WO1999010682A1 - Installation and method for thermal removal of waste - Google Patents

Installation and method for thermal removal of waste Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1999010682A1
WO1999010682A1 PCT/DE1998/002362 DE9802362W WO9910682A1 WO 1999010682 A1 WO1999010682 A1 WO 1999010682A1 DE 9802362 W DE9802362 W DE 9802362W WO 9910682 A1 WO9910682 A1 WO 9910682A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
waste
heating
steam
drying
drum
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DE1998/002362
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Jan BRÜCKNER
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19737402 priority Critical
Priority to DE19737402.6 priority
Application filed by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft filed Critical Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Publication of WO1999010682A1 publication Critical patent/WO1999010682A1/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/006General arrangement of incineration plant, e.g. flow sheets
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • F23G5/0273Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage using indirect heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/20Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having rotating or oscillating drums
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/10Drying by heat
    • F23G2201/101Drying by heat using indirect heat transfer
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/303Burning pyrogases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/304Burning pyrosolids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/10Waste heat recuperation reintroducing the heat in the same process, e.g. for predrying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/20Waste heat recuperation using the heat in association with another installation
    • F23G2206/203Waste heat recuperation using the heat in association with another installation with a power/heat generating installation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/10Intercepting solids by filters
    • F23J2217/102Intercepting solids by filters electrostatic
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/12Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste

Abstract

The invention relates to an installation, especially a low-temperature carbonization and combustion plant, and to a method for thermal removal of waste. The installation comprises a heating chamber (10) for thermal waste (A) processing. A drying drum (10) is arranged upstream from the heating chamber (10) in order to dry the waste. Said drum is preferably rotatable and is heated via inner heating tubes (54). Steam (D) or hot gas (H) is provided as a heating medium. Preferably, steam (D) is provided by a steam generator which is preferably arranged in a flue-gas purification unit between a waste heat boiler (28) and an electrostatic filter (33). The yield of energy stored in the waste (A) is improved by drying or pre-drying the waste (A) before actual pyrolysis occurs in the heating chamber.

Description

description

Thermal waste disposal plant and method

The invention relates to a plant and a method for thermal waste disposal.

Various plant concepts for the thermal treatment of waste are known in the field of waste disposal. Essentially, these are on the one hand the conventional waste incineration plants, in which the waste is burned directly without pretreatment, and on the other hand plants in which the delivered waste or waste is first pyrolyzed, i.e. is subjected to a heat treatment at temperatures between about 300 ° C and 600 ° C. Pyrolysis produces a pyrolysis or smoldering gas, which can be burned, for example, in a combustion chamber, the resulting flue gas being used to generate electrical energy.

A smoldering plant is known from EP-A-0 302 310 or from the company publication "The smoldering plant, a description of the process", published by Siemens AG, 1996. The smoldering plant essentially uses a two-stage smoldering process was carried out. In the first

The delivered waste is placed in a smoldering or heating chamber (pyrolysis reactor) and carbonized (pyrolyzed), ie subjected to heat treatment at temperatures between 300 ° C and 600 ° C in a low-oxygen atmosphere. This heat treatment produces carbonization gas and pyrolysis residue in the carbonization chamber. The pyrolysis residue consists of a combustible and a non-combustible part. The valuable materials of the non-combustible part are sorted out and sent for further treatment. In the second stage of the smoldering process, the combustible pyrolysis residue is mixed with the smoldering gas in a high-temperature combustion chamber at temperatures of approx. 1200 ° C burned. The resulting hot exhaust gases are first used in a waste heat boiler to generate steam and then cleaned.

The known smoldering chamber is a smoldering or heating drum rotatably mounted about its longitudinal axis, the longitudinal axis of which is inclined with respect to the horizontal. The smoldering drum is equipped with internal heating pipes for heating the waste. The heating medium, e.g. cleaned flue gas from the combustion chamber, is led through the smoldering drum in the counterflow principle, i.e. the heating medium is directed through the heating pipes in the smoldering drum against the direction of transport of the waste. When entering the smoldering drum, the heating medium typically has a temperature of approximately 520 ° C. and at the outlet a temperature of approximately 300 ° C.

The efficiency of a plant for thermal waste disposal depends crucially on the properties of the delivered waste. The efficiency of a system is understood to mean the proportion of the energy stored in the waste that is converted into usable energy. A key property of the waste for efficiency is the moisture content of the waste. With a high moisture content, the heating value of the waste is low. In such a case, the incineration of the waste is made more difficult in a waste incineration plant. In the case of a plant for pyrolysis of waste, a considerably higher amount of energy is required since the moisture in the waste must first be evaporated in the smoldering drum before the smoldering process can begin.

The object of the invention is to provide a system and a method for thermal waste disposal with a high efficiency even for waste with a high moisture content. cυ cυ IV) rv> P cπ o Cπ o Cπ o Cπ

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lent mixing device, such as an agitator, necessary, so that a high level of operational safety is guaranteed.

