0.2 w/m2 k, 墙体平均传热系数难以达 到 0.4以下 w/m2.k。 门窗洞口好似人的脖子, 冬天冷、 脖子要围上毛围脖, 薄抹灰保 温墙体窗口周边粘贴保温板薄片,好似脖子只围了纱巾,流失热量仍多。 2)外墙上安 装幕墙装饰、 遮阳板、 广告牌、 太阳能光电板等时, 结构连接件必须穿过保温层才能 与基层墙体连接, 又增加了大量传热, 对节能保温不利, 墙体平均传热系数难以达到 0.7以下 w/m2 k。
其它节能墙体的热桥比薄抹灰保温墙体更多, 如夹心保温墙体、 保温砌块墙体, 以及安装在框架结构上的轻钢龙骨中间夹有矿物棉的保温墙体。这些保温墙体不仅门 窗口热桥大于薄抹灰保温墙体, 且还有沿建筑周圈的混凝土挑檐板热桥, 这些墙体好 似穿了棉衣棉裤, 但是 "腰"——混凝土挑檐板还露在外面, 即使混凝土挑檐板上 粘贴保温薄条,其热阻仍远远小于主墙体热阻,热桥仍很大。夹心保温墙体热桥太大, 即使 EPS板厚 300mm, 也达不到墙体平均传热系数 0.4 w/m2.k。
节能保温墙体热量流失通道——热桥普遍多, 制约了全球减排温室气体。
为解决墙体技术中存在的保温性与防火安全性、 结构安全性的矛盾, 增加墙体节 能保温效果, 本专利申请人已经陆续提出以下墙体技术专利:
专利 1 : 专利号 ZL200410002698.7, 发明名称 "有支撑、 有钢筋水泥外保护层的 抗震保温复合墙体"的专利。
专利 2: 专利号 ZL200610153289.6, 发明名称 "有支撑的捆绑式复合保温墙体" 的专利。
专利 3: 专利申请号 201019185057.2, 发明名称 "一种有支承的外墙外保温复合 墙体"的专利。这个专利提出了门窗洞口隔热断桥构造, 可以取消或减少洞口周边流 失的热量。 但上述专利存在以下问题:
1、 上述专利的墙体技术都有一个共同的构件: 支承悬挑梁, 型钢支承悬挑梁或 混凝土支承悬挑梁。
专利 1的支承悬挑梁为钢支撑 2, 见该专利的图 2、 图 5、 图 7, 是由型钢或钢板 焊接而成的钢支撑(应为钢支承, "撑"为错别字) 。 专利 2称之为混凝土支承悬挑 梁 2, 见该专利图 27; 专利 3称之为混凝土支承悬挑梁 1-5, 见该专利图 2, 即本发明 图 1。
1)、 型钢支承悬挑梁存在传热太多, 对节能保温不利, 且耗用钢材太多等问題。 因为受安装石材幕墙装饰构造的影响, 故专利 1采用钢支撑。 当前在复合保温墙 体上安装幕墙装饰、 广告牌、 防盗栅栏、 遮阳板及厚重装饰物时, 结构连接件增加传 热太多, 且耗用钢材多, 易于腐蚀, 将来除非拆开墙体, 否则无法维修, 不能保证 50 年耐久年限, 故在后续专利中都改为混凝土支承悬挑梁。
2)、混凝土支承悬挑梁不方便施工, 影响施工进度, 造价高, 还不方便既有建筑 节能改造工程应用。
混凝土支承悬挑梁是垂直于建筑主体结构设置的混凝土悬挑件, 其内端与建筑主 体结构固定, 见本发明图 1。 设置混凝土支承悬挑梁是为了解决以下问题: 混凝土支 承悬挑梁外端钢板焊接吊挂室外钢筋, 钢丝网与室外钢筋绑扎, 形成被吊挂的钢筋、 钢丝网抹灰的幕墙, 结构安全性好。
但现浇或预制安装混凝土支承悬挑梁, 施工都不方便, 费工费时非材料。
每个开间约需要 3 个混凝土支承悬挑梁, 一个一万平方米的建筑外墙面积约 3000m2, 约需在模板上开洞 1500~1800个。若现场支模安装混凝土支承悬挑梁, 支承 悬挑梁内的钢筋锚固在混凝土内, 对模板破坏较大, 费工费时, 不^便模板安装。 若 预制同样数量的混凝土支承悬挑梁, 需要场地预制及运输, 且后端需有钢板与主体结 构上的预埋钢板焊接, 按混凝土支承悬挑梁断面 100xl20mm, 考虑焊缝后钢板面积 为 120x 140mm,主体结构上钢板 1块、支承悬挑梁前后钢板 2块,三块钢板面积 =0.0456 m2, 钢材耗量大、 焊接量大, 施工麻烦, 更不可行。 因此, 现浇或预制安装混凝土支 承悬挑梁施工都很不方便, 影响施工进度, 造价高。
上述混凝土支承悬挑梁的问题不利于推广本专利申请人申请的前述发明的复合 墙体, 这是本发明所要解决的第 1个问题。
2、 上述专利的墙体技术防火构造措施不完善。
现在欧洲是将墙体保温体系划归到装饰材料上,对抹灰保护层不提出耐火极限要 求, 中国向欧洲学习, 欧洲和中国在大量应用薄抹灰保温墙体。但无疑有机保温材料 的薄抹灰保温墙体防火不安全,特别是在战争和恐怖活动等意外事件发生时将使国家 处于极端被动、 危险的局面, 对国防战略安全不利。 因此一些国家并不认同薄抹灰保 温墙体, 还在建设非节能建筑, 或采用前面叙述的其它热桥更多的节能保温墙体, 对 全球减排温室气体不利。
本专利申请人前述专利没有提出防火构造措施, 如没有对混凝土支承悬挑梁提出 耐火极限要求, 在既有建筑植筋安装时用有机结构胶植筋安装就不满足耐火极限要 求。 吊挂外保护层的支承悬挑梁的耐火极限若低于保护层, 则对防火不利; 在有机保 温层内没有设置防火分区, 火灾发生时, 大火可能在保温层内蔓延, 对减小火灾损失 不利。
如何使本发明的外保温复合墙体既高节能, 又防火安全、 结构安全, 推动世界各 国积极应用节能墙体技术, 这是本发明所要解决的第 2个问题。
3、 除本发明人提出的节能墙体技术外, 其它节能墙体技术用于固定外保护层内 金属网的连接件刚度差、 不防火。 如:
1 )胶粉聚苯颗粒节能保温墙体技术的保护层内设有金属网, 与基层墙体连接是 用锚钉将金属网与基层墙体固定。 2 )在现浇混凝土外保温时, 用塑料连接桥(此塑 料连接桥是一个厚度约 3mm、 宽度约 30mm的塑料片, 两端带有卡口)将带有燕尾 槽的 EPS板模块与现浇混凝土固定,此塑料连接桥同时用于固定外部抹灰层内的钢丝 网。锚钉和塑料连接桥的刚度都不好, 特别是失火时 EPS板萎缩、熔化, 锚钉和塑料 连接桥很快熔化, 外部抹灰保护层仍然会发生脱落的危险。 这说明, 当前这些节能保 温墙体技术普遍没有解决外保护层的安全问题。
4、 是否在墙体技术中, 可有利建筑抗震?
5、 是否可使得墙体方便外墙垂直绿化, 方便在外墙上安装太阳能光电板等? 为使得复合保温墙体同时具有高效节能、 防火安全、 结构安全的优异性能, 为方 便施工、 降低造价, 为弥补本人前述专利的不足, 并满足建筑对墙体的多种要求, 提 出本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体。 发明内容
本发明的目的是提供一种节能保温墙体技术,特别是一种有支承的外墙外保温复 合墙体, 以解决背景技术所述的问题。
本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体: 本发明包括基层墙体、支承、保温 层、 抗拉的网、 钢筋、 保护层、 内外拉接线及建筑主体结构; 所述基层墙体为混凝土 墙、 承重砌体墙、 非承重轻质砌体填充墙或钢骨架、 木骨架及竹木骨架的墙体; 所述 保温层是高分子保温材料、 植物秸秆板、 纸蜂窝板、 矿物棉、 泡沫玻璃、 发泡水泥、 保温砂浆或胶粉聚苯颗粒, 保温层内外可以为两种材料的复合, 所述不同位置的保温 层可以为不同材料; 所述钢筋包括竖向钢筋、 水平钢筋或弧形钢筋; 所述抗拉的网为 金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网; 所述保护层为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性 的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土; 所述建筑主体结构为混凝土结构或钢结构, 建筑主 体结构包含梁、 板、 柱、 墙、 基础;
所述支承为悬挑钢桁架, 悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆, 支承的内端与建筑主体结构或基 层墙体连接, 在建筑主体结构或基层墙体上按一定间距设置支承; 保温层固定在基层 墙体及建筑主体结构的外侧; 保温层外侧设有保护层, 保护层与保温层连接; 竖向钢 筋与支承连接, 或竖向钢筋与悬挑的建筑主体结构或与基础连接, 在门窗洞口侧边设 有竖向钢筋; 所述水平钢筋有以下安装方式之一或同时有以下两种安装方式: 1 ) 、 水平钢筋或弧形钢筋位于室外门窗洞口上、 下; 2) 、 水平钢筋位于门窗洞口以外部 位墙体的竖向钢筋之间;水平钢筋两端与竖向钢筋连接,或水平钢筋两端与支承连接, 竖向钢筋还可与水平钢筋连接;所述竖向钢筋、或 /和水平钢筋或弧形钢筋为单根钢筋 或为并列的双钢筋,在并列的双钢筋之间设有钢筋拉接,或 /和并列的双钢筋之间焊接 钢板或块状型钢; 抗拉的网与钢筋固定连接; 钢筋与抗拉的网潜埋在保护层内, 或耐 碱网布或玄武岩纤维网粘贴在保护层的表面;抗拉的网可选用一种或同时选用 2或 3种 材料安装, 在不同位置可选用不同的抗拉的网安装; 内外拉接线内端与建筑主体结构 或基层墙体锚固,内外拉接线外端与钢筋连接,或内外拉接线外端还与抗拉的网连接, 形成一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体;
在建筑主体结构为框架结构建筑时,保温层不仅位于基层墙体及建筑主体结构的 外侧, 还可减薄砌筑墙体即基层墙体 1的厚度, 保温层还位于建筑主体结构的框架结 构梁柱洞口内。
本发明与背景技术已公开技术的关键不同点是:
本发明用悬挑钢桁架替代原混凝土支承悬挑梁, 悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆。
本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体中的支承是悬挑钢桁架,悬挑钢桁架 既不是钢板或型钢制作的钢支承, 也不是已公开技术的混凝土支承悬挑梁, 它是一种 钢杆制作的钢桁架, 悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆, 一端与建筑主体结构或与基层墙体固定, 成为悬挑钢桁架。 本发明是将钢桁架用于墙体技术中, 它与已公开技术的区别在于: 从设计理论上说, 悬挑钢桁架设是按钢结构和桁架理论进行设计的, 而不是按混 凝土结构理论设计的混凝土支承悬挑梁, 悬挑钢桁架要设有斜杆, 而混凝土悬挑梁不 需要设有斜杆。 从施工方法上说, 悬挑钢桁架的施工安装与已披露技术的原混凝土支 承悬挑梁是完全不同的。 从技术效果上说, 悬挑钢桁架不仅可承担起原混凝土支承悬 挑梁的使用功能要求, 并避免了混凝土支承悬挑梁的缺点, 又扩大了使用范围(如可 与钢骨架、木骨架、竹木骨架的基层墙体连接,这是原混凝土支承悬挑梁所不具备的), 具有安装方便, 降低造价, 增加墙体节能保温效果, 应用面广的优点; 并方便设置抗 剪切的斜拉杆件, 提高复合墙体抗剪切承载力, 有利建筑抗震, 这些效果都是已公开 技术的混凝土支承悬挑梁所不具备的。
本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的支承为悬挑钢桁架有以下几种安 装方法: 1 )在建筑主体结构或基层墙体内预埋钢板与悬挑钢桁架焊接, 见图 2。 2) 或在预埋钢板外侧设环或扣件, 见图 18,悬挑钢桁架内端穿在环内或被扣件固定,可 减少焊接工作量, 特别是加密设置时, 悬挑钢桁架的钢杆很细如 Φ4镀锌钢筋, 不能 对 Φ4钢筋焊接时可应用。 3 )预埋钢筋或植筋安装,在建筑主体结构上可直接植筋安 装悬挑钢桁架的杆件, 施工方便, 使得既有建筑节能改造工程方便应用有支承的外保 温复合墙体。
2、 已公开技术没有公开有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体为钢骨架、 木 骨架及竹木骨架填充墙体的构造。
