WO2008105649A1 - Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water - Google Patents

Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008105649A1
WO2008105649A1 PCT/MY2008/000009 MY2008000009W WO2008105649A1 WO 2008105649 A1 WO2008105649 A1 WO 2008105649A1 MY 2008000009 W MY2008000009 W MY 2008000009W WO 2008105649 A1 WO2008105649 A1 WO 2008105649A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
algae
method according
water
apparatus
body
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/MY2008/000009
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Kaurah Jagjit Singh
Original Assignee
Kaurah Jagjit Singh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to MYPI20070298 priority Critical
Priority to MYPI20070298 priority
Application filed by Kaurah Jagjit Singh filed Critical Kaurah Jagjit Singh
Publication of WO2008105649A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008105649A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M21/00Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses
    • C12M21/02Photobioreactors
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/02Form or structure of the vessel
    • C12M23/18Open ponds; Greenhouse type or underground installations
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/56Floating elements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M33/00Means for introduction, transport, positioning, extraction, harvesting, peeling or sampling of biological material in or from the apparatus
    • C12M33/22Settling tanks; Sedimentation by gravity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M41/00Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation
    • C12M41/06Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation of illumination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/88Seaweed farming; Management of sea grass beds

Abstract

A method and apparatus for cultivating aquatic algae by containing and promoting the growth of aquatic algae within a structure floating on waters such as the sea or a lake.

Description

Growing Algae In A Body Of Water Contained In An Open Or Closed Container That Floats On Another Larger Body Of Water

Field of Invention

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for cultivating aquatic algae by containing and promoting the growth of aquatic algae within a structure floating on waters such as the sea or a lake in a manner that reduces the cost of operation and the use of land.

Background of Invention

The use of algae is well known in numerous industries. For instance, they can be consumed and utilized as gelling, suspending, stabilizing and emulsifying agents in food, cosmetic and paint industries. In agriculture, algae can be added to poultry feed or applied as fertilizers for crops. Some algae have specific medicinal and health properties. For example they are a good source of omega 3. Algae can also produce oil that can be used to make biodiesel and bio mass that can be burnt to produce electricity.

Algae that grow naturally in the oceans and lakes support the aquatic food chain of life as they are the primary producers of food and oxygen for aquatic creatures and thus are the basis of life in water and the fisheries industries. Current efforts of growing algae commercially are all concentrated in growing them in ponds on land or in enclosed containers also on land. The object of this invention is to grow algae in self contained structures floating on the sea or on any body of water where the water required for the growth is contained within the floating structure by a sheet of plastic, rubber or any other suitable material impervious to water. The water required for growth can be open at the top or totally enclosed with only a controlled outlet for venting excess (carbon dioxide) CO2 rich air pumped into the structure.

Further object of the invention is to reduce the cost of growing algae by taking advantage of the energy in tides and waves. Another object of the invention is to use the lower variation of temperature of the sea to maximize the growth of algae.

Yet another object of this invention is to integrate a series of processes in such a manner as to maximize efficiency and reduce cost.

Summary of The Invention

One aspect of the present invention is to use the tides in such a manner that saves on pumping costs. For example, when it is high tide the water growing the algae can be allowed to flow down slope to land that is at the low tide level and similarly at low tide new algae from the nursery can flow down slope from the high tide level on land to the floating structures in the sea. This eliminates a major cost of farming algae on land.

A second aspect of the present invention is to provide a structure that allows for and utilizes the waves in the sea to continuously churn the water in the floating structures and the algae growing in it as continuous churn exposes all the algae in turn to the sun which promotes the growth of algae naturally. This eliminates another major cost of growing algae on land while improving the mixing process. A third aspect of the present invention is to provide a floating structure within which is an area for the growth of algae which is separated from the surrounding area. This can be open at the top or totally enclosed except for a valve to allow for excess air or CO2 to escape.

A fourth aspect of the present invention is to use the ash from burning the algae and minerals concentrated from sea water by waste heat to supply nutrients to the plants.

A fifth aspect of the present invention is to use the sea to maintain a low variation of temperature in the growth medium by using the milder temperature variation of the sea and a large area for heat exchange surface of the containers in the floating structures.

Further, the seas will provide readily available areas, especially where land is scarce and/or expensive, for growing algae to produce superior quantities of biodiesel as compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose. Another advantage of the present invention is that the cultivation of algae in the seas is that it does not compete with the use of the land needed to produce food crops.

Brief Description of The Drawings

The objects and advantages of the present invention will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof when taken together with the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 shows one embodiment of a floating structure in a body of water, hi this example the frame work for the floating structure is constructed from bamboo or any other suitable material with the material forming the container being plastic, rubber lined fabric or any other suitable material. The supply lines from the shore for both CO2 and water containing the algae are also shown. The number of supply lines can be decided as required. For example, if it is necessary to have a supply line to deliver the algae from the nursery separate from the harvesting line, this can be done.

