WO2008139029A1 - Composite beam structure - Google Patents

Composite beam structure Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008139029A1
WO2008139029A1 PCT/FI2008/050253 FI2008050253W WO2008139029A1 WO 2008139029 A1 WO2008139029 A1 WO 2008139029A1 FI 2008050253 W FI2008050253 W FI 2008050253W WO 2008139029 A1 WO2008139029 A1 WO 2008139029A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
dowel
pieces
composite
beam structure
structure according
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FI2008/050253
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Arto Sivill
Markku Heinisuo
Jouko Kansa
Original Assignee
Rautaruukki Oyj
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Rautaruukki Oyj filed Critical Rautaruukki Oyj
Priority to EP08761649A priority Critical patent/EP2145058A4/en
Publication of WO2008139029A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008139029A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • E04B5/23Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated
    • E04B5/29Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated the prefabricated parts of the beams consisting wholly of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/29Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures
    • E04C3/293Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/29Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures
    • E04C3/293Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete
    • E04C3/294Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces built-up from parts of different material, i.e. composite structures the materials being steel and concrete of concrete combined with a girder-like structure extending laterally outside the element

Definitions

  • This invention relates to a composite structure, and in more detail a composite beam structure, used in the construction industry.
  • a composite structure can be understood as almost any structure composed of two or more materials, such as e.g. a conventional reinforced concrete structure. Between different structural elements, composite operation is always created when the elements are continuous i.e. monolithic or connected with a shearing connection.
  • a composite structure is generally understood as a combination of steel structures or sheet structures and concrete or reinforced concrete.
  • the operating principle of the steel-concrete composite structure is based on the almost perfect or partial co-operation between the steel part and the concrete part.
  • the steel part can be of structural steel or sheet structural steel and the concrete part of common concrete, high- strength concrete or light concrete.
  • the basic type of a steel-concrete composite structure commonly used as an intermediate floor structure can be considered to be a single- span freely-supported composite beam on which a hollow-core slab / a closed composite slab or the like rests.
  • dowels dowel pins, welded on the upper flange of a steel profile, which are dimensioned as elastic connectors.
  • the ratio of steel and concrete should be optimal in the composite structures. Steel is liable for tensile stresses and concrete is liable for bearing stresses, then the best characteristics of each can be utilised.
  • a composite beam constituted by concrete and steel (usually the concrete part is pressed and the steel part drawn in the composite beam structure), the co-operation between the parts is provided mechanically.
  • the composite beams are installed on supports, after which hollow-core slabs or other slabs or the like are installed resting on them. After the installation of the slabs, the seams and the beam are filled with concrete.
  • a composite beam structure which structure includes several dowel pieces for forming a connection between steel and concrete, and the dowel pieces are bar- like pieces circular of their cross-section which are fastened on the upper surface of the beam.
  • the dowel pieces On the upper end of the dowel pieces, there is a widened part, circular seen from the top, and the arrangement according to the specification further utilises a support mesh in forming and improving the connection between concrete and steel.
  • Specification AT 301821 describes a composite structure in which folds have been made for support in a V-shaped piece fillable with concrete, manufactured by bending from a plate.
  • connection i.e. the co-operation between steel and concrete in the connection, in the best possible way such that the connection would operate almost perfectly (or perfectly which is the aim of the connection).
  • the object of this invention is to provide a novel type of a composite structure, or in more detail a composite beam structure, by means of which disadvantages of known arrangements can be minimised or eliminated, and thus by means of which is provided a functioning and extremely good composite beam arrangement of its costs and other characteristics i.e. technical qualities.
  • An advantage of the arrangement according to the invention compared to the known arrangements is that it provides a better connection between steel and concrete than known arrangements, which connection fulfils the demands of rigidity and endures loads and stresses directed at it better than known arrangements i.e. the connection is able to receive vertical and horizontal forces in the structure (occurring at its different points).
  • the dowel pieces which are the shape of a rectangular prism, such as e.g. quadratic, lack a projection surface receiving/conveying vertical forces.
  • An advantage of the arrangement according to the invention is also that awkward bendings or other laborious processing measures can be avoided in it.
  • a further advantage of the arrangement according to the invention is that, with the composite beam structure according to the invention, the consumption of steel required in the composite beam structure can be decreased and then a considerable economic benefit is provided.
  • Fig. Ia shows a cross-section of a simplified composite beam arrangement according to the invention seen from the end of the beam.
  • Fig. Ib shows an arrangement according to the invention seen from the side of the beam.
  • Fig. Ic shows a top view of dowel pieces, fastened inclined in the beam.
  • Figs. 2a-2f show a front view of the different shapes of the dowel piece.
  • a slab-like piece 2 such as e.g. a hollow-core slab.
  • the height of the slab- like piece is, according to the figure, almost equal to the height of the beam 3 but the slab can also be considerably lower than the height of the beam.
  • a casting 1 is formed which is advantageously concrete casting, and one or more dowel pieces 4 remaining inside the casting, which dowel pieces are fastened on the upper surface of the beam by welding at a desired point.
  • the height of the casting can vary considerably depending on different targets of application, but typically the height of the casting is between 40 mm-200 mm.
  • the length of the dowel pieces is at least threefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces. In an advantageous case, the length of the dowel pieces is at least about fivefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces.
  • the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces is typically between 20 mm-70 mm, but it can also be wider or narrower, depending on the load of the beam or on the amount of composite effect required.
  • the length of the dowel pieces can vary, but it is typically at least 30% of the width of the upper surface of the beam.
  • the dowel pieces can also extend over the width of the upper surface of the beam.
  • the dowel pieces are fastened in the beam in a perpendicular angle or inclined seen from the top as shown in Fig. Ic.
  • Fig. 1 is shown only to illustrate a composite beam structure according to the invention, it does not implicate steel profiles, composite plates or auxiliary reinforcements etc. remaining partially or totally inside the casting.
  • the arrangement according to the invention can utilise all already known beams and beam types, such as an I beam, a T beam, a WQ beam, a box beam etc.
  • the dowel pieces can be the shape of a parallelogram or a trapezium, triangular, or the dowel pieces can include one or more bevels, such as e.g. shown in Fig. 2f.
  • the dowel pieces can be substantially of the shape of T or I or L
  • the dowel pieces can also include one or more roundings. It is also essential that the dowel pieces thus have at least one inclined surface or one curved surface or two straight surfaces or combinations of the above surfaces.
  • the dowel pieces can be hollow or perforated and support bars, such as e.g. round steel bars or the like, can have been arranged inside the dowel pieces, the task of which bars is to improve the composite effect by increasing the gripping surface.
  • support bars such as e.g. round steel bars or the like
  • Round steel bars can also be utilised in anchoring the slab/slabbings on the beam and a mesh can be set at the base of the dowels to improve the composite effect.
  • the mesh can be manufactured e.g. of steel.
  • used arrangements may be varied quite widely. It is also possible to consider e.g. such an arrangement in which already known dowel pieces and/or sections (section arrangements) increasing the grip of steel and concrete are combined with the dowel pieces described here to be used together in order to provide a composite effect as good as possible in the connection between steel and concrete.