3、 已公开技术没有提出在本发明实施方式二的窗口上没有基层墙体的有支承外 保温墙体, 及没有提出阳台栏板的有支承外保温阳台栏板构造。
4、 已公开技术没有提出在本发明的复合墙体上可进行外墙垂直绿化、 安装太阳 能光电板等的构造。
5、 已公开技术没有提出在保温层内设置防火隔离带的构造, 火灾发生时可能在 保温层内蔓延:也没有对《凝土支承悬挑梁提出耐火极限的要求,不能确保在耐火极 限时间内, 被吊挂的保护层的安全。
6、 已公开技术没有公开有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的保护层内不设钢筋, 抗 拉的网直接与支承的外端连接的构造。
本发明的技术效果:
1、 本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的支承釆用悬挑钢桁架时, 具有 方便施工、 降低造价、 结构安全性好、 方便在外墙上设计复杂造型等优点:
1 )不破坏混凝土模板, 节省混凝土支承悬挑梁模板安装过程中的人工和材料消 耗, 施工方便, 安装悬挑钢桁架的预埋钢板仅是安装现饶混凝土支承悬挑梁安装所用 钢板的 1/4~1/2.5, 用钢量低, 降低造价。
2)方便既有建筑节能改造工程植筋安装支承, 应用有支承的外保温复合墙体。
3)方便在复合墙体外侧设置抗剪切的斜拉杆件, 提高复合墙体抗剪切承载力, 有利建筑抗震, 这是混凝土支承悬挑梁不具备的。
4)本发明既可应用于保护层内设置钢筋的情况, 也可以应用于实施方式九不设 置钢筋的情况。 不设钢筋时, 与背景技术所述的锚钉或塑料连接桥比: 悬挑钢桁架是 结构受力构件, 满足结构极限状态设计要求, 与建筑主体结构具有相同的安全度: 而 锚钉或塑料连接桥不是结构受力构件, 二者安全度不可比。
5)方便在复合墙体上设计复杂的立面造型, 为丰富建筑立面造型提供了方便, 这是已公开技术的混凝土支承悬挑梁所不具备的。
6)本发明外保护层的结构安全性好, 可在窗台竖向钢筋上再安装悬挑钢桁架支 承, 可填充保温板形成大窗台, 室外窗台安全性好, 而薄抹灰保温墙体脚踩在室外窗 台上是不安全的。
本发明支承为悬挑钢桁架不仅可承担起原混凝土支承悬挑梁的使用功能要求, 并 避免了混凝土支承悬挑梁的缺点, 又扩大了使用范围。
2、本发明在复合墙体保温层内设置防火隔离带, 且被支承吊挂的保护层在耐火 极限时间内是安全的,从而形成一种封闭式防火小分区构造。本发明的复合墙体在髙 节能的同时, 防火安全性好, 节能保温墙体不会威胁国防战咯安全,各国可放心进行 墙体保温。
本发明的支承在正常情况下受力很小,火灾发生时支承才真正发挥作用,可以说, 支承就是为保证防火安全准备的结构吊挂构件。
本发明在保温层之间, 设置保温砂桨或其它满足耐火极限要求的保温材料如保温 砂浆作防火隔离带, 一般 30mm即可满足耐火极限不小于 lh的要求。 防火隔离带薄, 仅是薄抹灰墙体 300mm宽防火隔离带用量的 10%, 材料用量少, 施工方便, 造价低。 还可根据防火要求, 加密设置防火隔离带, 如每层设置水平防火隔离带, 还可对应室 内防火分区或按单户设置垂直防火隔离带, 形成封闭式小防火分区。
火灾发生时, 在耐火极限时间内, 火焰被封堵在防火分区的有限范围内, 火灾影 响范围小, 有助于消防人员及时扑灭火灾。 即使在战争及恐怖分子的袭击时, 也可将 火灾控制在防火小分区内, 各国可以放心采用本发明的墙体技术。
3、 本发明的复合墙体节能保温效果超过当前最好的薄抹灰保温墙体, 对全球减 少温室气体抹放具有重要意义。
因洞口周边有钢筋, 本发明将窗户安装在洞口保温层上可保证安全, 并有利于避 免洞口角部抹灰开裂的质量通病, 形成洞口隔热断桥构造, 节能保温好。 推荐洞口局 部保温层采用难燃酚醛树脂, 因其防火性能好, 且导热系数仅为 0.022 w/m.k,可完全 消灭洞口热桥, 甚至洞口线性传热系数为负数 (即洞口周边热阻大于主墙体热阻), 节能保温好。 本发明与薄抹灰保温墙体节能保温对照见表 1。
本发明洞口热桥为 "0"的复合墙体与与薄抹灰保温墙体节能保温对照表
1、 本发明墙体 2、 本发明墙体 3、 薄抹灰保温墙体 分层材料 普通装饰 幕墙装饰
热阻 m2.k/ w 热阻 m2.k/ w 热阻 m2.k/ w 混凝土墙 200厚 0.2/1.74=0.115 0.2/1.74=0.115 0.2/1.74=0.115
EPS板不 120mm 0.12/0.051=2.353 0.12/0.053=2.264 0.12/0.05=2.4
同厚度 200mm 0.20/0.051=3.922 0.20/0.053=3.774 0.20/0.05=4.0 内外抹灰厚 0.045/0.93=0.048 0.045/0.93=0.048 0.045/0.93=0.048 内外空气层热阻 0.15 0.15 0.15
EPS板 2.666 2.577 2.713 合计 120mm
热阻 EPS板 4.235 4.087 4.313
200mm
EPS板 1/2.666+支承增加 1/2.577+支承增加 1/2.713+洞口热桥增加 墙体平 120mm 传热 =0.375+0.014 传热 =0.388+0.04 传热 =0.36SH"0.152 均传热 =0.389 =0.428 =0.521
系数 EPS板 1/4.235+支承增加 1/4.087+支承增加 1/4.313+洞口热桥增加 w/m2.k 200mm 传热 =0.236+0.014 传热 =0.245+0.04 传热 =0.232+0.152 (注)
=0.25 =0.285 =0.384 注: 第 3种薄抹灰保温墙体洞口增加传热 0.152 w/m2. k数值, 是按中国 《黑龙江省居住建筑 节能 65%设计标准》 DB23/1270中 (D.0.1 )公式, 及表 D.0.7线性传热系数 ψ的参考值, 在 EPS 板厚度不小于 120mm时为 0.11w/m.k, 假定一个 3.6m开间、层髙 2.8m、 落地窗 1.8x2.3, 窗墙比 0.414计算的。 因本发明的外保护层内有钢筋, 还解决了在外保温墙体上安装装饰幕墙、广告牌 或太阳能光电板等外墙悬挂物的构造, 结构连接件不必穿过保温层, 可直接与外保护 层上的钢板连接, 外墙有悬挂物的墙体也能达到低传热系数。
由表 1可见, 本发明幕墙装饰时也可满足低传热系数的要求。 而粘贴保温层薄抹 灰保温墙体幕墙的型钢卧在保温层内, 按槽钢最薄壁厚 5mm计算, 假定槽钢平均间 距 lm、 壁厚 5mm, 单位面积保温层内钢材数量达 50cm2, 是钢丝网架水泥夹心板保 温层内钢丝面积 6.28 cm2的 8倍,钢丝网架水泥夹心板增加 EPS板导热系数 60%,再 加上洞口周边热桥, 即使采用无机保温层满足幕墙装饰防火要求, 也难以满足采暖地 区建筑节能要求。由表 1可见,本发明的复合墙体节能保温效果超过薄抹灰保温墙体, 自然更超过其它节能墙体技术。
4、 本发明有利建筑抗震, 降低建筑造价。
在框架结构建筑中,本发明实施方式一可形成外保温抗震墙体,保温层外的钢筋、 钢丝网抹灰层将保温层捆绑在基层墙体及主体结构上, 且层层粘结为一体, 地震时填 充墙体不会向外、 也不会向内倒塌。特别是框架结构时减薄基层墙体的厚度, 保温层 不仅位于基层墙体及建筑主体结构的外侧,保温层还位于建筑主体结构的框架结构梁 柱洞口内时, 弹性保温层如 EPS板可消耗地震能量, 以柔克刚, 增加框架结构地震时 的安全储备。 实施方式十在框架结构建筑中, 抗震墙体重量更轻, 且可满足结构极限 状态设计要求,抗震性能超过实施方式一的抗震墙体,可根据不同抗震设防烈度选用。
目前的墙体抗震技术都是以刚克刚, 造价昂贵, 未见填充墙体有满足结构极限状 态设计要求的, 未见在墙体技术中有以柔克刚的抗震墙体技术。
本发明的抗震墙体因大大减轻基层墙体重量, 减少施工阶段能耗, 对建筑抗震及 对髙层建筑限制水平位移具有重要意义, 还可降低建筑主体结构造价, 特别是较大地 降低地震区建筑的建筑主体结构造价。全球每年地震不断, 框架结构填充墙体采用本 发明的抗震墙体对保障地震安全意义很大。
5、本发明的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体方便进行墙面垂直绿化美化城市, 方便安装太阳能光电板等, 对发展可再生能源及全球减少温室气体拌放具有意义。
屋面面积小,完全依靠在屋面上安装太阳能光电板、太阳能热水器的面积不够用, 而外墙面积很大, 但以往在外保温墙体上安装外墙悬挂物时难以保证安全, 若要保证 安全就增加很多传热。 本发明使得在外墙上安装悬挂物很简单, 在外墙上安装悬挂物 时也能建设低能耗墙体, 墙体节能保温好, 见第 6页表 1 , 本发明还使得在外墙上垂 直绿化成为可能, 且不破坏外墙面。
墙体技术是一个系统工程, 不是哪一种保温材料就能把所有问题都解决的, 每种 保温材料都各有其优缺点,各有其应用范围和价值。现代科学技术正在朝着多学科化、 交叉化的趋势发展,只有技术体系与材料并举,采用多种技术手段与多种材料相结合, 发挥不同材料的优点, 避免其缺点, 优化墙体构造, 才能突破墙体技术的瓶颈。 单单 依靠新型墙体材料因为不能优化墙体构造, 因而不能全面解决墙体技术的问题。
本发明正是本着上述思路, 采用结构手段与化学粘接相结合的多种技术手段, 与 多种材料相结合, 优化墙体构造, 节能保温可超过当前保温最好的薄抹灰保温墙体, 且具有突出的结构安全性好, 防火安全性好, 不会威胁各国战略的安全, 有助于推动 世界范围内的建筑节能减排, 并对建筑抗震具有重要意义。
本发明是一个从构造上全新的墙体节能保温技术,但其施工手段都是现行施工技 术中成熟的技术, 施工可行性是没有悬念的, 其质量保证是多方面的, 本发明施工方 便, 降低造价, 应用面广, 具有广泛的应用前景。 附图说明
图 1是背景技术中专利 2、 专利 3的混凝土支承悬挑梁构造示意图;
图 2是悬挑钢桁架构造示意图;
图 3是实施方式一的复合墙体室外悬挑钢桁架和钢筋布置图;
图 4是实墙处有悬挑钢桁架的外墙外保温复合墙体剖面透视图, 并同时表示实施 方式五悬挑钢桁架被斜钢筋替代的示意图;
图 5是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 洞口有热桥、 窗外为水泥砂浆抹灰; 图 6是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 洞口有热桥、 窗外安装保温材料遮盖洞 口保温层, 与薄抹灰保温墙体有相同热桥;
图 7是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 洞口隔热断桥, 窗外安装保温材料遮盖 洞口保温层构造;
图 8是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图,洞口基层墙体边缘外侧有水泥砂浆抹灰 的热桥、 窗外为水泥砂浆抹灰, 热桥大于薄抹灰保温墙体热桥;
图 9是实施方式一的复合墙体悬挑钢桁架和室外双钢筋钢筋布置图;
图 10是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 基层墙体为框架结构的薄填充墙体, 形成的外保温抗震墙体垂直剖面图; 也表示实施方式二墙体垂直剖面示意图, 窗口上 方不砌筑墙体,在建筑主体结构 10的梁板下安装梁板下保温层 3,保温层 3的室内侧 设有与建筑主体结构 1的梁板连接的钢筋有网抹灰层 10-1的剖面图;
图 11 是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 基层墙体为框架结构的薄填充墙体, 形成外保温抗震墙体; 图 12是是实施方式一墙体垂直剖面示意图, 基层墙体为钢骨架填充墙体, 形成 外保温抗震墙体, 图中所示为 C形钢,在 C形钢外侧可安装水泥纤维板等,保温层与 水泥纤维板粘接; 钢骨架之间可填充或可不填充填充矿物棉等, 钢骨架室内侧可安装 防火板如石膏板、 硅钙板等;
