WO2007079519A1 - A spacer and associated apparatus and method - Google Patents

A spacer and associated apparatus and method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007079519A1
WO2007079519A1 PCT/AU2006/001860 AU2006001860W WO2007079519A1 WO 2007079519 A1 WO2007079519 A1 WO 2007079519A1 AU 2006001860 W AU2006001860 W AU 2006001860W WO 2007079519 A1 WO2007079519 A1 WO 2007079519A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
spacer
panel
fastening
disposed
cladding panel
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/AU2006/001860
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael Hoesli
Falekava Mahe
Original Assignee
Vikf Creations Pty Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to AU2006900125A priority Critical patent/AU2006900125A0/en
Priority to AU2006900125 priority
Application filed by Vikf Creations Pty Ltd filed Critical Vikf Creations Pty Ltd
Publication of WO2007079519A1 publication Critical patent/WO2007079519A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8652Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties located in the joints of the forms
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR OTHER BUILDING AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G21/00Preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ; Other devices or measures for constructional work
    • E04G21/24Safety or protective measures preventing damage to building parts or finishing work during construction
    • E04G21/26Strutting means for wall parts; Supports or the like, e.g. for holding in position prefabricated walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR OTHER BUILDING AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G5/00Component parts or accessories for scaffolds
    • E04G5/06Consoles; Brackets
    • E04G5/062Consoles; Brackets specially adapted for attachment to building walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR OTHER BUILDING AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G5/00Component parts or accessories for scaffolds
    • E04G5/06Consoles; Brackets
    • E04G5/067Consoles; Brackets specially adapted for attachment to posts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2002/867Corner details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2002/8676Wall end details
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2002/8688Scaffoldings or removable supports therefor

Abstract

The spacer (1) defines a body (2) having two opposed sides (3) and (4). The body (2) defines a separation distance between the opposed sides (3) and (4) for use as a spacer intermediate at least two concrete containment panels (5) and (6). Various preferred embodiments have separation distances suitable for forming walls having concrete thicknesses of 50mm, 120mm or 150mm, for example. Each of the opposed sides (3) and (4) include fastening means (7) and (8) adapted for fastening of a cladding panel (16) disposed external to the concrete containment panels (5) and (6), as shown for example in figures (32) and (33). To counter bulging of the concrete containment panels (5) due to the weight of the concrete a brace (49) adapted for fastening engagement with the spacers (1) may be used, as shown in figures (50) to (55). The brace 49 includes an abutment member (50) for abutment with the concrete containment panels (5). A plurality of fastening means (51) are disposed on the abutment member (50) for fastening engagement with spacers (1). The fastening means (51) each define a leading portion (52) and a trailing portion (53). As shown for example in figure (50), the leading portion (52) has a width greater than a width of the trailing portion (53). A pair of opposed lips (54) and (55) are disposed on the leading portion (52). To fasten the abutment member (50) of the brace (49) to the spacers (1), the leading portion (52) of the fastening means (51) is inserted between a pair of projections {9 and 10} on the spacer. Once the lips (54) and (55) clear the projections (9) and (10), the projections resiliently snap toward their resting position and engage the trailing portion (53) so as to fasten the abutment member (50) to the spacer (1). This is repeated with other spacers (1) as required until the abutment member (50) provides the desired level of support to counter bulging of the concrete containment panels (5).

Description

A SPACER AND ASSOCIATED APPARATUS AND METHOD

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a spacer and associated concrete containment panels, cladding panels, braces and methods of use thereof. Preferred embodiments of the invention are typically used in the construction field, for example in relation to concrete formwork construction methods.

BACKGROUND The discussion of the prior art within this specification is not, and should not be taken as, an admission of the extent of common general knowledge in the field of the invention. Rather, the discussion of the prior art is provided merely to assist the addressee to understand the invention and is included without prejudice.

Existing techniques for in-situ construction of concrete structures typically require erection of formwork from generic materials such as plywood. This can be labour intensive and therefore costly. Additionally, input from skilled tradespeople is typically required, both to erect the formwork and to apply finishes such as rendering, gyprock, tiles or other cladding materials to the resultant concrete structures. Improvements to the efficiency of any of these processes are likely to be highly advantageous within the notoriously competitive construction industry.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the invention to overcome, or substantially ameliorate, at least one of the disadvantages of the prior art, or to provide a useful alternative.

According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a spacer defining a body having two opposed sides, said body defining a separation distance between said opposed sides for use as a spacer intermediate at least two concrete containment panels, at least one of said sides including fastening means adapted for fastening of at least one cladding panel disposed external to at least one of said concrete containment panels. In one preferred embodiment of the spacer, the fastening means is a snap lockable connector including at least a first projection disposed on one of the spacer or the cladding panel, the projection being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with a corresponding formation provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel. This embodiment includes a second projection opposed to the first projection, the second projection being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with a corresponding formation provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel. The corresponding formation of this preferred embodiment has a cross sectional profile defining a leading portion having a width greater than a width between respective ends of the first and second projections, the cross sectional profile further defining a trailing portion having a width less than the width of the leading portion.