Figure 2 shows base station protected by a dyke on the shore with the nursery at or above the high tide mark. From here the water containing the desirable species of algae are allowed to flow down slope at low tide to the offshore structures where the algae will grow. A CO2 line is also shown and this supplies CO2 to the algae growing in the offshore structures. When the level of algae growth is sufficient to harvest, they are allowed to flow down slope at high tide to settling ponds located at or below the low tide mark as shown. .

Figure 3 shows one method of increasing buoyancy by increasing the number of bamboo poles facing the incoming waves. Detailed Description of The Preferred Embodiments

A base station will be built on the sea shore behind a dyke so that the base station slopes from a level higher than the high tide mark to a level that is similar to or lower than the low tide mark. These levels in fact follow the natural sea shore line so no earth works are required to do the slope.

The algae nursery will be on land at a level at or higher than the high tide level and the water containing the algae will be allowed to flow down slope to the floating structures at low tide. Each separate floating structure will in turn be filled from the nursery.

The growth farms will be on floating structures consisting of a frame of any material like bamboo, wood or hollow plastic that can float and hold a film of plastic, rubber, rubberized cloth or other such material in such a way that it forms a pool impervious to water separated from the surrounding water. This pool can be covered or open.

One example of such a structure is where the frame is a square of 20 meters each side or any other size with the film attached to the inside or the outside of the frame in such a way that it forms a container into which water could be poured.

These will be held to the ocean floor and in most cases to each other by any one of several currently known methods to prevent them floating away.

As these structures will constantly be colliding into each other due to the wave motion, they will have to be made robust enough and have their sides made to absorb shocks by for instance hanging old tyres on all sides. When it is time to harvest, the water and algae will be allowed to flow at high tide to settling ponds behind the dyke which will be at a level similar to or lower than the low tide level.

The harvested algae will have their oil extracted and the residue can be used in one of several ways including, for medical and health purposes, as a food source for humans, fish and other animals, for fermentation to produce ethanol as a fuel, for anaerobic digestion to produce methane or for straight use as a fuel in electricity production. The oil, which is similar to fish oil has many uses and can also be used to make biodiesel.

In one embodiment, the residue may be used for fermentation to produce ethanol which can be used in the biodiesel production process plus for sale as a petroleum substitute and the residue from that may be burnt to produce electricity and then the ash that remains can be used as fertilizer for the algae and the excess heat can be used to evaporate salt water to obtain more nutrients for the algae. The CO2 produced in the fermentation process is very pure and of excellent quality may be fed to the growing algae.

The electricity produced can be used for all the operations on land like harvesting, oil extraction and biodiesel production. The excess electricity can be sold to the grid.

The size, shape and structure of the floating structures can be designed so that the level of stirring can be optimized. For example, if more stirring is required the buoyancy of the side facing the incoming waves can be increased by adding more bamboo members or other flotation device to that side so that the side lifts more with each wave. Another way to change the stirring is to adjust the length of the floating structure along the path the wave travels. For example, the stirring level changes according to whether the length of the structure is equal to some whole number of wave length of the sea waves or is some number plus half a wave length.

Both fresh water and sea water algae can be grown in the floating structures on the sea. In fact fresh water algae would grow well in the sea as there will be no contamination from other species of fresh water algae or even sea water algae in the fresh water. Contamination of desirable species grown is a major problem with land based algae farms.

Closed systems on land are sometimes used so that the desirable species growing in these containers are protected from contamination and replacement by more aggressive and undesirable local species. One of the major problems of such closed systems is that they are similar to glass houses and trap the heat of the sun. This raises the temperature of the growth medium inside affecting the growth of the algae. By having a large heat exchange area with excellent contact with the surrounding sea water, the temperature of the growth medium and thus the algae inside is kept much more conducive to the growth of the algae.

Claims

Claims
1. A method for cultivating aquatic algae using an apparatus to contain the aquatic algae which floats on a body of water.
2. The method according to Claim 1 wherein the apparatus consists of a frame made of buoyant materials to hold a film that is impervious to water.
3. The method according to Claim 2 wherein the aquatic algae is able to flow into the apparatus during low tide and into a base station during high tide using the difference in levels.
4. The method according to Claim 2 wherein the apparatus is fed with a supply of air that is rich in carbon dioxide.
5. The method according to Claims 1 and 2 wherein the apparatus has the means to control the exposure of the aquatic algae to sunlight.
6. The method according to Claim 5 wherein the contents of the apparatus may be agitated by the movements of the currents or waves of the body of water.
7. The method according to Claim 6 wherein the apparatus is closed or has one or more openings.
8. The method according to Claim 3 wherein the base station may be in the form of settling ponds and/or nursery ponds.
9. The method according to claims 1, 2 and 7 wherein the algae species grown are protected from contamination and invasion by unwanted algae species.
10. The method according to claims 1, 2 and 7 wherein the temperature variation of the growing algae is minimized.
11. The method according to claims 1, 2 and 7 wherein the amount of stirring of the growing algae may be varied.
12. An apparatus for cultivating aquatic algae according to the methods claimed in Claims 1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 11.
PCT/MY2008/000009 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water WO2008105649A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
MYPI20070298 2007-02-27
MYPI20070298 2007-02-27