图 B是洞口为弧形造型时, 复合墙体悬挑钢桁架和室外钢筋布置图; 图 14是实施方式三的塑料锚钉安装构造剖面放大图;
图 15是实施方式二的有支承的外保温的阳台栏板垂直剖面图;
图 16是实施方式三的支架 19将室内外抗拉的网相互拉接安装方法剖面图; 图 17是实施方式三说明中为准确安装抗拉的网设置卡件 18安装剖面图; 图 18表示预埋钢板外侧设置的一种用于安装悬挑钢桁架支承的扣件示意图, 图 中未表示钢板预埋在混凝土内的锚固钢筋;
图 19是悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆承受压力构造示意图, 虽然也可以满足受力要求, 受力不合理, 一般不应用:
图 20是实施方式四斜拉杆件安装示意图;
图 21是用不同保温层厚度形成外高低变化的外墙造型时, 悬挑钢桁架可采用多 节间的构造图;
图 22是应用图 21的悬挑钢桁架时, 外墙剖面图。
图 23是实施方式十的复合墙体垂直剖面图;
图 24是实施方式十的复合墙体水平剖面图;
图 25是实施方式十的复合墙体室内实墙处(无门窗)钢筋设置图, 图中虚线表 示室外钢筋, 实线表示室内钢筋;
图 26是实施方式一、 十或十一的复合墙体, 在加密设置竖向钢筋, 竖向钢筋还 与水平钢筋连接时, 室外支承、 钢筋及内外拉接线布置图。
图 27是实施方式十一的复合墙体水平剖面图;
图 28是实施方式十一的复合墙体垂直剖面图。
附图均表示的抗拉的网位于保护层的中部, 图中表示了两种锚栓钉, 图 5~图 8 的锚钉应为全塑料的, 否则增加传热, 图 10、 图 11的外套官为塑料, 端头为射钉射 入的弹头, 锚固力很大, 这两种锚栓钉对墙体节能保温都没有影响, 若芯杆为金属则 增加传热。 实施方式
实施方式一: 见图 1〜图 22、 图 26, 本实施方式的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙 体由基层墙体 1、支承 1-5、保温层 3、抗拉的网 5、钢筋 4、保护层 8、 内外拉接线 9及建 筑主体结构 10组成; 所述基层墙体 1为混凝土墙、 承重砌体墙、 非承重轻质砌体填充 墙或钢骨架、 木骨架及竹木骨架的墙体; 所述保温层 3是高分子保温材料、 植物秸秆 板、 纸蜂窝板、 矿物棉、 泡沫玻璃、 发泡水泥、 保温砂浆或胶粉聚苯颗粒, 保温层 3 内外可以为两种材料的复合, 所述不同位置的保温层 3可以为不同材料 (例如隔热断 桥洞口窗口保温层可用难燃酚醛树脂, 而其它部位保温层用 EPS板); 所述钢筋 4包括 竖向钢筋 4-1、水平钢筋 4-2或弧形钢筋 4-3 (门窗口为弧形时用弧形钢筋 4-3); 所述抗 拉的网 5为耐碱网布或金属网或玄武岩纤维网; 所述保护层 8为水泥砂桨或细石混凝 土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土; 所述建筑主体结构 10为混凝土构件或 钢构件, 建筑主体结构 10包含梁、 板、 柱、 墙、 基础;
所述支承 1-5为悬挑钢桁架, 悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆, 支承 1-5的内端与建筑主体结 构 10或基层墙体 1连接,在建筑主体结构 10或基层墙体 1上按一定间距设置支承 1-5;保 温层 3固定在基层墙体 1及建筑主体结构 10的外侧; 保温层 3外侧设有保护层 8, 保护层 8与保温层 3连接; 竖向钢筋 4-1与支承 1-5连接(焊接连接, 或弯钩连接) , 或竖向钢 筋 4-1与悬挑的建筑主体结构 10或与基础连接, 在门窗洞口侧边设有竖向钢筋 4-1 ; 所 述水平钢筋 4-2有以下安装方式之一或同时有以下两种安装方式: 1 ) 、 水平钢筋 4-2 或弧形钢筋 4-3位于室外门窗洞口上、 下; 2)、水平钢筋 4-2位于门窗洞口以外部位墙 体的竖向钢筋 4-1之间;水平钢筋 4-2两端与竖向钢筋 4-1连接,或水平钢筋 4-2两端与支 承 1-5连接, 竖向钢筋 4-1还可与水平钢筋 4-2连接(图 26) ; 所述竖向钢筋 4-1、 或 /和 水平钢筋 4-2或弧形钢筋 4-3为单根钢筋或为并列的双钢筋, 在并列的双钢筋之间设有 钢筋拉接, 或 /和并列的双钢筋之间焊接钢板或块状型钢; 抗拉的网 5与钢筋 4固定连 接(绑扎或通过与抹灰保护层粘接连接) ; 钢筋 4与抗拉的网 5潜埋在保护层 8内, 或 耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网粘贴在保护层 8的表面;抗拉的网 5可选用一种或可同时选用 2或 3种材料安装, 在不同位置可选用不同的抗拉的网 5安装; 内外拉接线 9内端与建筑 主体结构 10或基层墙体 1锚固, 内外拉接线 9外端与钢筋 4连接, 或内外拉接线 9外端还 与抗拉的网 5连接, 形成一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体;
在建筑主体结构 10为框架结构建筑时,保温层 3不仅位于基层墙体 1及建筑主体结 构 10的外侧, 还可减薄砌筑墙体即基层墙体 1的厚度, 保温层 3还可位于建筑主体结构 10的框架结构梁柱洞口内。
框架结构的基层墙体为砌筑的填充墙时, 可减薄砌筑的填充墙体墙体厚度, 例如 填充墙体墙体厚度为 90mm, 见图 10。 基层墙体为钢骨架、 木骨架、 竹木骨架的墙体 时, 钢骨架、 木骨架或竹木骨架位于建筑主体结构的梁板外边缘的内侧, 见图 12。 图 10、 图 12都可形成抗震墙体。抗震墙体需要保温层周边与建筑主体结构粘接连接或挤 紧安装, 这样主体结构受到的地震作用才能传给保温层, 发挥弹性保温层消耗地震作 用的能力。 即在框架结构中, 本实施方式的保温层可以与建筑主体结构的梁柱挤紧安 装或粘接安装, 形成抗震墙体; 当保温层与建筑主体结构的梁柱之间有缝隙时, 消耗 地震作用的能力差。
有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体门窗洞口有以下 3种构造择一选用: 1 )、 在洞口保 温层 3上有保护层 8, 抗拉的网 5潜埋在洞口保护层 8内, 或耐碱网布、 玄武岩纤维 网粘贴在保护层 8的表面, 抗拉的网 5与洞口侧壁的基层墙体 1或建筑主体结构 10 连接, 门窗安装在基层墙体 1上, 或门窗安装在洞口侧壁的保护层 8上, 形成洞口有 热桥构造, 见图 5、 图 8; 2)、在洞口保温层 3上不设置保护层 8, 门窗安装在基层墙 体 1上, 门窗外侧安装保温条或保护层 8, 形成洞口有热桥构造, 见图 6。 (图 6门窗 外侧安装保温条时洞口热桥与薄抹灰保温墙体相当); 3)、 在洞口保温层 3上不设置 保护层 8, 门窗安装在洞口保温层 3上, 门窗外侧设保温条或保护层 8, 形成洞口隔 热断桥构造, 见图 7。
根据使用需要选择门窗洞口构造, 在第 2) ~3)洞口构造中, 均可不设置洞口抗 拉的网, 因为内外拉接线将洞口钢筋与基层墙体拉接, 洞口周边保温层上没必要设抗 拉的网。 但洞口保温层上设置抹灰保护层时, 设置抗拉的网阻裂为宜。
一般情况下门窗口两侧和上部可为单根钢筋, 但推荐窗台下为双根钢筋, 以增加 窗台下保护层刚度。 外墙为幕墙装饰或有其它悬挂物, 或门窗口安装防盗栅栏、 门窗 口有厚重装饰等时,竖向钢筋 4-1、水平钢筋 4-2或弧形钢筋 4-3需要安装并列的双钢 筋, 并列的双钢筋之间的距离约 100mm,在并列的双钢筋之间安装钢板或型钢,在门 窗口厚重装饰较宽时, 双钢筋之间的距离需满足装饰的需要。
竖向钢筋为单根钢筋时, 悬挑钢桁架支承可为平面悬挑钢桁架: 竖向钢筋为并列 的双钢筋时, 悬挑钢桁架支承可为 2个平面悬挑钢桁架组成的空间悬挑钢桁架, 2根 竖向钢筋分别与两个并列的平面钢桁架连接, 或与其它形式组成的空间钢桁架连接, 或与钢桁架外端的钢板连接。 在并列的钢筋之间, 设置钢筋形成小桁架式构造或设置 钢板或局部焊接块状型钢, 外墙悬挂物的结构连接件可直接与钢板或块状型钢连接, 不必穿过保温层与建筑主体结构连接, 从而大幅度增加墙体节能保温效果, 根据使用 需要的位置确定哪个部位的钢筋为并列的 2根钢筋。
由于悬挑钢桁架支承安装方便, 方便加密设置。 加密设置时, 每个悬挑钢桁架承 受的吊挂力小, 故可在砌筑的轻质填充墙内局部灌注混凝土安装悬挑钢桁架支承。 在 基层墙体为钢骨架、木骨架填充墙体以及竹木骨架时, 在钢、木或竹骨架上用螺栓安 装钢板与悬挑钢桁架连接, 或悬挑钢桁架的钢杆为螺杆直接与钢骨架、 木骨架连接。
采用图 21 的悬挑钢桁架可形成外墙变化的立面效果。 根据桁架理论进行内力分 析, 图 2所示悬挑钢桁架外端的竖向钢杆是内力为 "0"的杆件, 外端设置 " 0"杆方 便安装抗拉的网及钢筋。 悬挑钢桁架的钢杆可镀铬、 镀锌防腐, 但是除 Φ4镀锌钢筋 市场上有大量供应外, 其它规格钢杆的镀铬、 镀锌防腐须在专门工厂进行, 应用不方 便。 可将悬挑钢桁架周围的保温层切除, 形成豁口 (或称之为凹槽), 在豁口内灌入 水泥聚合物砂浆, 水泥聚合物砂浆保护悬挑钢桁架的钢杆免于腐蚀。 由于钢结构丧失 稳定是易发生的危险, 需要按钢结构和桁架内力计算避免。悬挑钢桁架与水泥聚合物 砂浆粘接为一体, 刚度大, 有利于避免悬挑钢桁架丧失稳定。 图 1所示悬挑钢桁架的斜杆为 45度的受拉杆件时,大多情况下用 Φ8钢筋制作斜 杆即可。 加密设置悬挑钢桁架时, 可能用 Φ4镀锌钢筋制作就能满足受力要求, 为避 免电焊破坏镀锌层, 可将钢杆穿过图 18的圆孔内安装。
当建筑有外悬挑的混凝土板如阳台、 雨搭、 斜屋面板时, 外悬挑的混凝土板就是 竖向钢筋的固定端, 即竖向钢筋直接与建筑主体结构悬挑的混凝土板固定, 见图 3, 钻孔植筋固定或预埋钢筋等固定竖向钢筋。竖向钢筋还可通过斜拉钢筋与相邻悬挑钢 桁架连接, 见图 3所示建筑转角的竖向钢筋。悬挑钢桁架安装在混凝土墙或承重砌体 墙上时, 可安装在窗台下, 见图 3。 悬挑钢桁架安装在承重砌体墙或框架结构的轻质 填充砌体上时, 可在按层高安装在楼层的梁上, 或砌体内局部灌注混凝土安装。
设置洞口水平钢筋可防止门窗洞口转角抹灰保护层开裂,并方便洞口周边钢丝网 绑扎, 除洞口以外位置设置水平钢筋是为了绑扎钢丝网方便, 当相邻室外竖向钢筋的 距离较近时, 可不设置水平钢筋。水平钢筋可为 Φ4镀锌钢筋, Φ4钢筋方便与两侧钢 筋连接。有必要设置直径较大的水平钢筋时, 水平钢筋与洞口两侧钢筋通过与连接钢 板焊接连接。
内外拉接线 9内端与建筑主体结构 10或基层墙体 1锚固, 有以下 3种方式, 选 择其中之一, 或选择第 1 ) +第 3 )种方式, 或选择第 2) +第 3)种方式:
1 )在建筑主体结构 10或基层墙体 1的门窗口侧面钉钢钉, 内外拉接线 9内端与 钢钉固定, 见图 5~图8, 若基层墙体 1强度低可在门窗口抹高标号砂浆增强;
2 )可设置室内钢筋 7, 室内钢筋 7包括室内垂直钢筋 7-1、 室内水平钢筋 7-2; 室内垂直钢筋 7-1位于室内门窗口角部,室内垂直钢筋 7-1与建筑主体结构 10的上下 楼板固定, 室内垂直钢筋 7-1还通过锚固钢筋锚固在基层墙体 1的灰缝内, 见图 11 ; 室内水平钢筋 7-2位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 7-1连接; 内外拉接线 9内端 与室内钢筋 7固定, 内外拉接线 9外端与室外钢筋 4固定。
当基层墙体 1为非承重填充墙体时, 若在非承重填充墙体上钉钢钉不牢固时, 采 用这种安装方式更牢固, 见图 10、 图 11 ;
3 )在非门窗洞口部位的基层墙体上预埋内外拉接线 9, 见图 3。