In another preferred embodiment of the spacer the snap lockable connector includes a first pair of opposed projections disposed adjacent a second pair of opposed projections on one of the spacer or the cladding panel, each of the projections being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with one or more corresponding formations provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel. Preferably the first and second pair of opposed projections are disposed on one or both of the opposed sides, the first and second pairs of projections being respectively fastenable with a first corresponding formation disposed on a first cladding panel and a second corresponding formation disposed on a second cladding panel.

In another preferred embodiment of the spacer the fastener is an interference fit fastener.

In yet another preferred embodiment of the spacer the fastener includes: a slot disposed in one of the spacer or the cladding panel, the slot defining at least one detent; and an elongate member disposed in the other of the spacer or the cladding panel, the elongate member including a formation adapted for engagement with the detent.

Preferably the fastening means is adapted for press fit fastening of the cladding panel to the spacer. Also preferably the fastening means is adapted for fastening of the spacer to the cladding panel through an opening provided within at least one of said concrete containment panels.

In a preferred embodiment of the spacer the fastening means includes at least one tongue disposed on one of the spacer or cladding panel and at least one groove disposed on the other of the spacer or cladding panel. Preferably a T shaped member defines a pair of opposed tongues, each of the tongues being separately engageable with corresponding grooves provided upon two adjacent cladding panels.

In another preferred embodiment of the spacer the fastening means includes a lug removably attachable to the at least one opposed side, the lug including cladding panel retaining formations. Preferably the lug is T shaped and includes a handle for removal of the lug upon adhesion of the cladding panel to the at least one opposed side and/or to the concrete containment panel.

In yet another preferred embodiment of the spacer the fastener includes a connection component fastenable to the at least one side, the connection component being slidably matable with the cladding panel.

Preferably the cladding panel is fastenable to the at least one opposed side at any one of a plurality of selectable connection points lying on the cladding panel. In such an embodiment a groove is defined by the cladding panel and the connection point is selected from a locus of points defined by said groove.

A further preferred embodiment of the spacer includes a planar surface disposed at the at least one side, the concrete containment panel being adapted for engagement with the planar surface. Preferably the concrete containment panel includes a slot adapted to receive the planar surface.

In a preferred embodiment of the spacer the body includes at least one webbing member extending intermediate said opposed sides. In this preferred embodiment the body also includes at least one positioning formation adapted for positioning of an elongate member extending transverse to the spacer body, for example a plumbing pipe or conduit, a utility cable or the like.

Preferably the body includes at least one transverse projection disposed such that, in use, an end of the projection abuts, or is adjacent to, the concrete containment panel.

A preferred embodiment of the spacer consists of at least two interengagable components. Preferably this embodiment of the spacer consists of two click-lockingly interengagable components, each component respectively defining one of the opposed sides.

According to a second aspect of the invention there is provided a concrete containment panel adapted for disposition intermediate a spacer according to the first aspect and a cladding panel, the concrete containment panel having at least one opening sized for fastening engagement of the spacer with the cladding panel through the at least one opening.

A preferred embodiment of the concrete containment panel includes a first slot disposed adjacent the opening for receipt of at least part of an opposed end of the spacer and a second slot disposed adjacent the opening for receipt of at least part of the body of the spacer.

Preferably the concrete containment panel defines a plurality of sides adapted for engagement with like sides of like concrete containment panels, some of the sides defining tongues and others of the sides defining corresponding grooves.

In some preferred embodiments the concrete containment panel defines an external surface adapted for adhesion of a cladding panel. In one such embodiment external surface includes a plurality of slots.

A preferred embodiment of the concrete containment panel suitable for use as an end cap has a U shaped cross section. According to a third aspect of the invention there is provided a cladding panel adapted for fastening engagement with a spacer according to the first aspect.

In some preferred embodiments the cladding panel includes first and second panels disposed at a preselected angular relationship relative to each other. In one such embodiment suitable for use at a corner the preselected angular relationship is 90°. In this preferred embodiment fastening formations are disposed on an interior side of the first panel and the interior side of the second panel is substantially planar.

According to a fourth aspect of the invention there is provided a brace adapted for fastening engagement with a spacer according to the first aspect.

A preferred embodiment of the brace includes an abutment member for abutment with a concrete containment panel, at least two fastening means being disposed on the abutment member for fastening engagement with a respective pair of spacers.

In one preferred embodiment of the brace the fastening means each define a leading portion and a trailing portion, the leading portion having a width greater than a width of the trailing portion. Preferable each of said fastening means includes a pair of opposed lips disposed at the leading portion. Also preferably, the fastening means are slidably disposed on the abutment member.

A preferred embodiment of the brace further includes a strut defining a proximal end disposed on the abutment member and a distal end for fastening to a support surface, for example a floor. Preferably the strut is centrally disposed on the abutment member. Also preferably the strut is rotatably disposed on the abutment member.

According to a fifth aspect of the invention there is provided a formwork construction kit including: a plurality of spacers in accordance with the first aspect; a plurality of concrete containment panels in accordance with the second aspect; and a plurality of cladding panels in accordance with the third aspect.

A preferred embodiment of the formwork construction kit further includes at least one brace in accordance with the fourth aspect.

According to a sixth aspect of the invention there is provided a method of formwork construction including the steps of: providing formwork constructions kit in accordance with the fifth aspect; disposing at least two spacers intermediate at least two concrete containment panels so as to form a concrete receptacle; pouring concrete into said concrete receptacle; and fastening at least one cladding panel onto said at least two spacers, such that said cladding panel is external to at least one of said concrete containment panels.

