WO2000013207A2 - Method for forming a metal film - Google Patents

Method for forming a metal film Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000013207A2
WO2000013207A2 PCT/KR1999/000500 KR9900500W WO0013207A2 WO 2000013207 A2 WO2000013207 A2 WO 2000013207A2 KR 9900500 W KR9900500 W KR 9900500W WO 0013207 A2 WO0013207 A2 WO 0013207A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
method
metal film
metal layer
source
catalyst metal
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/KR1999/000500
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2000013207A3 (en
Inventor
Won-Yong Koh
Sang-Won Kang
Original Assignee
Genitech Co., Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to KR1019980035911A priority Critical patent/KR100332364B1/en
Priority to KR1998/35911 priority
Application filed by Genitech Co., Ltd. filed Critical Genitech Co., Ltd.
Publication of WO2000013207A2 publication Critical patent/WO2000013207A2/en
Publication of WO2000013207A3 publication Critical patent/WO2000013207A3/en

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/455Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating characterised by the method used for introducing gases into reaction chamber or for modifying gas flows in reaction chamber
    • C23C16/45523Pulsed gas flow or change of composition over time
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/06Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the deposition of metallic material
    • C23C16/18Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the deposition of metallic material from metallo-organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/28Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/268
    • H01L21/283Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrodes conducting electric current
    • H01L21/285Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrodes conducting electric current from a gas or vapour, e.g. condensation
    • H01L21/28506Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrodes conducting electric current from a gas or vapour, e.g. condensation of conductive layers
    • H01L21/28512Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrodes conducting electric current from a gas or vapour, e.g. condensation of conductive layers on semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System
    • H01L21/28556Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrodes conducting electric current from a gas or vapour, e.g. condensation of conductive layers on semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System by chemical means, e.g. CVD, LPCVD, PECVD, laser CVD
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L28/00Passive two-terminal components without a potential-jump or surface barrier for integrated circuits; Details thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L28/40Capacitors
    • H01L28/60Electrodes

Abstract

A method for forming a metal film for use in semiconductor devices on a substrate. A catalyst metal layer for facilitating formation of a metal film is formed first on a substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Then, at least one source of the metal film is prepared as a gas phase. The metal film is formed on the catalyst metal layer by applying the gas phase source to the catalyst metal layer. According to the present invention, a metal film of uniform thickness can be formed on an uneven substrate surface or on a hole with a high aspect ratio.

Description

METHOD FOR FORMING A METAL FILM

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a method for forming a film, and more particularly, to a method for forming a metal film for use in semiconductor devices on a substrate.

BACKGROUND ART

In the manufacture of semiconductor devices, metal films are used for circuit interconnections. One of the materials widely used in forming such a metal film is aluminum, and tungsten is used for specific applications. However, it is expected that copper, the second most conducting metal, will be increasingly used henceforth instead of aluminum.

Circuit interconnection formation is divided into two categories: formation of contacts and formation of interconnection. As the sizes of integrated circuit structures have continued to become smaller and smaller, problems have arisen with the conventional circuit interconnection formation, particularly in the formation of narrow lines or metal contacts. One of the problems is that the formation of a metal film of uniform thickness over an uneven surface becomes more difficult with the tight design rule. Another problem is that metal films deposited by a conventional method can not completely fill a contact or via hole having a high aspect ratio without voids.

However, if the deposition rate of a film is controlled only by the rate of surface chemical reaction independent of the mass transport rate at which the deposition sources travel to the surface of the substrate, a contact or via hole having a high aspect ratio can completely be filled with a perfect step coverage.

It is well known in the field of chemistry that higher chemical reaction rate at the same temperature or the same reaction rate at lower temperature can be accomplished with the use of a catalyst. However, up to now examples of catalyst applications in forming metal films of semiconductor devices have been limited to few cases. For example, S. J. Potochnik et al., in an article entitled "Selective Copper Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Using Pd-activated Organosilane Films", published on pl841 of Langmuir, Vol. 11, No. 6, in 1994, reported that a copper metal film could selectively be chemical-vapor-deposited only on portions of a diamond substrate where a palladium ion catalyst is introduced. In the process, (l,l,l,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) copper(I)-trimethylvinylsilane was used as a deposition source and the deposition temperature was in the range of 171-183°C. The process comprises the steps of: oxidizing the surface of a diamond substrate; dipping the substrate into an aminosilane solution to fix amino groups on the surface of the substrate; irradiating the substrate through a mask with ultraviolet (UV) light to selectively remove the fixed amino groups from the substrate, resulting in a fixed amino group pattern; fixing palladium catalyst on the pattern; and chemical vapor depositing a copper film only on the pattern. They also reported the process was applied to a substrate such as silicon or quartz instead of the diamond substrate. However, their process requires solution treatments to introduce the patterned palladium catalyst onto the substrate, causing difficulties when incorporated with other vacuum process.