将室外钢筋永久性拉接时, 内外拉接线可选用 Φ2.0〜Φ3.0的不锈钢丝缠绕绑扎, 1根 304#不锈钢的 Φ2的不锈钢丝面积, 抗拉承载力约 1.4ΚΝ。 内外拉接线与抗拉的 网拉接时, 可用约 Φ1.0的不锈钢丝绑扎。 可在金属网与保温层之间垫一个废铁皮或 塑料制做的小支架 19, 见图 16, 内外拉接线穿过保温层与小支架连接, 再与抗拉的 网连接, 保证抗拉的网与保温层的距离准确。 内外拉接线可为金属丝例如不锈钢丝, 还可为化纤绳、 塑料绳, 若为永久性拉接应采用不锈钢丝。
当前钢骨架填充墙在楼板处有大量的热桥, 日本在墙的室内侧喷涂聚氨酯保温, 为减少楼板和间隔墙热桥, 聚氨酯一直延伸到室内地面、墙面长度达 1.5m,增加聚氨 酯造价, 且增加了室内防火投资。 本实施方式用于钢骨架填充墙体时, 支承既可以与 建筑主体结构连接, 还可将支承与钢骨架连接。 内外拉接钢线可与钢骨架连接(譬如 与钢骨架上的自攻螺钉连接)。 钢骨架、 木骨架、 竹木骨架填充墙体作为基层墙体可 按常规填充矿物棉保温, 钢骨架两侧设有水泥纤维板、 硅钙板或石膏板等, 保温板与 骨架外侧的面层如水泥纤维板、 硅钙板等连接。
目前无机保温材料有岩棉、泡沫玻璃、发泡水泥、保温砂浆等,随着科技的发展, 还可能还有不同的无机保温材料出现。 本发明不同部位的保温层可为不同保温材料, 如主墙体的保温层为 EPS板, 隔热断桥桥洞口周围保温层应为防火性能好的保温材 料, 如保温砂浆、 胶粉聚苯颗粒, 岩棉、 泡沫玻璃、 难燃型酚醛树脂等防火性能好的 保温材料, 既起到保温作用又有防火作用, 因此不同位置的保温层可以为不同材料。
保温层为髙分子保温材料时,水泥砂浆或细石混凝土保护层与保温层连接有以下 两种方式, 根据施工方便选用其中一种或同时选用: 1 )、 粘接连接。 2)、 在保温层表 面有燕尾式凹槽与保护层连接。
本实施方式中 "; 抗拉的网 5可同时选用 1~3种材料安装", 例如选用 Φ2丝径、 lOOx 100mm网孔的镀锌钢丝网与 10xl0mm~30x30mm网孔、 ARNP(165)的耐碱网布 配合应用, 价格低, 且技术效果好。 因为每种材料各有其优缺点, 将两种抗拉的网相 互配合应用可发挥各自的优点, 互相弥补其不足, 有利于延长复合墙体耐久年限, 并 且方便安装耐碱网布。
目前已经有玄武岩丝及玄武岩布。无疑, 必将出现用玄武岩丝编织的玄武岩纤维 网。 玄武岩丝具有优异的耐老化、 耐高温、 抗酸碱性能、 优异的力学性能, 由玄武岩 丝编织的玄武岩纤维网必将出现, 届时抗拉的网中就又多了一种网——玄武岩纤维 网, 可将镀锌钢丝网与玄武岩纤维网搭配共用, 弥补镀锌钢丝网长期使用可能腐蚀的 缺点。随着科技的发展,可能还有其它适于做抗拉的网的网,用于本发明的复合墙体。
实施方式二: 见图 10、 图 15, 本实施方式与实施方式一的不同点是, 本实施方 式增加梁板下保温层 3、保护层 10-1、室内垂直钢筋 7-1及室内水平钢筋 7-2,或还增 加建筑主体结构 10的阳台栏板上端保温层 3 (见图 15, 是否需要增加阳台栏板上端 保温层 3, 要根据是否采取洞口隔热断桥构造确定, 如不采取洞口隔热断桥构造, 则 不必安装阳台栏板上端保温层), 所述保护层 10-1为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改 性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土;在保护层 10-1内设有室内垂直钢筋 7-1或还设有 抗拉的网 5, 室内垂直钢筋 7-1与建筑主体结构 10连接; 在建筑主体结构 10的梁板 下安装梁板下保温层 3, 或还在建筑主体结构 10的阳台栏板上端安装保温层 3, 保温 层 3的室内侧设有与建筑主体结构 1的梁板或阳台栏板上端连接的保护层 10-1,保温 层 3与保护层 10-1连接;在保护层 10-1的窗口处安装室内水平钢筋 7-2,室内垂直钢 筋 7-1与室内水平钢筋 7-2连接; 位于混凝土阳台栏板的室内水平钢筋 7-2两端与基 层墙体 1或建筑主体结构 10锚固 (随着阳台形状走向, 可弯折与基层墙体或建筑主 体结构锚固);位于外墙上的室内水平钢筋 7-2两端锚固在门窗口两侧基层墙体 1内(如 锚固在门窗口两侧砌体灰缝内); 内外拉接线 9内端与室内水平钢筋 7-2连接,内外拉 接线 9外端与钢筋 4连接, 或内外拉接线 9外端还与抗拉的网 5连接, 形成窗口上无 基层墙体的有支承外保温墙体, 或形成窗口上无阳台栏板的有支承外保温阳台栏板。
本实施方式适用于以下两种情况:
1、 柱距较小、 外墙上梁的高度较小时, 梁与门窗口上方之间通常还有砌体, 需 安装窗上过梁, 施工麻烦, 或需增加混凝土梁高, 增加造价。按本实施方式形成窗口 上无基层墙体的有支承外保温墙体, 施工简单, 即用保温层替代门窗口上方的砌体, 保温层的室内侧设有与建筑主体结构连接的钢筋钢丝网抹灰保护层,造价低,见图 10。
2、 在阳台栏板外保温时, 建筑主体结构为阳台栏板, 取消阳台窗上混凝土栏扳 浇筑工程量, 降低造价、 施工方便, 且完全没有阳台栏板热桥了, 形成复合保温阳台 栏板构造, 见图 15。
实施方式三: 见图 3〜图 15, 本实施方式与实施方式一或二的不同点是: 本实施 方式增加锚栓钉 40和连接线 14;锚栓钉 40穿过保温层 3与基层墙体 1或建筑主体结 构 10固定, 连接线 14穿过锚栓钉外套管 40-1上的孔洞, 将锚栓钉 40与室外钢筋 7 和室外抗拉的网 5连接; 或还可在抗拉的网 5与保温层 3之间设置小支架 19, 连 接线 14将锚栓钉 40与小支架 19及抗拉的网 5连接;所述连接线 14为金属线或塑料 线或化纤线。
本实施方式的目的是为了准确安装钢丝网, 使其位于保护层中心。 因钢丝网有弯 度, 不采取措施不能位于保护层中心。设置锚栓钉不仅起到了将保温层与建筑主体结 构辅助固定的作用, 还起到了用锚栓钉与抗拉的网拉接的作用。其优点在于, 施工中 可随时根据安装钢丝网的需要,安装锚栓钉和连接线与抗拉的网之间拉接,施工方便, 减少人工和材料成本。内外拉接线 9、锚栓钉 40及连接线 14都起到内外拉接的作用, 但解决的问题不同。 内外拉接线 9主要用于固定保温层外的钢筋, 锚栓钉比内外拉接 线 9安装方便, 主要用于固定抗拉的网。
还提供其它保证抗拉的网与保温层之间准确距离的办法: 按图 17设置端头有倒 钩的卡件 18 (—般为塑料制作), 卡件 18的倒钩与保温层 3固定,外端扣住抗拉的网 5, 从而将抗拉的网 5与保温层 3固定。
实施方式四: 见图 20, 本实施方式与实施方式一 ~三之一的不同点是: 本实施方 式增加抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4; 所述抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4为钢筋、 钢板或型钢; 所 述抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4-4呈斜向设置, 抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4与支承 1-5连接, 或抗 剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4与建筑主体结构 10连接(有外悬臂的建筑主体结构 10时或基础 梁突出在复合墙体外侧);抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4位于保护层 8内,或抗剪切的斜拉杆 件 4~4位于保护层 8外。
抗剪切的斜拉杆件方便与悬挑钢桁架的钢杆或外端安装的钢板或型钢连接安装, 这是已公开的混凝土支承悬挑梁不具备的。 本实施方式可进一步提高复合墙体在墙体平面内抗剪切承载力, 有利建筑抗震。 还可在基层墙体室内侧配置抗剪切斜拉钢筋或型钢, 进一步提高墙体抗剪切承载力。
实施方式五: 见图 4、 图 5〜图 8, 本实施方式与实施方式一〜四之一的不同点是: 本实施方式的悬挑钢桁架的支承 1-5被斜钢筋 1-5-1替代,斜钢筋 1-5-1斜向穿过保温 层 3的部位刮抹水泥聚合物砂浆, 斜钢筋 1-5-1与水泥聚合物砂浆粘接为一体, 可增 加吊挂室外保护层 8的刚度, 避免斜钢筋 1-5-1发生超过允许变形的作用。
建筑主体结构外侧保温层厚度较薄时, 可采用本实施方式。
实施方式六: 本实施方式与实施方式一〜五之一的不同点是: 本实施方式的支承 1-5还可以安装在以下部位, 根据使用需要确定: 1 )、 支承 1-5的内端与复合墙体外 保护层内的钢筋 4固定, 或 /和与抗剪切的斜拉杆件 4·4固定; 2)、 支承 1-5的内端位 于外保护层抹灰的抗拉的网 5内, 支承 1-5的内端满足锚固长度要求。可按图 21、 图 22或本实施方式丰富建筑立面造型,根据装饰需要和施工方便选用。虽然可粘贴薄抹 灰保温线条装饰, 但薄抹灰保护层的高分子胶粘剂位于紫外线下耐久性差。
实施方式七: 本实施方式在支承 1-5或钢筋 4 (通常钢筋 4为并列的双钢筋)上 焊接的钢板或型钢上安装外墙悬挂物的结构连接件, 如幕墙装饰、 太阳能光电板、 太 阳能热水器、 广告牌及用于绿化的种植架等。
本实施方式可在外墙种植架上进行外墙垂直绿化, 如种植架设置 ί阳台栏板外 侧, 设置在窗口两侧, 及设置在室外窗台上进行外墙垂直绿化都很方便。
实施方式八: 见图 4~图 8、 图 10、 图 12, 本实施方式与实施方式一 ~七之一的不 同点是, 本实施方式的保温复合墙体内还采取防火构造措施, 所述防火构造措施有以 下两种方法, 择一选用或同时选用:
1 )在保温层 3内设置防火隔离带 11 ,所述防火隔离带 11为满足耐火极限要求的 保温材料, 或为水泥砂浆或混凝土(此不适用于釆暖地区); 防火隔离带 11的设置有 以下二种方式, 选择第 1种安装或选用两种同时安装: Α、 在保温层 3之间设置水平 防火隔离带 11-1 , 水平防火隔离带 11-1将上下保温层 3隔离: Β、 或还在保温层 3之 间设置垂直防火隔离带 11-2,垂直防火隔离带 11-2将两侧保温层 3隔离;防火隔离带 11外侧有保护层 8, 防火隔离带 11与保护层 8连接, 形成防火分区构造;
2)支承 1-5或斜钢筋 1-5-1以及保护层 8满足耐火极限要求, 支承 1-5还可以是 满足耐火极限要求的混凝土支承悬挑梁。
可在悬挑钢桁架的钢杆上涂刷防火漆满足耐火极限, 但施工不方便。在悬挑钢桁 架周围的豁口内灌入水泥聚合物砂衆达到一定厚度, 既满足耐火极限要求, 又使得钢 杆免于腐蚀, 又增加刚度, 一举三得, 施工方便。
薄抹灰保温墙体的保护层耐火时间短,是开放式防火大分区,牺牲层的范围太大。 即使薄抹灰保温墙体防火隔离带 300mm高也不一定就能将火阻隔住, 因为火灾发生 时风力大小不定。本发明选用的防火隔离带材料不同、 不同工程要求的耐火极限时间 不同, 防火隔离带的厚度有所不同。 保温材料内的防火隔离带可用保温砂浆、 胶粉聚 苯颗粒等, 防火隔离带厚度一般约 30mm可满足耐火极限不低于 1小时的要求, 材料 用量少, 方便施工、 造价低, 容易保证防火隔离带工程质量, 方便加密设置防火隔离 带, 可每层设置水平防火隔离带, 还可对应室内防火分区或按单户设置垂直防火隔离 带。
实施方式九: 本实施方式与实施方式一〜八之一的不同点是, 所述一种有支承的 外墙外保温复合墙体的保护层 8内不设钢筋 4, 抗拉的网 5直接与支承 1-5连接, 或 在支承 1-5上有短钢筋伸出, 抗拉的网 5与短钢筋连接; 所述保护层 8还可为薄抹灰 保护层, 或胶粉聚苯颗粒或为保温砂浆。