Preferably the step of "pouring concrete into said concrete receptacle" includes the further steps of: fastening a brace according to the fourth aspect onto the at least two spacers; pouring concrete into the concrete receptacle; allowing the concrete to harden; and detaching the brace from the at least two spacers.

According to a seventh aspect of the invention there is provided a wall constructed in accordance with a method according to the sixth aspect.

According to another aspect of the invention there is provided a structure including walls according to the seventh aspect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a front view of a first preferred embodiment of a spacer according to the first aspect of the invention; Figure 2 is a side view of the first preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 3 is a perspective view of the first preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 4 is a plan view of the first preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 5 is a perspective view of a second preferred embodiment of a spacer according to the first aspect of the invention;

Figure 6 is a plan view of the second preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 7 is a front view of the second preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 8 is a side view of the second preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 9 is a front view of the second preferred embodiment of the spacer showing on the left hand side a lug fastening two cladding panels to the spacer and on the right hand side showing two cladding panels that have been adhered to the spacer;

Figure 10 is a perspective view of a third embodiment of a spacer according to the first aspect of the invention;

Figure 11 is a plan view of the third preferred embodiment of the spacer; Figure 12 is a front view of the third preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 13 is a side view of the third preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figure 14 is a front view of parts of four cladding panels fastened to the third preferred embodiment of the spacer;

Figures 15 and 16 show the first embodiment of the spacer in close proximity to removably attachable lugs;

Figures 17, 18 and 19 show another embodiment of removably attachable lugs;

Figures 20, 21 and 22 are further depictions of the removable lugs shown in figures 15 and 16; Figures 23, 24, 25 and 26 are depictions of the first embodiment of the spacer in engagement with the two embodiments of removable lugs shown in figures 17 to 19 and figures 20 to 23;

Figures 27 and 28 show cladding panels fastened to the first embodiment of the spacer using the two embodiments of removable lugs shown in figures 17 to 19 and figures 20 to 23

Figure 29 shows cladding panels fastened to the first embodiment of the spacer using the two embodiments of removable lugs;

Figure 30 is a perspective view of a cladding panel; Figure 31 depicts a plurality of cladding panels fastened to a plurality of spacers;

Figure 32 is a cross sectional view with the left hand end of a spacer engaged with a piece of plywood concrete containment panel and the right hand end of the spacer engaged with a polystyrene concrete containment panel and a cladding panel;

Figure 33 is a cross sectional view of a part of a spacer extending through a concrete containment panel for fastening engagement with a cladding panel;

Figure 34 is a perspective view of a formwork wall prior to pouring of concrete; Figures 35, 36, 37 and 38 are views of a straight concrete containment panel;

Figures 39, 40, 41, and 42 are views of a corner concrete containment panel;

Figures 43, 44, 45, and 46 are views of an end cap concrete containment panel;

Figure 47 is a perspective view of a straight cladding panel;

Figure 48 is a perspective view of a corner cladding panel; Figure 49 is a perspective cut away view of a concrete wall being constructed using preferred embodiments of the present invention;

Figures 50 and 51 show fastening engagement of a part of a brace with part of a spacer;

Figures 52, 53 and 54 show an embodiment of a brace; Figure 55 is a perspective view of a plurality of braces supporting a platform;

Figure 56 is a perspective view of some alternative embodiments of concrete containment panels;

Figure 57 is a perspective view of a straight concrete containment panel;

Figures 58 to 62 are views of a half-component of an alternative embodiment of the spacer according to the invention;

Figures 63 to 65 are views of the embodiment of the spacer formed by inter- engagement of two half -components; and

Figure 66 is a front view of a concrete containment panel adapted for use with the spacer embodiments illustrated in figures 63 to 65; and Figures 67 to 69 are views of the spacers of figures 63 to 65 when assembled with the concrete containment panels of figure 66.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, the spacer 1 defines a body 2 having two opposed sides 3 and 4. The body 2 defines a separation distance between the opposed sides 3 and 4 for use as a spacer intermediate at least two concrete containment panels 5 and 6. Various preferred embodiments have separation distances suitable for forming walls having concrete thicknesses of 50mm, 120mm or 150mm, for example. Each of the opposed sides 3 and 4 include fastening means 7 and 8 adapted for fastening of a cladding panel 16 disposed external to the concrete containment panels 5 and 6, as shown for example in figures 32 and 33.

The fastening means depicted for example in figures 1 to 9 are in the form of snap lockable connectors. As shown in figure 1, one embodiment of the snap lockable connector includes four projections 9, 10, 11 and 12 disposed on each side of the spacer 1. Each of the projections 9, 10, 11 and 12 are resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with a corresponding formation 13 provided upon the cladding panel 16. The four projections per side form two pairs of opposed projections: {9 and 10}; and { 11 and 12} disposed adjacent each other. As shown for example in figure 32, the corresponding formation 13 has a cross sectional profile defining a leading portion 14 having a width greater than a width between respective ends of a pair of projections {9 and 10} or { 11 and 12}. The cross sectional profile of the corresponding formation 13 also has a trailing portion 15 having a width less than the width of the leading portion 14. Hence, insertion of the leading portion 14 of the corresponding formation 13 between a pair of projections {9 and 10} causes the projections to bend so as to allow the leading portion 14 to pass through the gap between the pair of projections {9 and 10}. Once the leading portion 14 has passed through the gap, the projections 9 and 10 resiliently snap toward their resting positions so as to abut the trailing portion 15 and thereby snap lockingly fasten the cladding panel 16 to the spacer 1.