O. Gottsleben et al., in an article entitled "Two-step Generation of Aluminum Microstructures on Laser-generated Pd Pre-nucleation Patterns Using Thermal CVD from (Trimethylamine)trihydridoaluminum", published on p201 of Advanced Materials, Vol. 3, No. 4, in 1991, reported that aluminum microstructures were selectively formed only on a palladium catalyst metal pattern using chemical vapor deposition using (trimethylamine)trihydridoaluminum as a CVD source. In this process, the palladium catalyst metal pattern was generated by an UV excimer laser.

O. Lehmann et al. applied liquid triethylamine alane to a KrF-laser patterned palladium catalyst layer formed on an alumina substrate, forming an aluminum film selectively on the patterned palladium catalyst layer. (Reference : O. Lehmann and M. Stuke, "Liquid Precursor Two-step Aluminum Thin-film Deposition on KrF-laser patterned palladium", Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 61, No. 17, p 2027, 1992.)

As described above, O. Gottsleben et al. formed a palladium metal layer by decomposing precursors using a laser, and O. Lehmann et al. also used laser photo- CVD in their method. However, according to the above methods, formation of a uniform catalyst layer on an uneven surface is impossible because the inner side surface of a hole or a groove can not be evenly irradiated. V. Bhaskaran et al., in an article entitled "Palladium Thin Films Grown by CVD from (l,l,l,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)Palladium(II)", published on p85 of Chemical Vapor Deposition, Vol. 3, No. 2, in 1997, reported that a pure palladium layer was obtained by applying both (l,l,l,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4- pentanedionato)Palladium(II) and hydrogen gas to a silicon single crystal substrate heated at a temperature between 80-200°C. The purity of palladium layer was such that carbon, fluorine, or oxygen was not detected when investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. In the process, nitrogen gas was used as a carrier gas of a sublimated palladium source compound instead of hydrogen gas to avoid the violent reaction between hydrogen gas and palladium source compound. However, in this case, they reported that the inside of gas conduit, where the palladium source compound carried nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas meet, should be frequently cleaned because palladium layers are deposited thereon. In general, superior step coverage is not expected to occur under violent chemical vapor reaction conditions. The article is accompanied by a photograph showing the cross section of a palladium layer which is deposited on grooves of a width of 0.5 μm and a depth of 2.0μm. Referring to the photograph, it is found that the palladium layers deposited on the top of grooves are more than five times thicker than those deposited on the underside.

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method for forming a metal film of uniform thickness despite unevenness of a substrate surface.

In order to accomplish the aforementioned object, the present invention provides a method for forming a metal film, comprising the steps of: (a) forming a catalyst metal layer on a substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition to facilitate formation of the metal film; (b) preparing at least one source of the metal film as a gas phase; and (c) applying the gas phase source to the catalyst metal layer to form a metal film thereon.

In the embodiments of the present invention, palladium or platinum may be used as the catalyst metal for facilitating formation of a metal film comprising aluminum or copper. The formation of catalyst metal layers can be repeated to increase the deposition rate of the metal film. If more than two source gases are required to form the catalyst metal layer, it is desirable to supply the source gases sequentially on the substrate, not to supply the source gases simultaneously thereon, to obtain a catalyst metal layer with a superior step coverage. Additionally, during or after the deposition of the metal film, it is also desirable to diffuse the catalyst metal into the metal film to form an alloy film.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A to ID show the steps of forming a metal film in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

In the practice of the invention, a silicon substrate 10 to form a metal film thereon is prepared first. Then, as shown in FIG. 1A, a palladium thin layer 20 is formed on the silicon substrate by supplying both (l,l,l,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4- pentanedionato)Palladium(II) and hydrogen gas sequentially on the silicon substrate. In other embodiment, platinum may be employed instead of the palladium.