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Architecture (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Composite Materials (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Electromagnetism (AREA)
  • Joining Of Building Structures In Genera (AREA)
  • Rod-Shaped Construction Members (AREA)

Abstract

A composite beam structure used in the construction industry, in which one or more slab-like pieces (2) and a beam (3) are connected together, advantageously with a casting (4), and which composite beam structure includes at least one beam, such as a steel beam, on top of which is fastened one or more dowel pieces (4), and in which the length of the dowel pieces fastened in the beam is at least threefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces, and the dowel piece is able to transfer forces in the connection between concrete and steel both in the vertical and longitudinal direction of the beam.

Description

COMPOSITE BEAM STRUCTURE
This invention relates to a composite structure, and in more detail a composite beam structure, used in the construction industry.
Background
A composite structure can be understood as almost any structure composed of two or more materials, such as e.g. a conventional reinforced concrete structure. Between different structural elements, composite operation is always created when the elements are continuous i.e. monolithic or connected with a shearing connection.
According to recent practice, a composite structure is generally understood as a combination of steel structures or sheet structures and concrete or reinforced concrete.
The most important and conventional way to connect two different construction materials is the use of concrete-steel composite structures, such as composite beams, in multi-storey residential, industrial and commercial buildings.
The operating principle of the steel-concrete composite structure is based on the almost perfect or partial co-operation between the steel part and the concrete part. The steel part can be of structural steel or sheet structural steel and the concrete part of common concrete, high- strength concrete or light concrete.
The basic type of a steel-concrete composite structure commonly used as an intermediate floor structure can be considered to be a single- span freely-supported composite beam on which a hollow-core slab / a closed composite slab or the like rests. For ensuring the co-operation between the steel part and the concrete part, most often are utilised dowels, dowel pins, welded on the upper flange of a steel profile, which are dimensioned as elastic connectors. The ratio of steel and concrete should be optimal in the composite structures. Steel is liable for tensile stresses and concrete is liable for bearing stresses, then the best characteristics of each can be utilised. Also, the almost identical thermal expansion coefficients of concrete and steel and the protective effect of concrete in the corrosion of steel give extensive possibilities to the use of composite structures, such as composite beam structures. Concrete can also support the thin steel parts and prevent them from buckling and collapsing. Intermediate floors of the concrete composite structure are usually composed of steel beams and concrete slabs or reinforced concrete slabs. Slabs in the composite-structured intermediate floors rest either on the main beams or the secondary beams. The main beams convey loads coming from the slabbing in the connections of pillars. Composite-structured intermediate floors are usually utilised in multi-storey commercial, office and residential buildings.
In a composite beam constituted by concrete and steel (usually the concrete part is pressed and the steel part drawn in the composite beam structure), the co-operation between the parts is provided mechanically. The composite beams are installed on supports, after which hollow-core slabs or other slabs or the like are installed resting on them. After the installation of the slabs, the seams and the beam are filled with concrete.
Also, several different composite beam structures and arrangements are known.
From specification WO 2004/031507 Al, a composite beam structure is known which structure includes several dowel pieces for forming a connection between steel and concrete, and the dowel pieces are bar- like pieces circular of their cross-section which are fastened on the upper surface of the beam. On the upper end of the dowel pieces, there is a widened part, circular seen from the top, and the arrangement according to the specification further utilises a support mesh in forming and improving the connection between concrete and steel.
Specification US 6807789 describes a composite structure in which the beam is formed of several pieces fastened to each other by welding and in which the upper part of the beam structure is narrower than the lower part, and in which concrete casting totally fills the inner part of the beam. Openings have been formed in a plate part being vertical in the middle of the beam structure.
Specification AT 301821 describes a composite structure in which folds have been made for support in a V-shaped piece fillable with concrete, manufactured by bending from a plate.
Known arrangements include disadvantages.
Known structures require relatively lot of processing, such as weldings, bendings etc., and this is extremely undesired, or known arrangements have not been able to implement the functioning of the connection, i.e. the co-operation between steel and concrete in the connection, in the best possible way such that the connection would operate almost perfectly (or perfectly which is the aim of the connection).