The first pair of projections {9 and 10} are fastenable with a first corresponding formation 13 disposed on a first cladding panel 16. Similarly, the second pair of projections { 11 and 12} are fastenable with a second corresponding formation 17 disposed on a second cladding panel 18. This allows each spacer 1 to fasten the edges of two adjacent cladding panels 16 and 18. Whilst four projections per side are utilized in the embodiment illustrated in figure 1, it will be appreciated that a greater or lesser number of projections may be utilized in other embodiments. For example, a single projection will suffice in some circumstances.

In other embodiments (not illustrated) the projections are disposed upon the cladding panels and the corresponding formations are disposed on the spacers. That is, the disposition of the male and female connectors is reversed from that shown in figure 32. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that such reversal is also possible for many of the other forms of fastening means disclosed in this specification.

In other embodiments (not illustrated) the fastener is an interference fit fastener.

As shown for example in figures 5 to 9, 15 to 29 and 31, some embodiments of the fastening means 7 include a lug 25 that is removably attachable to side 3 or 4 of the spacer 1.

In the embodiment illustrated in figures 5 to 9 the fastening means 7 includes a slot 19 disposed in the spacer 1. The slot 19 defines a detent 20. A corresponding elongate member 21 is disposed on lug 25. The lug 25 is removably attachable to the cladding panel 22, as shown in figure 9. The lug 25 includes cladding panel retaining formations in the form of oval shaped handle 24. The elongate member 21 includes a transversely extending formation 23 adapted for engagement with the detent 20. Insertion of the elongate member 21 into the slot 19 results in press fit fastening of the lug 25 to the spacer 1, as shown on the right hand side of figure 7. Two adjacent cladding panels 22 and 26 may be sandwiched between the spacer 1 and the handle 24 of the lug 25, as shown on the left hand side of figure 9, so as to fasten the cladding panels 22 and 26 to the spacer 1. Prior to fastening in this manner, adhesive may be applied to the edges of the panels 22 and 26 where they abut the spacer 1 or the concrete containment panel 5. Once the adhesive has set, and the cladding panel 22 is adhered to the spacer 1 and/or the concrete containment panel 5, the external portion of the lug 25 may be removed by either twisting the handle 24 until it snaps off the elongate member 21 or alternatively, by pulling on the handle 24 until the formation 23 disengages from the detent 20 and the elongate member 24 is withdrawn from the slot 19. A suitable finishing, such as grout, may then be applied to the gaps left between adjacent cladding panels 22 and 26.

In another embodiment, the lug 25 dispenses with the elongate member 21 and instead uses the corresponding formations 13 described above to connect to the spacer 1, as shown in figures 15 and 16. In one embodiment this lug includes an oval shaped handle 24 and in another embodiment the lug includes a connection component in the form of a T shaped member defining two tongues 29 and 30. The connection component is slidably matable with grooves 31 respectively disposed along two opposed edges of the cladding panel 33. Hence, the cladding panel 33 is fastenable to the side 3 or 4 of the spacer 1 at any one of a plurality of selectable connection points lying on the locus of points defined by the groove 31.

With reference to the embodiment shown in figures 10 to 14, the fastening means 7 fixedly disposed on each of the opposed sides 3 and 4 includes a T shaped member 28 defining a pair of opposed tongues 29 and 30. Each of the tongues 29 and 30 are separately engageable with corresponding grooves 31 and 32 provided upon two adjacent cladding panels 33 and 34, as best shown in figure 14.

In yet another embodiment, as shown on the right hand side of figure 29, adhesive is provided upon an external side 65 of the removable lug 25 and the adhesive is used to fasten the cladding panel 66 to the removable lug 25.

The concrete containment panel 5 includes openings 27 to allow the fastening means 7 to fasten the spacer 1 to the cladding panel 16 with the concrete containment panel 5 intermediate the spacer 1 and the cladding panel 16. In some embodiments, such as that shown in figure 57, the openings 27 are disposed at an edge of the concrete containment panel 5. In other embodiments, such as that shown in figure 66, the openings 73 are disposed remote the edge, for example in a central region of the concrete containment panel 72. The concrete containment panels 5 of some of the preferred embodiment are sized so as to correspond with, or be a multiple of, standard sizing for windows, doors and other typical construction apparatus. In some preferred embodiments, each of the concrete containment panels 5 have a height of 300mm. Advantageously, the polystyrene from which the concrete containment panels 5 are constructed provides good insulation properties for the finalized structure.

The spacer 1 includes a planar surface 35 disposed at each of the opposed sides 3 and 4 for engagement with concrete containment panel 5. More particularly, the concrete containment panel 5 includes a first slot 36 adapted to receive the planar surface 35. The body 2 of the spacer 1 also includes two webbing members 37 and 38 extending intermediate the opposed sides 3 and 4. The concrete containment panel 5 includes a second slot 39 which receives the edge of the webbing members 37 and 38 when the planar surface 35 slides into the first slot 36.