实施方式的保护层内不设钢筋时支承需适当加密设置。 本实施方式可减薄保护层 厚度, 如有钢筋时保护层厚度为 25~30mm, 不设有钢筋时保护层厚度为 10~20mm。 保护层不仅可为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土, 还可为薄抹灰保护层 (譬如与粘贴 EPS板薄抹灰保温墙体的 3~5mm厚保护层相当), 或保护层为胶粉聚苯颗粒或为保温砂浆。本实施方式的保护层为薄抹灰保护层时, 可 用防火胶粘剂形成薄抹灰保护层, 也可满足一定的耐火极限要求。本实施方式可解决 目前胶粉聚苯颗粒等节能墙体技术用于固定外保护层内金属网的连接件刚度差问题。
实施方式十: 见图 23~图25, 本实施方式与实施方式一 ~九之一的不同点是, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体 1被与建筑主体结构 10连接的保护 层 10-1替代, 保温层 3与保护层 10-1连接(一般为粘接连接); 在保护层 10-1内设 有室内钢筋 7, 室内钢筋 7包括室内垂直钢筋 7-1、 室内水平钢筋 7-2, 室内垂直钢筋 7-1与建筑主体结构 10的上下楼板固定, 室内水平钢筋 7-2与两侧室内垂直钢筋 7-1 连接; 内外拉接线 9两端分别与室内钢筋 7、 室外钢筋 4固定, 将室内钢筋 7与室外 钢筋 4相互拉接;所述保护层 10-1为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土,或为改性的水泥砂衆或 改性的细石混凝土;
所述保护层 10-1与建筑主体结构 10的连接有以下 3种方式, 择一选用:
1 )在门窗洞口两侧设有室内垂直钢筋 7-1 , 还在其它位置(如山墙)按一定间距 设置室内垂直钢筋 7-1 ,室内垂直钢筋 7-1与室外竖向钢筋 4-1对应设置;室内水平钢 筋 7-2位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 7-1连接,或在保护层 10-1内或表面还有 抗拉的网 5;
2)在上述构造基础上, 保温层 3与建筑主体结构 10的梁板或 /和柱的粘接层 12 内安装有抗拉的网 5-1, 抗拉的网 5-1在粘接层 12内满足锚固长度要求; 抗拉的网 5-1外伸弯折, 与保护层 10-1粘贴连接; 在保护层 10-1内或表面还有抗拉的网 5, 抗拉的网 5-1与抗拉的网 5满足搭接长度要求, 见图 23;
3)在上述 2个构造之一的基础上, 在室内垂直钢筋 7-1之间设置锚固钢筋 2, 锚 固钢筋 2锚固在建筑主体结构 10的梁板或 /和柱内, 锚固钢筋 2与建筑主体结构 10 及保护层 10-1满足锚固长度要求, 锚固钢筋 2位于保护层 10-1内; 保护层 10-1内或 表面设有抗拉的网 5;
所述抗拉的网 5及抗拉的网 5-1为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网; 抗拉的网 5及抗拉的网 5-1可选用其中的一种或 2或 3种同时材料安装, 在不同位置可选用不 同的抗拉的网 5及抗拉的网 5-1安装; 以上构造形成轻质外保温墙体。
本实施方式粘接层 12的粘接剂通常为水泥聚合物砂浆。
本实施方式保温层周边断面与建筑主体结构粘接连接或挤紧安装、保温层之间粘 接连接或挤紧安装时, 本实施方式也形成抗震墙体。 如若保温层与主体结构之间不粘 接连接, 不仅不利消耗地震能量, 且复合墙体与主体结构的周边还易发生裂缝。
在室外竖向钢筋为并列的双钢筋时,对应的室内垂直钢筋 7-1可为并列的双钢筋, 也可为单根钢筋(因距离近, 连接方便, 也算室内外钢筋对应设置.), 内外拉接线 9 斜向将室内钢筋与室外钢筋拉接。
实施方式一的外保温抗震墙体虽然可消耗地震能量, 对建筑抗震有利, 但不能满 足满足结构极限状态设计。 而本实施方式的复合墙体可满足结构极限状态设计要求, 抗震性能高于实施方式一的外保温抗震墙体。
2006年于哈尔滨工业大学结构试验室进行了复合保温扳的试验,简支复合保温扳 跨度 3m, 中间保温层厚度 140mm, 两侧各抹 30mm水泥砂浆(标号 C20), 水泥砂浆 中间夹有丝径为 Φ1.6, 网孔为 25x25mm的镀锌电焊网。 破坏性试验证明, 在荷载达 到 12KN /m2时构件发生正截面破坏, 在加荷达到 2.5KN /m2时, 挠度为 3mm, 满足 正常使用极限状态设计,试验结果与理论分析结果接近 (取 EPS板弹性模量为 2.5Mpa, 可能有误差)。 若支座为刚性锚固端或双向板时, 挠度更小。 本实施方式的复合墙体 可满足正常使用极限状态设计。
根据设计确定复合墙体的支座是刚性支座或为简支支座,确定锚固钢筋 2的规格 和间距,锚固钢筋 2通常为 Φ4镀锌铁线,再采用不同间距可与抗拉的网拉力相对应, 见 19页表 3。
实施方式一的复合墙体在室外的竖向钢筋 4-1还与水平钢筋 4-2连接时, 即为加 密设置室外竖向钢筋 7-1和对应的室内垂直钢筋 6-1的安装密度, 见图 26。 再按本实 施方式设置室内保护层 10-1, 在保证内外拉接线 9的间距符合规定, 且满足强度要求 时,复合墙体可按双筋矩形截面进行抗弯设计,有利于复合墙体抵抗巨大的水平荷载, 如飓风、 台风的袭击。
下面对本实施方式的复合墙体进行 5个方面的分析。
―、 关于受弯正截面承载力分析
在对复合墙体承受的水平荷载进行荷载组合时, 因本实施方式的复合墙体重量很 轻, 根据对中国北京地区风荷载组合及风荷载与水平地震作用的组合值分析, 风荷载 组合值远远大于水平地震作用组合值, 即风荷载组合值起控制作用。 只要复合墙体在 风荷载组合作用下安全, 那么地震时本实施方式的复合墙体也是安全的。
正截面抗弯设计很简单, 本实施方式的复合墙体, 因为中间有保温层, 其截面高 度远远大于一般的混凝土板的高度, 抗弯力臂大, 且水平风荷载组合值远远小于楼板 荷载组合值, 配筋量小, 故"抗拉的网"多数情况下可满足复合墙体正截面内外配筋 要求, 但门窗洞口薄弱处应设有钢筋加强。
只要在技术标准中规定了 "抗拉的网"的抗拉力值, 就可将 "抗拉的网"折算成 钢筋使用, 如按中国 《耐碱玻璃纤维网布》 JCT841-2007标准, 耐碱网布可替代的钢 材面积见表 2 (仅供参考)。
表 2 按《耐碱玻璃纤维网布》 JCT841-2007标准折算可替代的钢丝网规格
Figure imgf000020_0002
注: 表 2中镀锌电焊网的钢丝抗拉强度设计值 /y=210N/nun: 用有限元软件分析可知, 在水平荷载组合值作用下, 在复合墙体内外设置的抗拉 的网满足配筋要求时, 应在 0.2 .25m宽度范围内的内力设置洞口加强钢筋, 洞口钢 筋不仅应满足复合墙体抗弯计算要求, 且室外钢筋还要满足吊挂外保护层的承载力要 求。
二、 提出受弯斜截面抗剪切承载力允许值 V的公式(供参考):
在保温层为 EPS 、 抗拉的网为钢丝网时,
Figure imgf000020_0001
S 式中-
/£为 EPS板抗拉强度设计值, 为 O.IN/mm2 (暂定);
6为构件宽度, 单位 mm;
为 EPS板高度, 单位 mm;
/¾为有效计算卨度;
为内外拉接线 (如不锈钢丝)抗拉强度设计值;
4 为不锈钢拉接钢丝断面积, 单位 mm2:
s为拉接钢丝断间距, 单位 mm。 EPS板抗拉强度与以下因素有关: 1 ) 密度, 密度越高, 抗拉强度越高, EPS板 密度不应小于 20kg m3; 2)熔融性要好。 只要保证 EPS板质量, 是可以满足按前述 公式的斜截面承载力极限状态设计要求。
当窗间墙较小及风荷载较大时, 需要按上式验算, 通过设置不锈钢丝的抗剪切箍 筋可满足斜截面承载力要求。
上面斜截面公式仅供参考,是因为目前在建筑的结构设计理论中还没有 EPS扳的 抗拉强度设计值 /e=0.1N/mm2的规定, 公式中的系数 0.8都还需要建筑业内专家共同 确定, 届时可能有所不同。 提出 ==0.1N/mm2是基于以下根据:
1 ) 中国 《外墙外保温工程技术规程》 JGJ144规定的值为 O.lN/mm2;
2)中国《外墙外保温工程技术规程》 JGJ144征求意见稿规定的值为 0.12N/mm2:
3)专利申请人曾进行的镀锌钢板保温板进行受弯构件破坏性试验时, EPS扳密 度为 14 kg/m3,在配制钢筋较多时发生斜截面破坏,破坏时抗拉强度值为 0.16N/mm2;
4)査阅有关建筑材料书籍, 部分厂家 /e数值为 0.16~0.24N/mm2
三、 关于在复合墙体平面内抗剪切承载力
1、 在复合墙体平面内抗剪切承载力应包括两部分: 1 )保护层 10-1内设置的抗拉 的网的抗剪切承载力; 2)框架梁柱内的弹性保温层如 EPS板在复合墙体平面内抗剪 切承载力。
1 )保护层 10-1内设置的抗拉的网的抗剪切承载力
按保护层 10-1内设 Φ2、 网孔为 25x25、 30x30、 40x40、 50x50、 100x 100的镀锌 电焊网, 用 φ4镀锌钢筋作为与楼面和柱的锚固钢筋, 钢丝和 Φ4钢筋的抗拉强度设 计值均取 210N/ mm2。 参照中国《混凝土结构设计规范》 GB50010第 142页(10.5.5 )公式,网孔为 25x25、
fyVAsVhQ
30x30、 40x40, 50x50、 100x 100时, Φ2钢丝网中钢丝面积为 "; (仅计算 室内侧钢丝面积, 主体结构外侧钢丝网抗剪切承载力不计), 在高度 3m时, 分别为 377 mm2、 314 mm2、 236 mm2, 188 mm2、 84mm2, 按刚性支座时, 对应与主体结构 锚固的 Φ4镀锌锚固钢筋间距 100mm、120mm、160mm、200mm、200mm。
Figure imgf000021_0001
钢丝网的抗剪切承载力按公式 计算, 见表 3, 表 3中数据未计抹灰砂浆 层的抗剪切承载力。 只要保证抹灰保护层强度, 且砂浆与抗拉的网握裹, 及抗拉的网与主体结构锚固
(通过锚固钢筋,或抗拉的网预埋在图 23中粘接层 12内,再与保护层 10-1连接,本 实施方式的复合墙体平面内就具有抗剪切承载力, 具有限制建筑水平位移的能力。
Figure imgf000022_0001
弹性好的保温层如 EPS板的抗拉强度与砌筑墙体接近, EPS板自身就有抗剪切 承载力, 但 EPS板在复合墙体平面内抗剪切承载力目前暂不计。
世界各国在公路工程中已经大量应用 EPS板, 如用于路堤, 形成直立边坡, 还用 于大桥与路基交界处,以减小不均匀沉降及路基对大桥的侧压力等。这是利用 EPS板 的弹性, 以及利用 EPS扳在一定的压力范围内泊桑比为 "0"的特性。 在地震作用下 及在风荷载作用下,复合墙体在平面内有水平位移时, EPS板产生压缩变形且不产生 横向变形, 使 EPS板具有吸收地震能量, 消耗地震作用的能力。
抗剪切承载力是按刚度分配的, 本实施方式的复合墙体刚度如何计算, 不同保温 层材料和厚度对刚度的影响如何, 还需要通过试验确定。 EPS板是弹性好、 造价低、 耐久性好的保温材料, 推荐选用弹性好的高分子保温材料如难燃型 EPS板为保温层, 施工阶段电焊火花不会引燃难燃型 EPS板, 但是难燃型 EPS扳不能抵抗火灾发生时 形成的大面积火焰, 在超过 500QC以上 EPS板的燃点时仍然要燃烧, 火势不减, 再 采取本发明实施方式八的防火构造措施, 可保证长期使用中的防火安全。
本实施方式减少建筑重量, 减少施工阶段能耗, 保温层可消耗地震能量, 在复合 墙体平面内具有抗剪切承载力。本实施方式对建筑抗震, 对高层建筑限制水平位移具 有重要意义, 还大幅度降低地震区建筑的建筑主体结构造价。
四、 复合墙体的厚度根据以下原则确定:
1 ) 满足结构极限状态设计要求; 2)满足建筑节能设计要求; 3)满足使用舒适 度对墙体厚度的要求,譬如最小不小于 200mm,若达到 250~300mm厚室内窗台更宽, 更舒适。 本实施方式多可满足结构极限状态设计要求, 且墙体是很低的传热系数。