The object of this invention is to provide a novel type of a composite structure, or in more detail a composite beam structure, by means of which disadvantages of known arrangements can be minimised or eliminated, and thus by means of which is provided a functioning and extremely good composite beam arrangement of its costs and other characteristics i.e. technical qualities.
Known arrangements utilise several dowels arranged into connection with the beam. An advantage of the arrangement according to the invention compared to the known arrangements is that it requires less support pieces i.e. dowels than recent arrangements for connecting steel and concrete to each other and that, with the same or a smaller number of dowels, a better composite effect is provided in the connection between concrete and steel.
An advantage of the arrangement according to the invention compared to the known arrangements is that it provides a better connection between steel and concrete than known arrangements, which connection fulfils the demands of rigidity and endures loads and stresses directed at it better than known arrangements i.e. the connection is able to receive vertical and horizontal forces in the structure (occurring at its different points).
When using circular (dowel) pins, a large number of them is required in the longitudinal direction of the beam, and the dowel pieces which are the shape of a rectangular prism, such as e.g. quadratic, lack a projection surface receiving/conveying vertical forces.
An advantage of the arrangement according to the invention is also that awkward bendings or other laborious processing measures can be avoided in it.
A further advantage of the arrangement according to the invention is that, with the composite beam structure according to the invention, the consumption of steel required in the composite beam structure can be decreased and then a considerable economic benefit is provided.
The invention is characterised by what is stated in the appended claims and especially by what is stated in the characterising part of claim 1.
Next, the invention is described in more detail by referring to the accompanying drawings in which
Fig. Ia shows a cross-section of a simplified composite beam arrangement according to the invention seen from the end of the beam. Fig. Ib shows an arrangement according to the invention seen from the side of the beam.
Fig. Ic shows a top view of dowel pieces, fastened inclined in the beam.
Figs. 2a-2f show a front view of the different shapes of the dowel piece.
In accordance with what is shown in Fig. Ia, in a beam 3 is arranged a slab-like piece 2, such as e.g. a hollow-core slab. The height of the slab- like piece is, according to the figure, almost equal to the height of the beam 3 but the slab can also be considerably lower than the height of the beam. On top of the slab, a casting 1 is formed which is advantageously concrete casting, and one or more dowel pieces 4 remaining inside the casting, which dowel pieces are fastened on the upper surface of the beam by welding at a desired point.
With a projection (projection surface) of the dowel piece 4, vertical and longitudinal forces are transferred.
The height of the casting can vary considerably depending on different targets of application, but typically the height of the casting is between 40 mm-200 mm.
The length of the dowel pieces is at least threefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces. In an advantageous case, the length of the dowel pieces is at least about fivefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces. The width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces is typically between 20 mm-70 mm, but it can also be wider or narrower, depending on the load of the beam or on the amount of composite effect required.
The length of the dowel pieces can vary, but it is typically at least 30% of the width of the upper surface of the beam. The dowel pieces can also extend over the width of the upper surface of the beam. The dowel pieces are fastened in the beam in a perpendicular angle or inclined seen from the top as shown in Fig. Ic.
Because Fig. 1 is shown only to illustrate a composite beam structure according to the invention, it does not implicate steel profiles, composite plates or auxiliary reinforcements etc. remaining partially or totally inside the casting.
The arrangement according to the invention can utilise all already known beams and beam types, such as an I beam, a T beam, a WQ beam, a box beam etc.
According to Fig. 2, the dowel pieces can be the shape of a parallelogram or a trapezium, triangular, or the dowel pieces can include one or more bevels, such as e.g. shown in Fig. 2f. The dowel pieces can be substantially of the shape of T or I or L The dowel pieces can also include one or more roundings. It is also essential that the dowel pieces thus have at least one inclined surface or one curved surface or two straight surfaces or combinations of the above surfaces.
The dowel pieces can be hollow or perforated and support bars, such as e.g. round steel bars or the like, can have been arranged inside the dowel pieces, the task of which bars is to improve the composite effect by increasing the gripping surface. Round steel bars can also be utilised in anchoring the slab/slabbings on the beam and a mesh can be set at the base of the dowels to improve the composite effect. The mesh can be manufactured e.g. of steel.
It is well known by those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, but it may vary within the scope of the enclosed patent claims.
According to the inventive idea, used arrangements may be varied quite widely. It is also possible to consider e.g. such an arrangement in which already known dowel pieces and/or sections (section arrangements) increasing the grip of steel and concrete are combined with the dowel pieces described here to be used together in order to provide a composite effect as good as possible in the connection between steel and concrete.