In particular, a Pd-Al alloy or a Pd-Cu alloy provides the following advantages. If pure aluminum is employed to form interconnection of semiconductor devices, low current density should be maintained to avoid an electromigration- induced open circuit. Accordingly, in a conventional method, an Al-Cu alloy, in which aluminum contains a small amount of copper, is used as an interconnection material to decrease electromigration. The Pd-Al alloy can decrease electromigration thus increase the durability of the metal interconnection, to a degree equal or superior to the Al-Cu alloy. A Pd-Al alloy displays other desirable properites. K. P. Rodbell et al. reported that it is resistant to metal corrosion during a reactive ion etching process in "The Microstructure, Mechanical Stress, Texture and Electromigration Behavior of Al-Pd alloys", Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 22, No. 6, p 597, 1993. Additionally, P. Atanasova et al. reported that a Cu-0.5% Pd alloy effectively prevented the oxidation of copper without causing any effects on electrical conductivity. (Reference : P. Atanasova, V. Bhaskaran, T. Kodas and M. Hampden- Smith, an article entitled "Oxidation Resistance of Copper Alloy Thin Films Formed by CVD" published in a book "Advanced Metallization for Future ULSI", Materials Research Society, 1996 of K. N. Tu, J. W. Mayer, J. M. Poate and L. J. Chen.) Therefore, if palladium catalyst is diffused into an interconnection metal film to form an alloy during or after the deposition of the metal film, additional process is not needed to prevent electromigration or oxidation of the interconnection metal film. In the embodiment of the present invention, the palladium layer 20 is formed as thin as possible with a uniform thickness to provide higher current density, because the sheet resistance of catalyst metal is generally higher than that of aluminum or copper for use in the interconnection. For this purpose, a uniform thickness palladium layer is formed by atomic layer deposition in which source compound gases are sequentially supplied on the silicon substrate maintained at a temperature lower than the thermal decomposition temperatures of source compound gases. In this process, only surface reaction is utilized while chemical vapor reaction between source gases is prevented. In general, the deposition rate of atomic layer deposition is significantly low compared with that of conventional deposition where source gases are simultaneously supplied. However, in this embodiment, such a low deposition rate is advantageous because a thin palladium catalyst layer is required. In view of the report of S. J. Potochnik et al. that palladium ion catalyst of less than one atomic layer induces effective chemical deposition of copper, a palladium thin layer of several atomic layers is expected to provide sufficient catalytic effects. The sources required to form an aluminum film are prepared as gases. After formation of a palladium catalyst layer, the source gases are applied to the palladium catalyst layer to form an aluminum film 20 thereon, as shown in FIG. IB. In the course of chemically depositing the aluminum film, the palladium catalyst is diffused into the aluminum film by applied heat, forming an Al-Pd alloy. If the Al-Pd alloy is used as an interconnection metal material, no additional process is needed to prevent electromigration or oxidation of the interconnection metal film and turn-around-time can be considerably reduced. The Al-Pd alloy can be formed in a different way when the heat applied during the chemical deposition of aluminum film is insufficient for the diffusion of the palladium catalyst. In this case, additional heat treatment is conducted after the formation of aluminum film. And then, formation of an additional palladium catalyst layer 22 and an additional aluminum film 32 is sequentially repeated as shown in FIG. 1C and ID. As such, the multiple palladium catalyst layers are used upon consideration of the study of O. Lehmann and M. Stuke. They reported that the thickness of aluminum film formed on the palladium layer did not increase and came to saturation with increasing contact time between a liquid aluminum source and the palladium layer. It is supposed that this results from the reduction in catalytic effect of the palladium catalyst underlying the metal film. In an effort to overcome the above problem, multiple palladium catalyst layers are used to the overall deposition rate of the metal film.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS :
1. A method for forming a metal film comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a catalyst metal layer on a substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition to facilitate formation of said metal film;
(b) preparing at least one source of said metal film as a gas phase; and
(c) applying said gas phase source to said catalyst metal layer to form a metal film thereon.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said catalyst metal layer comprises palladium or platinum.
3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said metal film comprises aluminum or copper.
4. The method of claim 1, after the step (c), further comprising the steps of:
(d) forming another catalyst metal layer on said metal film;
(e) preparing at least one source of said metal film as a gas phase; and
(f) applying said gas phase source to said another catalyst metal layer to form another metal film thereon.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the steps (d) to (f) are repeated at least one number of times.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the deposition source of said catalyst metal layer comprises at least two source gases, said source gases being alternately applied to said substrate to reach a desired thickness during the step (a).
7. The method of claim 2, wherein the deposition source of said catalyst metal layer comprises at least two source gases, said source gases being alternately applied to said substrate to reach a desired thickness during the step (a).
8. The method of claim 3, wherein the deposition source of said catalyst metal layer comprises at least two source gases, said source gases being alternately applied to said substrate to reach a desired thickness during the step (a).
9. The method of claim 4, wherein the deposition source of said catalyst metal layer comprises at least two source gases, said source gases being alternately applied to the underlying structure to reach a desired thickness during the step (d).
10. The method of claim 5, wherein the deposition source of said catalyst metal layer comprises at least two source gases, said source gases being alternately applied to the underlying structure to reach a desired thickness during the step (d).
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the step (c) includes diffusing said catalyst metal layer into said metal film to form an alloy film.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein said catalyst metal layer comprises palladium.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein said metal film comprises aluminum or copper.
14. The method of claim 1, after the step (c), further comprising the step of diffusing said catalyst metal layer into said metal film to form an alloy film.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein said catalyst metal layer comprises palladium.
16. The method of claim 14, wherein said metal film comprises aluminum or copper.
PCT/KR1999/000500 1998-09-01 1999-09-01 Method for forming a metal film WO2000013207A2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
KR1019980035911A KR100332364B1 (en) 1998-09-01 method of forming metal film
KR1998/35911 1998-09-01