位于框架内的保温层厚度 "a"不同 (图 10、 图 12、 图 23), 对消震的作用可能 不同, "a"较大时消震作用可能更好, 还有待试验进行定量分析。
对本实施方式保护层 10-1与建筑主体结构 10的连接有 3种构造, 分析如下: 第 1 )种构造: 室内垂直钢筋 7·1的间距大于规定 (例如大于中国 《混凝土结构 设计规范》 GB50010规定的板的受力钢筋间距最大值 250mm) 时, 因为用钢筋锁住 了门窗口, 还按一定间距锁住了复合墙体, 复合墙体的安全度比当前砌筑 200mm厚 度的脆性轻质砌块墙安全得多, 用于很多风力不大的建筑是很安全的, 但这种构造不 是按结构公式计算确定的, 不是满足极限状态设计要求的复合墙体。若室内垂直钢筋
7-1的间距不大于规定 (例如不大于 250mm), 可满足极限状态设计要求, 但含钢量 必然远远大于受弯设计理论计算值,很浪费, 且预埋钢筋、安装钢筋数量多、太麻烦、 造价高、 不适用。
第 2)、 第 3 )种构造, 见图 23、 图 25: 是一种通过抗拉的网 5-1, 和还通过 锚固钢筋 2,将复合墙体与建筑主体结构 10锚固的措施,这样可大大减少室内垂直钢 筋 7-1的设置数量。例如可规定室外竖向钢筋和室内垂直钢筋间距不大于 1.8m。第 2)、 第 3)种构造既满足结构极限状态设计要求, 用钢量又很少, 且施工方便。 抗拉的网 既作为室内外受力钢筋应用, 且还起到阻裂作用。
目前未见填充墙体有满足极限状态设计要求的, 其安全度与第 2)、 第 3)种构造 不可比。 且第 2)、 第 3)种构造可使复合墙体不仅与上下楼面锚固连接, 还能与两侧 柱连接, 成为双向板。 对于层高较高、 风力较大地区的建筑, 复合墙体成为双向板对 满足受力要求非常有益, 可大幅度减少复合墙体在水平荷载作用下的内力。
五、 关于施工安装:
1 )建议安装本实施方式的复合墙体时, 用大块的保温板为宜, 可减少保温板之 间接缝。 先粘贴梁柱外侧保温层, 再粘贴框架洞口内的保温层, 保温层之间可用聚氨 酯发泡胶粘接, 速度快, 施工方便: 或涂刷水泥聚合物胶浆粘接(需要粘接面吻合), 或用保温砂衆粘接, 或用水泥聚合物砂漿粘接(采暖地区不适宜), 但粘贴速度慢。
2)安装室内电气管线可有以下 2种方法: 1 )局部增加室内保护层 10-1的厚度, 电气管线位于保护层 10-1内; 2) 室内安装轻钢龙骨防火板, 电气管线位于龙骨内。
3)可根据需要, 在复合墙体上安装防潮层, 如室内墙面上粘貼聚塑料复合膜 (PET//AL//PET)或(PET//AL), 再安装轻钢龙骨石膏板, 电器走线布置在龙骨内。
4) 安装门窗: 在洞口的室外钢筋、 室内钢筋上安装钢板, 门窗的连接钢片分别 与室内外钢板连接。
实施方式十一: 见图 27、 图 28, 实施方式与实施方式十之一的不同点是: 本实 施方式在保温层 3的室内侧还有砌筑墙体 1-1, 保温层 3与砌筑墙体 1-1连接, 在砌 筑墙体 1-1的室内侧有保护层 10-1, 砌筑墙体 1-1与保护层 10-1连接。
本实施方式适用于位于建筑一层的外墙, 防盗和抗撞击性能更好。 本实施方式实 质是实施方式一的基层墙体 1在室内侧设置了与建筑主体结构锚固的钢筋有网抹灰保 护层 10-1。 图 27与图 11的区别是, 图 27砌筑墙体内侧保护层 10-1内有与建筑主体 结构连接的抗拉的网 (通过锚固钢筋 2连接, 或在粘接层 12内安装有抗拉的网 5-1 连接), 而图 11没有; 图 28与图 10的区别是, 图 28砌筑墙体内侧抹灰层内设有锚 固钢筋 2, 保护层 10-1内通过锚固钢筋 2与建筑主体结构连接, 而图 10没有锚固钢 筋 2与建筑主体结构连接。
实施方式十二: 本实施方式与实施方式一 ~十一之一的不同点是, 在髙分子保温 材料保温层 3的表面涂刷或喷涂具有阻燃性能的第一遍界面剂,第一遍界面剂的厚度 应满足在有电焊火花时保温层 3不被点燃, 保证施工阶段防火安全。
本实施方式利用在保温层上涂刷的的第一遍界面剂增加高分子保温层的防火能 力, 在第一遍界面剂中加入无机粉体, 除有水泥外还可加入砂、 高钙粉、 云母、 硅灰 等, 特别是云母的遮盖性较好。
关于本发明的说明:
1、 本发明所述改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土是指: 1 )、 添加外加剂、 粉 煤灰、石粉、防水剂、保水剂、阻裂纤维等材料改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土, 阻裂纤维有聚丙烯短切纤维、 耐碱玻璃短切纤维、 玄武岩纤维及麻刀等。 2)、 还包括 添加保水剂、 高分子胶粘剂形成的水泥聚合物砂桨或水泥聚合物混凝土。特别是有钢 筋位置如门窗口边缘局部用水泥聚合物弹性砂浆或水泥聚合物弹性混凝土作为保护 层为宜, 这有以下作用: a)、 比普通水泥砂浆或混凝土防保护钢筋防止腐蚀的效果更 好, 可减少抹灰保护层厚度; b)、 对阻裂, 增加耐久年限有利; c)、 门窗安装时, 可 将连接钢片与水泥聚合物弹性砂浆牢固固定。
2、 本发明抗拉的网与钢筋连接是指, 将抗拉的网与钢筋绑扎连接, 或耐碱网布 或玄武岩纤维网粘贴在保护层内或表面, 耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网与保护层粘结, 保 护层与室外钢筋、 室内钢筋握裹连接, 从而使耐碱网布与钢筋连接。
3、 为保证保护层内钢筋的保护层厚度满足钢筋防腐蚀要求, 同时减少保护层抹 灰工作量, 可在钢筋位置的保温层上切出凹槽, 将钢筋附近局部抹灰加厚。
4、 保温层为高分子保温材料时, 保护层与保温层之间的粘接通过涂刷界面剂粘 接, 界面剂应按专利号 ZL200810170949.0的本人发明专利施工。 或在保温层的表面 还设有凹槽, 使保护层与保温层连接。 保温层之间接缝用聚氨酯发泡胶粘接连接, 还 可在保温层相互接缝处有凹槽、 凸起, 凹槽、 凸起可相互卡住连接, 安装速度快。
5、 门窗外侧粘贴保温板薄条时, 在薄条上涂刷胶粘剂, 抹水 ^聚合物弹性砂浆 厚度约 10mm, 并粘贴耐碱网布为宜, 防火好、 阻裂好、 耐久性好。 水泥聚合物弹性 砂浆采用玻璃化温度 -10~ -25度的纯丙乳液为宜, 耐久性好、 弹性好。
6、 保温层内外可以为两种材料的复合, 如将高分子保温材料的保温层与纸蜂窝 板或与保温砂浆或胶粉聚苯颗粒复合。 因 EPS板在 70度时就萎缩, 在夏季特别炎热 地区, 可在 EPS板上增加耐热的保温层来保护 EPS板, 还可在复合墙体外部涂刷热 反射涂料。
8、 门窗洞口防水, 特别是窗台设置防水层很重要, 如在窗台设置聚乙烯丙纶防 水卷材, 完成防水层后再安装窗户以及窗外保温薄条或水泥砂浆抹灰保护层, 且在窗 外保温薄条或水泥砂浆抹灰保护层与门窗之间填塞弹性密封防水材料。但是窗台安装 的难燃酚醛树脂无接缝, 可防水时, 也可不安装窗台防水层。

Claims

E _利 ^ 书
1、一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 它包括基层墙体 (1)、 支承 (1-5)、 保温层 (3)、 抗拉的网 (5)、 钢筋 (4)、 保护层 (8)、 内外拉接线 (9)及建筑主体结构 (10); 所述基 层墙体 (1)为混凝土墙、承重砌体墙、非承重轻质砌体填充墙或钢骨架、木骨架及竹木 骨架的墙体: 所述保温层 (3)是高分子保温材料、植物秸秆板、纸蜂窝板、矿物棉、泡 沫玻璃、发泡水泥、保温砂浆或胶粉聚苯颗粒,保温层 (3)内外可以为两种材料的复合, 所述不同位置的保温层 (3)可以为不同材料;所述钢筋 (4)包括竖向钢筋 (4-1)、水平钢筋 (4-2)或弧形钢筋 (4-3);所述抗拉的网 (5)为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网;所述保 护层 (8)为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土,或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土;所述建 筑主体结构 (10)为混凝土结构或钢结构,建筑主体结构 (10)包含梁、板、柱、墙、基础; 其特征在于, 所述支承 (1-5)为悬挑钢桁架, 悬挑钢桁架设有斜杆, 支承 (1-5)的内 端与建筑主体结构 (10)或基层墙体 (1)连接, 在建筑主体结构 (10)或基层墙体 (1)上按一 定间距设置支承 (1-5); 保温层 (3)固定在基层墙体 (1)及建筑主体结构 (10)的外侧; 保温 层 (3)外侧设有保护层 (8), 保护层 (8)与保温层 3连接; 竖向钢筋 (4-1)与支承 (1-5)连接, 或竖向钢筋 (4-1)与悬挑的建筑主体结构 (10)或与基础连接, 在门窗洞口侧边设有向竖 向钢筋 (4-1);所述水平钢筋 (4-2)有以下安装方式之一或同时有以下两种安装方式: 1 )、 水平钢筋 (4-2)或弧形钢筋 (4-3)位于室外门窗洞口上、 下; 2) 、 水平钢筋 (4-2)位于门 窗洞口以外部位墙体的竖向钢筋 (4-1)之间; 水平钢筋 (4-2)两端与竖向钢筋 (4-1)连接, 或水平钢筋 (4-2)两端与支承 (1-5)连接, 竖向钢筋 (4-1)还可与水平钢筋 (4-2)连接; 所述 竖向钢筋 (4-1)、或 /和水平钢筋 (4-2)或弧形钢筋 (4-3)为单根钢筋或为并列的双钢筋,在 并列的双钢筋之间设有钢筋拉接, 或 /和并列的双钢筋之间焊接钢板或块状型钢; 抗 拉的网 (5)与钢筋 (4)固定连接; 钢筋 (4)与抗拉的网 (5)潜埋在保护层 (8)内, 或耐碱网布 或玄武岩纤维网粘贴在保护层 (8)的表面; 抗拉的网 (5)可选用一种或可同时选用 2或 3 材料安装, 在不同位置可选用不同的抗拉的网 (5)安装; 内外拉接线 9内端与建筑主体 结构 (10)或基层墙体 (1)锚固,内外拉接线 (9)外端与钢筋 (4)连接,或内外拉接线 (9)外端 还与抗拉的网 (5)连接, 形成一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体;
在建筑主体结构 (10)为框架结构建筑时,保温层 (3)不仅位于基层墙体 (1)及建筑主 体结构 (10)的外侧, 还可减薄砌筑墙体即基层墙体 (1)的厚度, 保温层 (3)还可位于建筑 主体结构 (10)的框架结构梁柱洞口内。
2、 根据权利要求 1所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 它 还包括梁板下保温层 (3)、 保护层 (10-1)、 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)及室内水平钢筋 (7-2), 或 还包括建筑主体结构 (10)的阳台栏板上端保温层 (3);所述保护层 (10-1)为水泥砂浆或细 石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细石混凝土; 在保护层 (10-1)内设有室内垂 直钢筋 (7-1)或还设有抗拉的网 (5), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与建筑主体结构 (10)连接; 在建 筑主体结构 (10)的梁板下安装梁板下保温层 (3), 或还在建筑主体结构 (10)的阳台栏扳 上端安装保温层 (3), 保温层 (3)的室内侧设有与建筑主体结构 (1)的梁板或阳台栏板上 端连接的保护层 (10-1), 保温层 (3)与保护层 (10-1)连接; 在保护层 (10-1)的窗口处安装 室内水平钢筋 (7-2), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与室内水平钢筋 (7-2)连接; 位于混凝土阳台栏 板的室内水平钢筋 (7-2)两端与基层墙体 (1)或建筑主体结构 (10)锚固, 位于外墙上的室 内水平钢筋 (7-2)两端锚固在门窗口两侧基层墙体 (1)内;内外拉接线 (9)内端与室内水平 钢筋 (7-2)连接, 内外拉接线 (9)外端与钢筋 (4)连接, 或内外拉接线 (9)外端还与抗拉的 网 (5)连接;形成窗口上无基层墙体的有支承外保温墙体,或形成窗口上无阳台栏板的 有支承外保温阳台栏板。