Claims

1. A composite beam structure used in the construction industry, in which one or more slab-like pieces (2) and a beam (3) are connected together, advantageously with a casting (4), and in which composite beam structure there is at least one beam, such as a steel beam, on top of which is fastened one or more dowel pieces (4), characterised in that the length of the dowel pieces fastened in the beam is at least threefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces, and that the dowel piece is able to transfer forces in the connection between concrete and steel both in the vertical and longitudinal direction of the beam.
2. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the length of the dowel piece is at least 30% of the width of the upper surface of the beam.
3. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the dowel pieces are triangular.
4. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the length of the dowel pieces is at least fivefold in relation to the width of the upper surface of the dowel pieces.
5. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that part or all of the dowel pieces are fastened in the beam in a right angle or inclined seen from the top.
6. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the dowel pieces are of the shape of a parallelogram or a trapezium.
7. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that, with the projection/projection surfaces of the dowel piece, vertical and longitudinal forces occurring in the connection between concrete and steel are transferred.
8. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the dowel pieces are substantially of the shape of T or I or L.
9. A composite beam structure according to any one of claims 1-8, characterised in that there are one or more bevels and/or roundings in the dowel pieces.
10. A composite beam structure according to any one of claims 1-9, characterised in that the dowel pieces are hollow and/or there are openings in the dowel pieces.
11. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the slab-like piece is a hollow-core slab or a closed composite slab or other slab-like element piece.
12. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that the dowel pieces can be located as desired on top of the beam, depending on the shearing force applying in the connection between concrete and the steel beam.
13. A composite beam structure according to claim 1, characterised in that there are one or more openings in the dowel piece in which a bar, such as a round bar, longer than the dowel piece in the longitudinal direction, can be set.
14. A composite beam structure according to any one of preceding claims, characterised in that the bars are used in anchoring the slab/slabbings on the beam.
15. A composite beam structure according to any one of preceding claims, characterised in that at the base of the dowels is set a mesh to improve the composite effect.
PCT/FI2008/050253 2007-05-16 2008-05-08 Composite beam structure WO2008139029A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP08761649A EP2145058A4 (en) 2007-05-16 2008-05-08 Composite beam structure