The body 2 also includes a plurality of positioning formations 40 adapted for positioning of an elongate member extending transverse to the spacer body, for example to position a plumbing pipe, conduit, electrical cable or concrete reinforcing bar. The positioning formations 40 are in the form of semicircular ridges upon which the elongate member may securely rest. This assists in the routing of utilities and reinforcing prior to pouring of the concrete 67.

The body 2 also includes two transverse projections 41 disposed such that, in use, an end of the projection 41 abuts, or is adjacent to, the concrete containment panel 5; thereby further contributing to the secure engagement of the spacer 1 with the concrete containment panel 5.

With reference to figures 57 to 46 the concrete containment panels 5 are adapted for disposition intermediate the spacer 1 and the cladding panels 16 and are typically formed from polystyrene or plywood. The concrete containment panels 5 each define at least four sides adapted for engagement with like sides of like concrete containment panels 5. Two of the sides have tongues 42 and the other two sides have corresponding grooves 43. This assists in the vertical stacking of concrete containment panels 5 when erecting the formwork structure. Other embodiments dispense with the tongue and groove arrangement and instead utilize alternative forms of interlocking formations, such as the interlocking teeth 62 disposed on the tops and bottoms of the concrete containment panels 5 shown in figure 56.

As shown for example in figure 57, the concrete containment panels 5 define an external surface 44 adapted for adhesion of the cladding panels 16. In the illustrated embodiment this takes the form of a plurality of parallel slots 45, however any other surface treatments that prompt adhesion may alternatively be used.

Straight sections of formwork are erected using the straight concrete containment panels 5 illustrated in figures 35 to 38 and 57. The concrete containment panels 5 shown in figures 39 to 42 are utilized on corners. To further strengthen the formwork the corner concrete containment panels 5 include diagonal openings 63 and slots 64 for engagement of a diagonally oriented spacer 1 adjacent the corner. The concrete containment panels 5 shown in figures 43 to 46 have U shaped cross sections and are used as formwork end caps.

An example of a straight cladding panel 16 is shown in figure 47 and a cladding panel 46 adapted for use at a corner is shown in figure 48. The corner cladding panel 46 has a first panel 47 and a second panel 48 disposed at a preselected angular relationship relative to each other. Typically the angular relationship is 90°; however other geometries may be required for somewhat atypical applications. On the corner cladding panels 46, the fastening formations, in the form of corresponding formations 13, are disposed on an interior side of the first panel 47. No such formations 13 are disposed on the second panel 48, which is substantially planar. This arrangement facilitates fastening of the corner cladding panel 46 onto spacers 1 from a single direction, without interference from formations projecting from the second panel 48.

Various external finishes are provided upon different embodiments of the cladding panels 16. For example, some cladding panels 16 have an external surface finish that mimics or is made from sandstone, tiles, weatherboard. Yet other embodiments of the cladding panels 16 are made from gyprock or other suitable cladding materials. Finishes that are typically suitable for use on either an internal or an external side of a structure are provided upon various embodiments of the cladding panels 16.

To counter bulging of the concrete containment panels 5 due to the weight of the concrete a brace 49 adapted for fastening engagement with the spacers 1 may be used, as shown in figures 50 to 55. The brace 49 includes an abutment member 50 for abutment with the concrete containment panels 5. A plurality of fastening means 51 are disposed on the abutment member 50 for fastening engagement with spacers 1. The fastening means 51 each define a leading portion 52 and a trailing portion 53. As shown for example in figure 50, the leading portion 52 has a width greater than a width of the trailing portion 53. A pair of opposed lips 54 and 55 are disposed on the leading portion 52. To fasten the abutment member 50 of the brace 49 to the spacers 1, the leading portion 52 of the fastening means 51 is inserted between a pair of projections {9 and 10} on the spacer. Once the lips 54 and 55 clear the projections 9 and 10, the projections resiliently snap toward their resting position and engage the trailing portion 53 so as to fasten the abutment member 50 to the spacer 1. This is repeated with other spacers 1 as required until the abutment member 50 provides the desired level of support to counter bulging of the concrete containment panels 5.

As best shown in figure 51, to assist alignment of the fastening mean 51 of the brace 49 with the fastening means 7 of the spacers 1, the fastening means 51 of the brace 49 are slidably and rotatably disposed on a bar 56 disposed upon the abutment member 50.

The brace 49 includes a strut 57 defining a proximal end 58 disposed on the abutment member 50 and a distal end 59 for fastening to a support surface, for example a floor. The strut 57 provides further resistance against bulging of the concrete containment panels 5 due to the weight of the concrete. The strut 57 is centrally and rotatably disposed on the abutment member 50. In the illustrated embodiment the strut 57 is telescopically extensible so as to provide a range of usable lengths. Once the length of the strut has been set, the telescopic joint is lockable so as to fix the strut 57 at the desired length. A platform support bracket 60 is attachable to the brace 49 so as to mount an access platform 61 across a plurality of like braces 49, as shown in figure 55. This provides a useful and stable platform 61 for personnel to use when during construction, for example when pouring the concrete.