3、根据权利要求 1或 2所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所述悬挑钢桁架的支承 (1-5)被斜钢筋 (1-5-1)替代, 斜钢筋 (1-5-1)斜向穿过保温层 (3)的 部位刮抹水泥聚合物砂浆, 斜钢筋 (1-5-1)与水泥聚合物砂漿粘接为一体, 可增加吊挂 室外保护层 (8)的刚度, 避免斜钢筋 (1-5-1)发生超过允许变形的作用。
4、根据权利要求 1或 2所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体还在保温复合墙体内采取防火构造措施,
所述防火构造措施有以下两种方法, 择一选用或同时选用-
1 )在保温层 (3)内增加防火隔离带 (11), 所述防火隔离带 (11)为满足耐火极限要求 的保温材料, 或为水泥砂浆或混凝土; 防火隔离带 (11)的设置有以下二种方式, 选择 第 1种安装或选用两种同时安装: A、在保温层 3之间设置水平防火隔离带 (11-1), 水 平防火隔离带 (11-1)将上下保温层 (3)隔离; B、 或还在保温层 (3)之间设置垂直防火隔 离带 (11-2), 垂直防火隔离带 (11-2)将两侧保温层 (3)隔离; 防火隔离带 (11)外侧有保护 层 (8), 防火隔离带 (11)与保护层 (8)连接, 形成防火分区构造;
2)支承 (1-5)或斜钢筋 (1-5-1)以及保护层 (8)满足耐火极限要求, 支承 (1-5)还可以 是满足耐火极限要求的混凝土支承悬挑梁。
5、 根据权利要求 3所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体还在保温复合墙体内采取防火构造措施,
所述防火构造措施有以下两种方法, 择一选用或同时选用:
1 )在保温层 (3)内增加防火隔离带 (11), 所述防火隔离带 (11)为满足耐火极限要求 的保温材料, 或为水泥砂浆或混凝土; 防火隔离带 (U)的设置有以下二种方式, 选择 第 1种安装或选用两种同时安装: A、在保温层 3之间设置水平防火隔离带 (11-1), 水 平防火隔离带 (11-1)将上下保温层 (3)隔离; B、 或还在保温层 (3)之间设置垂直防火隔 离带 (11-2), 垂直防火隔离带 (11-2)将两侧保温层 (3)隔离; 防火隔离带 (11)外侧有保护 层 (8), 防火隔离带 (11)与保护层 (8)连接, 形成防火分区构造;
2)支承 (1-5)或斜钢筋 (1-5-1)以及保护层 (8)满足耐火极限要求, 支承 (1-5)还可以 是满足耐火极限要求的混凝土支承悬挑梁。
6、 根据权利要求 1、 2或 5所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在 于, 所述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的保护层 (8)内不设钢筋 (4), 抗拉的网 (5) 直接与支承 (1-5)的外端连接,或在支承 (1-5)上有短钢筋伸出,抗拉的网 (5)与短钢筋连 接; 所述保护层 (8)还可为薄抹灰保护层, 或胶粉聚苯颗粒或为保温砂浆。
7、 根据权利要求 3所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的保护层 (8)内不设钢筋 (4), 抗拉的网 (5)直接与 支承 (1-5)的外端连接, 或在支承 (1-5)上有短钢筋伸出, 抗拉的网 (5)与短钢筋连接; 所 述保护层 (8)还可为薄抹灰保护层, 或胶粉聚苯颗粒或为保温砂衆。
8、 根据权利要求 4所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的保护层 (8)内不设钢筋 (4), 抗拉的网 (5)直接与 支承 (1-5)的外端连接, 或在支承 (1-5)上有短钢筋伸出, 抗拉的网 (5)与短钢筋连接: 所 述保护层 (8)还可为薄抹灰保护层, 或胶粉聚苯颗粒或为保温砂浆。
9、 根据权利要求 1、 2、 5、 7或 8所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其 特征在于, 所述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体 (1)被与建筑主体结构 (10)连接的保护层 (10-1)替代,保温层 (3)与保护层 (10-1)连接;在保护层 (10-1)内设有室 内钢筋 (7),室内钢筋 (7)包括室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)、室内水平钢筋 (7-2),室内垂直钢筋 (7-1) 与建筑主体结构 (10)的上下楼板固定, 室内水平钢筋 (7-2)与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连 接; 内外拉接线 (9)两端分别与室内钢筋 (7)、 室外钢筋 (4)固定, 将室内钢筋 (7)与室外 钢筋 (4)相互拉接; 所述保护层 (10-1)为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆 或改性的细石混凝土;
所述保护层 (10-1)与建筑主体结构 (10)的连接有以下方式, 择一选用:
1 )在门窗洞口两侧设有室内垂直钢筋 (7-1), 还在其它位置按一定间距设置室内 垂直钢筋 (74), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与室外竖向钢筋 (4-1)对应设置; 室内水平钢筋 (7-2) 位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接, 或在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉 的网 (5);
2)在上述构造基础上,保温层 (3)与建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱的粘接层 (12) 内安装有抗拉的网 (5-1), 抗拉的网 (5-1)在粘接层 (12)内满足锚固长度要求; 抗拉的网 (5-1)外伸弯折, 与保护层 (10-1)粘贴连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉的网 (5), 抗拉的网 (5-1)与抗拉的网 (5)满足搭接长度要求;
3)在上述 2个构造之一的基础上, 在室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)之间设置锚固钢筋 (2), 锚固钢筋 (2)锚固在建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱内, 锚固钢筋 (2)与建筑主体结构 (10)及保护层 (10-1)满足锚固长度要求,锚固钢筋 (2)位于保护层 (10-1)内;保护层 (10-1) 内或表面设有抗拉的网 (5);
所述抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网;抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)可选用其中的一种或 2或 3种材料同时安装,在不同位置可选用不 同的抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)安装; 以上构造形成轻质外保温墙体。
10、 根据权利要求 3所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体 (1)被与建筑主体结构 (10)连接的保护 层 (10-1)替代, 保温层 (3)与保护层 (10-1)连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内设有室内钢筋 (7), 室 内钢筋 (7)包括室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)、室内水平钢筋 (7-2),室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与建筑主体 结构 (10)的上下楼板固定, 室内水平钢筋 (7-2)与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接; 内外拉 接线 (9)两端分别与室内钢筋 (7)、 室外钢筋 (4)固定, 将室内钢筋 (7)与室外钢筋 (4)相互 拉接; 所述保护层 (10-1)为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细 石混凝土;
所述保护层 (10-1)与建筑主体结构 (10)的连接有以下方式, 择一选用:
1 )在门窗洞口两侧设有室内垂直钢筋 (7-1), 还在其它位置按一定间距设置室内 垂直钢筋 (7-1), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与室外竖向钢筋 (4-1)对应设置: 室内水平钢筋 (7-2) 位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接, 或在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉 的网 (5);
2)在上述构造基础上,保温层 (3)与建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱的粘接层 (12) 内安装有抗拉的网 (5-1), 抗拉的网 (5-1)在粘接层 (12)内满足锚固长度要求; 抗拉的网 (5-1)外伸弯折, 与保护层 (10-1)粘贴连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉的网 (5), 抗拉的网 (5-1)与抗拉的网 (5)满足搭接长度要求;
3)在上述 2个构造之一的基础上, 在室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)之间设置锚固钢筋 (2), 锚固钢筋 (2)锚固在建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱内, 锚固钢筋 (2)与建筑主体结构 (10)及保护层 (10-1)满足锚固长度要求,锚固钢筋 (2)位于保护层 (10-1)内;保护层 (10-1) 内或表面设有抗拉的网 (5); ·>
所述抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网;抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)可选用其中的一种或 2或 3种材料同时安装, 在不同位置可选用 不同的抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)安装; 以上构造形成轻质外保温墙体。