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FI20070384 2007-05-16
FI20070384A FI20070384A (en) 2007-05-16 2007-05-16 The composite beam structure

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2008139029A1 true WO2008139029A1 (en) 2008-11-20

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ID=38069427

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/FI2008/050253 WO2008139029A1 (en) 2007-05-16 2008-05-08 Composite beam structure

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP2145058A4 (en)
FI (1) FI20070384A (en)
RU (1) RU2423585C1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008139029A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITVI20130154A1 (en) * 2013-06-17 2014-12-18 Tecnaria S P A CONNECTOR FOR REINFORCEMENT OF FLOORS IN BUILDING
WO2016132195A1 (en) * 2015-02-16 2016-08-25 Laraki Mohamed Construction element and method for erecting such a construction element

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US2340176A (en) 1942-03-23 1944-01-25 Porete Mfg Company Shear reinforced composite structure
US2479475A (en) * 1944-03-16 1949-08-16 Porete Mfg Company Composite structure with triangular shear connectors
US2479476A (en) * 1944-04-25 1949-08-16 Porete Mfg Company Composite structure embodying shear connectors
DE1005710B (en) * 1953-09-05 1957-04-04 Richard Doorentz Reinforced concrete ceiling on freely stored metal beams
US3138899A (en) * 1959-10-15 1964-06-30 Homer M Hadley Structurally integrated composite members
AT301821B (en) 1969-07-17 1972-08-15 Oesterr Alpine Montan COMPOSITE BEAM
EP0215148B1 (en) * 1985-09-17 1991-01-02 Wolfhart Dr.-Ing. Andrä Connecting means for a composite concrete supporting construction
WO2004031507A1 (en) 2002-10-02 2004-04-15 University Of Western Sydney A composite beam
US6807789B1 (en) 2003-05-23 2004-10-26 Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd Steel-concrete composite beam using asymmetric section steel beam
US6871462B2 (en) * 2001-07-09 2005-03-29 Board Of Regents Of University Of Nebraska Composite action system and method

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DE605704C (en) * 1932-07-30 1934-11-16 Otto Schaub Composite component with a concrete pressure plate and shaped iron beams supporting this
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AT335703B (en) * 1975-07-25 1977-03-25 Koss Kurt PUSH ANCHOR FOR COMPOSITE BEAM
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2340176A (en) 1942-03-23 1944-01-25 Porete Mfg Company Shear reinforced composite structure
US2479475A (en) * 1944-03-16 1949-08-16 Porete Mfg Company Composite structure with triangular shear connectors
US2479476A (en) * 1944-04-25 1949-08-16 Porete Mfg Company Composite structure embodying shear connectors
DE1005710B (en) * 1953-09-05 1957-04-04 Richard Doorentz Reinforced concrete ceiling on freely stored metal beams
US3138899A (en) * 1959-10-15 1964-06-30 Homer M Hadley Structurally integrated composite members
AT301821B (en) 1969-07-17 1972-08-15 Oesterr Alpine Montan COMPOSITE BEAM
EP0215148B1 (en) * 1985-09-17 1991-01-02 Wolfhart Dr.-Ing. Andrä Connecting means for a composite concrete supporting construction
US6871462B2 (en) * 2001-07-09 2005-03-29 Board Of Regents Of University Of Nebraska Composite action system and method
WO2004031507A1 (en) 2002-10-02 2004-04-15 University Of Western Sydney A composite beam
US6807789B1 (en) 2003-05-23 2004-10-26 Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd Steel-concrete composite beam using asymmetric section steel beam

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of EP2145058A4

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITVI20130154A1 (en) * 2013-06-17 2014-12-18 Tecnaria S P A CONNECTOR FOR REINFORCEMENT OF FLOORS IN BUILDING
WO2016132195A1 (en) * 2015-02-16 2016-08-25 Laraki Mohamed Construction element and method for erecting such a construction element

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FI20070384A0 (en) 2007-05-16
RU2423585C1 (en) 2011-07-10
FI20070384A (en) 2008-11-17
EP2145058A4 (en) 2012-11-28
EP2145058A1 (en) 2010-01-20

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