An alternative preferred embodiment of the spacer 69 is depicted in figures 63 to 65. This embodiment consists of a first component 70 (which is depicted in figures 59 to 62) that is click lockingly interengagable with a like second component 71 (which is depicted in figure 58). A proximal side 75 of the component 70 defines one of the opposed sides 3 of the spacer 69. A like side 94 on the other component 71 defines the other of the opposed sides 4. As previously described, each of the sides 3 and 4 define fastening means 7. The distal end 76 of the component 70 defines an interengagement means in the form of two prongs 77 and 78 defining two respective teeth 88 and 89 that are adapted for click locking interengagement with a corresponding pair of projections 79 and 80 disposed on the other like component 71. Once interengaged, the two components 70 and 71 collectively form the spacer 69. The proximal and distal ends 75 and 76 are connected by webbing member 83. As best shown in figure 59, both the distal end 76 and the webbing member 83 are disposed on one lateral side of the component 70 when viewed in plan. The projections 86 and 87 are disposed on the other lateral side. This allows the two like components 70 and 71 to be placed in a side -by-side relationship as shown in plan view in figure 63 such that their respective webbing members are parallel to each other and their respective prongs interengage with the other component's projections. The width of the resulting spacer 69 is substantially equal to the width of the earlier described spacer 1.

The embodiment of the spacer 69 illustrated in figures 63 to 65 is adapted for use with an alternative embodiment of the concrete containment panel 72, as illustrated in figure 66. The opening 73 on this embodiment of the concrete containment panel 72 is not provided on or closely adjacent to one of the edges of the panel (as was the case for the earlier described concrete containment panel 5). Rather, the opening 73 on this embodiment is disposed remote of the edges of the concrete containment panel 72. The opening 73 includes slots 90 and 91 which are adapted to receive webbing members 92 and 93 , which are disposed on the proximal end 75 of the component 70. The distal ends of the components 70 and 71 are separately slidably receivable from either side of the opening 73, with the component 70 or 71 being inserted in a direction that is substantially perpendicular to the concrete containment panel 72. (In contrast, for the earlier described embodiment of the concrete containment panel 5, the spacers 1 are received into the openings 27 by sliding them in a direction that is substantially parallel to the concrete containment panel.) This arrangement is particularly suitable for concrete containment panels 72 that are taller than the typical 300mm height of the earlier embodiments of the concrete containment panels 5. In some embodiments, the concrete containment panels 72 extend for the full height of a wall, with a plurality of regularly spaced openings provided thereupon.

To assemble formwork using the embodiments of the spacers 69 shown in figures 63 to 65 first and second concrete containment panels 72 and 82 are positioned parallel to each other such that their respective openings 73 and 81 are in alignment. A first component 70 is inserted through the first opening 73 and a second component 71 is inserted in an opposite direction from the other side of the formwork through the second opening 81 such that their respective interengagement means connect and interengage. More particularly, the teeth 88 and 89 on the prongs 77 and 78 of component 70 snap lockingly engage the projections 79 and 80 of component 71. Simultaneously, the teeth on prongs 84 and 85 of component 71 snap lockingly engage the projections 86 and 87 of the first component 70. Hence, the two components interengage so as to form the spacer 69.

Embodiments of the invention are packaged as construction kits which include a plurality of spacers 1, a plurality of concrete containment panels 5, a plurality of cladding panels 16 and, optionally, at least one brace 49. Using such a kit, the method of formwork construction of a wall includes the following steps.

• If the wall is being erected on a concrete slab, the slab should be clean, with no extraneous materials to obstruct the construction process.

• Erection of the formwork commences with a pair of corner concrete containment panels 5, as shown in figures 39 to 42. Once spacers 1 have been slotted into the spaces 27 and slots 36 and 39, the external corner concrete containment panel 5 is typically placed flush with the corner of the slab.

• Erection of the formwork for the wall is then continued using the straight concrete containment panels 5 as shown in figures 35 to 38 and 57, or using the corner or end cap panels 5 as required. Spacers 1 are slotted into these concrete containment panels 5, which are then stacked onto other concrete containment panels 5 ensuring that the tongues 42 securely engage with the grooves 43 (or ensuring that the teeth 62 securely interengage if the concrete panels of figure 56 are being used). The end cap concrete containment panels 5 are utilized in positions in which windows, doors or the like are to be installed.

• If non-standard sized concrete containment panels 5 are required, a hotwire tool is used to cut tongues and grooves into the polystyrene panels 5, as required. • The concrete containment panel 5 stacking process continues so as to form a concrete receptacle, part of which is shown in figure 34 by way of example.

• Any pipes, conduits or utilities that may be embedded within the concrete are placed on the positioning formations 40.

• Any reinforcing that may be required, such as metal rods, starter bars, etc, is disposed within the concrete receptacle.

• If unacceptable bulging of the concrete containment panels 5 is anticipated, the abutment members 50 of the braces 49 are fastened onto some of the spacers 1 so as to abut and thereby support the concrete containment panels 5.

• Concrete 67 is poured into the concrete receptacle and allowed to cure. • The braces 49 are detached from the relevant spacers 1.

• Starting at the top corner of the wall, the corresponding formations 13 on a corner cladding panel 16, as shown in figure 48, is aligned with the fastening means 7 of the appropriate spacers 1 and press fit fastened into place.

• Working downwards, and alternating sides on which the first and second panels 47 and 48 are fastened, the corner cladding panels 16 are progressively press fit fastened onto the fastening means 7 of the spacers 1, such that they are external to the concrete containment panels 5. This process is continued with the straight cladding panels 16 as shown in figure 47 until the wall is fully clad. Some embodiments make use of adhesives, such as cornice cement and the like, to supplement the fastening of the cladding panels 16. However, other embodiments rely solely on the fastening provided by engagement of the corresponding formations 13 into the fastening means 7.