11、 根据权利要求 4所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体 (1)被与建筑主体结构 (10)连接的保护 层 (10-1)替代, 保温层 (3)与保护层 (10-1)连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内设有室内钢筋 (7), 室 内钢筋 (7)包括室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)、室内水平钢筋 (7-2), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与建筑主体 结构 (10)的上下楼板固定, 室内水平钢筋 (7-2)与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接; 内外拉 接线 (9)两端分别与室内钢筋 (7)、 室外钢筋 (4)固定, 将室内钢筋 (7)与室外钢筋 (4)相互 拉接; 所述保护层 (10-1)为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂衆或改性的细 石混凝土;
所述保护层 (10-1)与建筑主体结构 (10)的连接有以下方式, 择一选用:
1 )在门窗洞口两侧设有室内垂直钢筋 (7-1), 还在其它位置按一定间距设置室内 垂直钢筋 (7-1), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与室外竖向钢筋 (4-1)对应设置; 室内水平钢筋 (7-2) 位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接, 或在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉 的网 (5);
2)在上述构造基础上,保温层 (3)与建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱的粘接层 (12) 内安装有抗拉的网 (5-1), 抗拉的网 (5-1)在粘接层 (12)内满足锚固长度要求; 抗拉的网 (5-1)外伸弯折, 与保护层 (10-1)粘贴连接: 在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉的网 (5), 抗拉的网 (5-1)与抗拉的网 (5)满足搭接长度要求;
3)在上述 2个构造之一的基础上, 在室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)之间设置铺固钢筋 (2), 锚固钢筋 (2)锚固在建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱内, 锚固钢筋 (2)与建筑主体结构 (10)及保护层 (10-1)满足锚固长度要求,锚固钢筋 (2)位于保护层 (10-1)内;保护层 (10-1) 内或表面设有抗拉的网 (5);
所述抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网;抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)可选用其中的一种或 2或 3种材料同时安装, 在不同位置可选用 不同的抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)安装; 以上构造形成轻质外保温墙体。
12、 根据权利要求 6所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体的基层墙体 (1)被与建筑主体结构 (10)连接的保护 层 (10-1)替代, 保温层 (3)与保护层 (10-1)连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内设有室内钢筋 (7), 室 内钢筋 (7)包括室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)、室内水平钢筋 (7-2),室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与建筑主体 结构 (10)的上下楼板固定, 室内水平钢筋 (7-2)与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接; 内外拉 接线 (9)两端分别与室内钢筋 (7)、 室外钢筋 (4)固定, 将室内钢筋 (7)与室外钢筋 (4)相互 拉接; 所述保护层 (10-1)为水泥砂浆或细石混凝土, 或为改性的水泥砂浆或改性的细 石混凝土;
所述保护层 (10-1)与建筑主体结构 (10)的连接有以下方式, 择一选用:
1 )在门窗洞口两侧设有室内垂直钢筋 (7-1), 还在其它位置按一定间距设置室内 垂直钢筋 (7-1), 室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)与室外竖向钢筋 (4-1)对应设置; 室内水平钢筋 (7-2) 位于门窗口上下与两侧室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)连接, 或在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉 的网 (5);
2)在上述构造基础上,保温层 (3)与建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板 和柱的粘接层 (12) 内安装有抗拉的网 (5-1), 抗拉的网 (5-1)在粘接层 (12)内满足锚固长度要求; 抗拉的网 (5-1)外伸弯折, 与保护层 (10-1)粘贴连接; 在保护层 (10-1)内或表面还有抗拉的网 (5), 抗拉的网 (5-1)与抗拉的网 (5)满足搭接长度要求;
3)在上述 2个构造之一的基础上, 在室内垂直钢筋 (7-1)之间设置锚固钢筋 (2), 锚固钢筋 (2)锚固在建筑主体结构 (10)的梁板或 /和柱内, 锚固钢筋 (2)与建筑主体结构 (10)及保护层 (10-1)满足锚固长度要求,锚固钢筋 (2)位于保护层 (10-1)内;保护层 (10-1) 内或表面设有抗拉的网 (5);
所述抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)为金属网或耐碱网布或玄武岩纤维网:抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)可选用其中的一种或 2或 3种材料同时安装, 在不同位置可选用 不同的抗拉的网 (5)及抗拉的网 (5-1)安装; 以上构造形成轻质外保温墙体。
13、 根据权利要求 9所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特征在于, 所 述保温层 (3)的室内侧还有砌筑墙体 (1-1),保温层 (3)与砌筑墙体 (1-1)连接,在砌筑墙体 (1-1)的室内侧有保护层 (10-1), 砌筑墙体 (1-1)与保护层 (10-1)连接。
14、 根据权利要求 10、 11或 12所述的一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体, 其特 征在于, 所述保温层 (3)的室内侧还有砌筑墙体 (1-1), 保温层 (3)与砌筑墙体 (1-1)连接, 在砌筑墙体 (1-1)的室内侧有保护层 (10-1), 砌筑墙体 (1-1)与保护层 (10-1)连接。
PCT/CN2012/000178 2011-03-08 2012-02-15 一种有支承的外墙外保温复合墙体 WO2012119479A1 (zh)

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CN102864851A (zh) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-09 盘业新 一种房屋防震减灾装置
CN106381938A (zh) * 2016-11-18 2017-02-08 张洪波 既有建筑自承重保温一体化系统及施工方法
US10538915B1 (en) * 2019-03-14 2020-01-21 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Process for assembling a fire-, smoke-, sound- and/or water-proof system within a dynamic curtain wall façade
CN112411805A (zh) * 2020-11-27 2021-02-26 上海宝冶集团有限公司 保温一体化体系剪力墙与填充墙保温建造方法
US11091908B2 (en) * 2016-04-13 2021-08-17 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Thermal and acoustic insulating and sealing means for a safing slot in a curtain wall
CN113356470A (zh) * 2021-06-24 2021-09-07 重庆涛扬绿建科技有限公司 一种基于uhpc的工字钢梁防火防腐构造

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102864851A (zh) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-09 盘业新 一种房屋防震减灾装置
US11091908B2 (en) * 2016-04-13 2021-08-17 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Thermal and acoustic insulating and sealing means for a safing slot in a curtain wall
CN106381938A (zh) * 2016-11-18 2017-02-08 张洪波 既有建筑自承重保温一体化系统及施工方法
US10538915B1 (en) * 2019-03-14 2020-01-21 Hilti Aktiengesellschaft Process for assembling a fire-, smoke-, sound- and/or water-proof system within a dynamic curtain wall façade
CN112411805A (zh) * 2020-11-27 2021-02-26 上海宝冶集团有限公司 保温一体化体系剪力墙与填充墙保温建造方法
CN113356470A (zh) * 2021-06-24 2021-09-07 重庆涛扬绿建科技有限公司 一种基于uhpc的工字钢梁防火防腐构造
CN113356470B (zh) * 2021-06-24 2023-01-24 重庆涛扬绿建科技有限公司 一种基于uhpc的工字钢梁防火防腐构造

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