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
MX2009009101A MX2009009101A (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water.
JP2009553533A JP2010518881A (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Techniques and cultivation equipment for promoting algae growth on water
AU2008219895A AU2008219895A1 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water
EP08712572A EP2129213A4 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water
CN200880006363A CN101677515A (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water
AP200904982A AP200904982A0 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2008105649A1 true WO2008105649A1 (en) 2008-09-04

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/MY2008/000009 WO2008105649A1 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-02-12 Growing algae in a body of water contained in an open or closed container that floats on another larger body of water

Country Status (7)

Country Link
EP (1) EP2129213A4 (en)
JP (1) JP2010518881A (en)
CN (1) CN101677515A (en)
AP (1) AP200904982A0 (en)
AU (1) AU2008219895A1 (en)
MX (1) MX2009009101A (en)
WO (1) WO2008105649A1 (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009037355A1 (en) * 2007-09-20 2009-03-26 Sbae Industries Nv Method for harvesting algae or plants and device used thereby
GB2460114A (en) * 2008-05-20 2009-11-25 John Roy Munford Apparatus for the containment of open water algae plantations
WO2010070316A1 (en) 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Cranfield University Bio-mass farming system and method
WO2010070317A1 (en) 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Cranfield University Repository for bio-mass farming system
GB2471492A (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-05 Questor Group Ltd C Floating cultivation device for algae
GB2472032A (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-01-26 Questor Group C Culturing pool for algae
RU2524993C1 (en) * 2013-01-17 2014-08-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КИВИ Энерджи" Floating bioreactor for growing microalgae on open water body
US9487716B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2016-11-08 LiveFuels, Inc. Sourcing phosphorus and other nutrients from the ocean via ocean thermal energy conversion systems

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102643741B (en) * 2012-05-07 2014-04-30 中国科学院过程工程研究所 Trap type carbon replenishing device for culturing microalgae of opened pool and carbon replenishing method thereof
CN103650764B (en) * 2013-12-17 2016-10-05 南通海达水产食品有限公司 Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is collected seedling automatic uniform flushometer

Citations (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4324068A (en) * 1980-03-03 1982-04-13 Sax Zzyzx, Ltd. Production of algae
JPH05236935A (en) * 1992-02-26 1993-09-17 Mitsui Eng & Shipbuild Co Ltd Closed type algae culturing device
JPH0762A (en) * 1991-09-25 1995-01-06 Etsuro Obara Method for culturing aqueous algae
JPH0995A (en) * 1995-06-20 1997-01-07 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Rotary culture device for algae

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JPS5856675A (en) * 1981-09-29 1983-04-04 Haruno Takenaka Pumping power generation and simultaneous cultivation of algae
JPS59154196A (en) * 1983-02-21 1984-09-03 Haruno Takenaka Tidal type biomass production installation
JP3077069B2 (en) * 1991-12-27 2000-08-14 武 当真 Method and apparatus for culturing aquatic products at sea

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4324068A (en) * 1980-03-03 1982-04-13 Sax Zzyzx, Ltd. Production of algae
JPH0762A (en) * 1991-09-25 1995-01-06 Etsuro Obara Method for culturing aqueous algae
JPH05236935A (en) * 1992-02-26 1993-09-17 Mitsui Eng & Shipbuild Co Ltd Closed type algae culturing device
JPH0995A (en) * 1995-06-20 1997-01-07 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Rotary culture device for algae

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of EP2129213A4 *

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009037355A1 (en) * 2007-09-20 2009-03-26 Sbae Industries Nv Method for harvesting algae or plants and device used thereby
GB2460114A (en) * 2008-05-20 2009-11-25 John Roy Munford Apparatus for the containment of open water algae plantations
WO2010070316A1 (en) 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Cranfield University Bio-mass farming system and method
WO2010070317A1 (en) 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Cranfield University Repository for bio-mass farming system
GB2477897B (en) * 2008-12-15 2012-03-14 Univ Cranfield Repository for bio-mass farming system
GB2471492A (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-05 Questor Group Ltd C Floating cultivation device for algae
GB2472032A (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-01-26 Questor Group C Culturing pool for algae
US9487716B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2016-11-08 LiveFuels, Inc. Sourcing phosphorus and other nutrients from the ocean via ocean thermal energy conversion systems
RU2524993C1 (en) * 2013-01-17 2014-08-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КИВИ Энерджи" Floating bioreactor for growing microalgae on open water body

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AP200904982A0 (en) 2009-10-31
AU2008219895A1 (en) 2008-09-04
JP2010518881A (en) 2010-06-03
EP2129213A4 (en) 2012-03-28
MX2009009101A (en) 2009-11-23
CN101677515A (en) 2010-03-24
EP2129213A1 (en) 2009-12-09

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