• Optionally, grout may be applied to any gaps between adjacent cladding panels 16.

It will be appreciated that the step of fastening the cladding panels 16 to the spacers 1 is relatively straight forward and may therefore be carried out by unskilled workers. This compares favorably with the majority of prior art cladding methods, which typically require specific expertise. Further, the uniform sizing of the concrete containment panels 5 results in uniformly distributed spacers 1, which is turn results in regularly distributed fastening means 7 for fastening of the cladding panels 16. This helps to ensure that the cladding panels are in correct alignment once fastened.

Whilst the invention has been described with reference to specific examples, those skilled in the art will appreciate that it may be embodied in many other forms.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. A spacer defining a body having two opposed sides, said body defining a separation distance between said opposed sides for use as a spacer intermediate at least two concrete containment panels, at least one of said sides including fastening means adapted for fastening of at least one cladding panel disposed external to at least one of said concrete containment panels.
2. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastening means is a snap lockable connector.
3. A spacer according to claim 2 wherein said snap lockable connector includes at least a first projection disposed on one of the spacer or the cladding panel, said projection being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with a corresponding formation provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel.
4. A spacer according to claim 3 further including a second projection opposed to the first projection, said second projection being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with a corresponding formation provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel.
5. A spacer according to claim 4 wherein said corresponding formation has a cross sectional profile defining a leading portion having a width greater than a width between respective ends of the first and second projections, said cross sectional profile further defining a trailing portion having a width less than said width of the leading portion.
6. A spacer according to claim 2 wherein said snap lockable connector includes a first pair of opposed projections disposed adjacent a second pair of opposed projections on one of the spacer or the cladding panel, each of said projections being resiliently biased for interlocking engagement with one or more corresponding formations provided upon the other of the spacer or the cladding panel.
7. A spacer according to claim 6 wherein said first and second pair of opposed projections are disposed on one of said opposed sides, said first and second pairs of projections being respectively fastenable with a first corresponding formation disposed on a first cladding panel and a second corresponding formation disposed on a second cladding panel.
8. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastener is an interference fit fastener.
9. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastener includes: a slot disposed in one of the spacer or the cladding panel, said slot defining at least one detent; and an elongate member disposed in the other of the spacer or the cladding panel, said elongate member including a formation adapted for engagement with said detent.
10. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said fastening means is adapted for press fit fastening of the cladding panel to the spacer.
11. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said fastening means is adapted for fastening of the spacer to the cladding panel through an opening provided within at least one of said concrete containment panels.
12. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastening means includes at least one tongue disposed on one of said spacer or cladding panel and at least one groove disposed on the other of said spacer or cladding panel.
13. A spacer according to claim 12 wherein a T shaped member defines a pair of opposed tongues, each of said tongues being separately engageable with corresponding grooves provided upon two adjacent cladding panels.
14. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastening means includes a lug removably attachable to said at least one opposed side, said lug including cladding panel retaining formations.
15. A spacer according to claim 14 wherein said lug is T shaped.
16. A spacer according to claim 14 or 15 wherein said lug includes a handle for removal of the lug upon adhesion of the cladding panel to the at least one opposed side and/or to the concrete containment panel.
17. A spacer according to claim 1 wherein said fastener includes a connection component fastenable to said at least one side, said connection component being slidably matable with said cladding panel.
18. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said cladding panel is fastenable to said at least one opposed side at any one of a plurality of selectable connection points lying on said cladding panel.
19. A spacer according to claim 18 wherein a groove is defined by said cladding panel and wherein said one of a plurality of selectable connection points is selected from a locus of points defined by said groove.
20. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims further including a planar surface disposed at said at least one side, said concrete containment panel being adapted for engagement with said planar surface.
21. A spacer according to claim 20 wherein said concrete containment panel includes a slot adapted to receive the planar surface .
22. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said body includes at least one webbing member extending intermediate said opposed sides.
23 A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said body includes at least one positioning formation adapted for positioning of an elongate member extending transverse to the spacer body.
24. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said body includes at least one transverse projection disposed such that, in use, an end of the projection abuts, or is adjacent to, the concrete containment panel.
25. A spacer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said spacer consists of at least two interengagable components.
26. A spacer according to claim 25 wherein said spacer consists of two interengagable components, each component respectively defining one of said opposed sides.
27. A spacer according to claim 26 wherein two of said components are click- lockingly interengagable so as to form said spacer.
28. A concrete containment panel adapted for disposition intermediate a spacer according to any one of claims 1 to 27 and a cladding panel, the concrete containment panel having at least one opening sized for fastening engagement of the spacer with the cladding panel through the at least one opening.
29. A concrete containment panel according to claim 28 including a first slot disposed adjacent said opening for receipt of at least part of an opposed end of the spacer and a second slot disposed adjacent said opening for receipt of at least part of the body of the spacer.
30. A concrete containment panel according to claim 28 or 29 wherein said concrete containment panel defines a plurality of sides adapted for engagement with like sides of like concrete containment panels, some of said sides defining tongues and others of said sides defining corresponding grooves.
31. A concrete containment panel according to any one of claims 28 to 30 wherein said concrete containment panel defines an external surface adapted for adhesion of a cladding panel.
32. A concrete containment panel according to claim 31 wherein said external surface includes a plurality of slots.
33. A concrete containment panel according to any one of claims 28 to 32 wherein said concrete containment panel has a U shaped cross section for use as an end cap.
34. A cladding panel adapted for fastening engagement with a spacer according to any one of claims 1 to 27.
35. A cladding panel according to claim 34 wherein said cladding panel includes first and second panels disposed at a preselected angular relationship relative to each other.
36. A cladding panel according to claim 35 wherein said preselected angular relationship is 90° and wherein said cladding panel is for use at a corner.
37. A cladding panel according to claim 35 or 36 wherein fastening formations are disposed on an interior side of the first panel and wherein an interior side of said second panel is substantially planar.
38. A brace adapted for fastening engagement with a spacer according to any one of claims 1 to 27.
39. A brace according to claim 38 including an abutment member for abutment with a concrete containment panel, at least two fastening means being disposed on said abutment member for fastening engagement with a respective pair of spacers.
40. A brace according to claim 39 wherein said at least two fastening means each define a leading portion and a trailing portion, said leading portion having a width greater than a width of said trailing portion.
41. A brace according to claim 40 wherein each of said fastening means includes a pair of opposed lips disposed at the leading portion.
42. A brace according to any one of claims 39 to 41 wherein said fastening means are slidably disposed on said abutment member.
43. A brace according to any one of claims 39 to 42 further including a strut defining a proximal end disposed on the abutment member and a distal end for fastening to a support surface.
44. A brace according to claim 43 wherein said strut is centrally disposed on the abutment member.
45. A brace according to claim 43 or 44 wherein said strut is rotatably disposed on the abutment member.
46. A formwork construction kit including: a plurality of spacers in accordance with any one of claims 1 to 27; a plurality of concrete containment panels in accordance with any one of claims 28 to 33; and a plurality of cladding panels in accordance with any one of claims 34 to 37.
47. A formwork construction kit according to claim 46 further including at least one brace in accordance with any one of claims 38 to 45.
48. A method of formwork construction including the steps of: providing formwork constructions kit in accordance with claim 46; disposing at least two spacers intermediate at least two concrete containment panels so as to form a concrete receptacle; pouring concrete into said concrete receptacle; and fastening at least one cladding panel onto said at least two spacers, such that said cladding panel is external to at least one of said concrete containment panels.
49. A method according to claim 48 wherein the step of "pouring concrete into said concrete receptacle" includes the further steps of: fastening a brace according to claim 38 onto said at least two spacers; pouring concrete into said concrete receptacle; allowing the concrete to harden; and detaching said brace from said at least two spacers.
50. A wall constructed in accordance with a method according to claim 48 or 49.
51. A structure including walls according to claim 50.
PCT/AU2006/001860 2006-01-12 2006-12-08 A spacer and associated apparatus and method WO2007079519A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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AU2006900125A AU2006900125A0 (en) 2006-01-12 Connecting, spacer and fastening device for concrete form
AU2006900125 2006-01-12