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WO2000013207A2 true WO2000013207A2 (en) 2000-03-09
WO2000013207A3 WO2000013207A3 (en) 2000-06-02

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001045149A1 (en) * 1999-12-15 2001-06-21 Genitech Co., Ltd. Method of forming copper interconnections and thin films using chemical vapor deposition with catalyst
WO2001078123A1 (en) * 2000-04-11 2001-10-18 Genitech Co., Ltd. Method of forming metal interconnects
US6727169B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2004-04-27 Asm International, N.V. Method of making conformal lining layers for damascene metallization
US7438760B2 (en) 2005-02-04 2008-10-21 Asm America, Inc. Methods of making substitutionally carbon-doped crystalline Si-containing materials by chemical vapor deposition
US7608549B2 (en) 2005-03-15 2009-10-27 Asm America, Inc. Method of forming non-conformal layers

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7186630B2 (en) 2002-08-14 2007-03-06 Asm America, Inc. Deposition of amorphous silicon-containing films
US8278176B2 (en) 2006-06-07 2012-10-02 Asm America, Inc. Selective epitaxial formation of semiconductor films

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0448223A2 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-09-25 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Process for forming metal deposited film containing aluminium as main component by use of alkyl aluminum hydride
US5150013A (en) * 1991-05-06 1992-09-22 Motorola, Inc. Power converter employing a multivibrator-inverter

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0448223A2 (en) * 1990-02-19 1991-09-25 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Process for forming metal deposited film containing aluminium as main component by use of alkyl aluminum hydride
US5150013A (en) * 1991-05-06 1992-09-22 Motorola, Inc. Power converter employing a multivibrator-inverter

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6727169B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2004-04-27 Asm International, N.V. Method of making conformal lining layers for damascene metallization
US7102235B2 (en) 1999-10-15 2006-09-05 Asm International N.V. Conformal lining layers for damascene metallization
WO2001045149A1 (en) * 1999-12-15 2001-06-21 Genitech Co., Ltd. Method of forming copper interconnections and thin films using chemical vapor deposition with catalyst
US6720262B2 (en) 1999-12-15 2004-04-13 Genitech, Inc. Method of forming copper interconnections and thin films using chemical vapor deposition with catalyst
WO2001078123A1 (en) * 2000-04-11 2001-10-18 Genitech Co., Ltd. Method of forming metal interconnects
US7438760B2 (en) 2005-02-04 2008-10-21 Asm America, Inc. Methods of making substitutionally carbon-doped crystalline Si-containing materials by chemical vapor deposition
US9190515B2 (en) 2005-02-04 2015-11-17 Asm America, Inc. Structure comprises an As-deposited doped single crystalline Si-containing film
US7608549B2 (en) 2005-03-15 2009-10-27 Asm America, Inc. Method of forming non-conformal layers

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2000013207A3 (en) 2000-06-02
KR20000018353A (en) 2000-04-06

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