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

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CA002636504A CA2636504A1 (en) 2006-01-12 2006-12-08 A spacer and associated apparatus and method
EP06817595A EP1974106A1 (en) 2006-01-12 2006-12-08 A spacer and associated apparatus and method
AU2006332050A AU2006332050B8 (en) 2006-01-12 2006-12-08 A spacer and associated apparatus and method
US12/087,750 US20100251651A1 (en) 2006-01-12 2006-12-08 Spacer and Associated Apparatus and Method

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AU2011245065B2 (en) * 2010-04-30 2013-09-19 Ambe Engineering Pty Ltd System for forming an insulated concrete thermal mass wall
KR101454276B1 (en) * 2012-01-17 2014-10-23 정문형 method for constructing soil structure
RU2510635C2 (en) * 2012-08-03 2014-04-10 Абубакар Алазович Арсамаков Non-detachable construction curb
US8919070B2 (en) 2012-08-30 2014-12-30 Technoform Holding GmbH Spacer for retaining cladding element on structural building element
WO2016040992A1 (en) * 2014-09-18 2016-03-24 Asm Holdings Australia Ltd A stud
RU2583385C1 (en) * 2014-12-04 2016-05-10 федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Российский университет дружбы народов" (РУДН) Retained formwork unit
AU2016240397B2 (en) * 2015-03-27 2020-05-21 Ambe Engineering Pty Ltd System for forming an insulated structural concrete wall
US10753109B2 (en) * 2018-08-22 2020-08-25 Victor Amend Concrete form tie, and concrete formwork comprising same
RU197158U1 (en) * 2020-01-16 2020-04-06 Елена Владимировна Полякова Docking element of a construction scrap for strengthening the scrap and forming openings in the removable formwork

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US6612083B1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2003-09-02 William J. Richards System of building construction

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AU2006332050B2 (en) 2007-08-23
AU2006332050A8 (en) 2008-12-11
AU2006332050A1 (en) 2007-08-23
US20100251651A1 (en) 2010-10-07
EP1974106A1 (en) 2008-10-01
CA2636504A1 (en) 2007-07-19
AU2006332050B8 (en) 2008-12-11

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