The drying drum advantageously has internal heating tubes through which a heating medium (such as heated air or water vapor) is passed to dry the waste. With the arrangement of internal heating pipes, an effective heat transfer between the heating medium and the waste is achieved without the heating medium coming into direct contact with the waste. The heating chamber is preferably designed as a heating drum, which is advantageously also provided with internal heating tubes.

In a further advantageous embodiment, the drying drum and the heating drum are one structural unit, as a result of which a compact design of the overall system is achieved. The two drums can connect directly to one another and can be rotated, for example, about a common longitudinal axis. Alternatively, in a further preferred embodiment, a conveyor device for waste can also be arranged between the drying drum and the heating drum, with which the waste is introduced into the heating drum in a metered manner. In this case, the drying drum and heating drum form a structural unit together with the conveyor.

A heating gas and / or steam is preferably provided as the heating medium for drying the waste. The steam is advantageously provided by a waste heat boiler already present in the system, which leads to relatively low costs for the construction of the system.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the system has a combustion chamber for the combustion of a carbonization gas formed in the heating chamber and a device downstream of the combustion chamber for cleaning the flue gas. A steam generator is used to generate the steam, in particular saturated steam provided that is in connection with a flue gas pipe or a flue gas duct. Such an arrangement of a steam generator enables the heat stored in the flue gas to be used to dry the waste. The steam generator is preferably arranged in the flue gas duct between the waste heat boiler and an electrostatic filter. The advantage of arranging a separate steam generator after the waste heat boiler can be seen in the fact that the heat of the flue gas, which here has a temperature of about 180 ° C., is used further.

In a preferred embodiment, the system has a steam / heating gas heat exchanger, by means of which the heating gas is heated to the temperature required for drying by means of the steam.

The drying drum is preferably connected to a condensate container for collecting the steam condensed out as a result of the heat being given off to the waste. The condensate container is connected to a feed water container via a condensate line and the feed water container is in turn connected to the steam generator via a feed water line. The feed water from the feed water tank then serves as a water source for the generation of steam in the steam generator.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the heating chamber is designed as a pyrolysis drum for pyrolysis of the waste, the waste being converted into carbonization gas and pyrolysis residue in the pyrolysis drum. A separation device for the pyrolysis residue is connected to the pyrolysis drum. The system also has a combustion chamber to which the carbonization gas can be fed for combustion and which is followed by a device for flue gas cleaning. Such a plant is referred to as a smoldering and burning plant.

According to the invention, the object directed to a method is achieved by a method for thermal waste disposal, where the waste is dried in a drying drum before being thermally treated in a heating chamber.

Advantageously, in the method in a combustion chamber, a gas generated in the heating chamber, in particular

Smoldering gas, burned, and part of the heat of the flue gas generated during combustion is used for drying.

Steam is preferably generated for drying from the heat of the flue gas in a steam generator. In particular, it is advantageous to use the heat of condensation of the steam, in particular of saturated steam generated in the steam generator. The heat of condensation released during the condensation of the steam is used as an additional heat source when drying the waste. Saturated steam is a steam that is 100% saturated, i.e. the steam can no longer absorb more moisture at given thermal parameters. The result of this is that the saturated steam can release energy without lowering the temperature by condensing out part of the saturated steam and utilizing the heat of condensation.

In order to increase the efficiency of the system and to optimally utilize the steam generated in the steam generator, excess steam from the steam generator is advantageously fed to a turbine.

The invention is explained in more detail below on the basis of exemplary embodiments which are illustrated in the drawing. Show it:

1 shows a section of a smoldering and burning plant in a schematic illustration, 2 shows a schematic view of a heating drum and a drying drum, which are designed as a unit,

3 shows a schematic view of a heating drum and a drying drum with an intermediate conveyor and

4 shows a schematic section of a plant for thermal waste disposal with a steam / heating gas heat exchanger.

Corresponding elements are provided with the same reference symbols in the figures.

According to FIG. 1, waste A is fed to a drying drum 6 via a filling device 2 with a screw conveyor 4. After the drying drum 6, the waste A arrives via a first discharge device 7 into a conveyor device 8 which is provided with a screw conveyor 9. By means of the conveying device 8, the waste A reaches a heating chamber 10. For easier transport of the waste A within the device 6 for drying and the heating chamber 10, these can be inclined towards the horizontal. The waste A is pyrolyzed in the heating chamber 10, i.e. with the exclusion of oxygen one

Subjected to heat treatment at about 450 ° C. The pyrolysis of waste A produces a pyrolysis residue R and a gas S, which is referred to as carbonization gas.

After the heating chamber 10, the pyrolysis residue R and the carbonization gas S pass into a further discharge device 12. The pyrolysis residue R is fed to a separation device 14 from the discharge device 12. In the separating device 14, the pyrolysis residue R is separated into several fractions, for example into metals, non-metals, glass, stones and carbon-containing components, so that the pyrolysis residue R cυ cυ tv>P> P »cn o Cn o Cπ o Cπ rt ΪK α o rt uq t N CΛ Hl uq Φ CΛ Pi Pl φ xd: cn Hl uq σ rjd 3 er Ή rt cn cn> ö Hl 3 do O tu Φ P φ P 1 d rt = t rt Φ d: d P Φ er n P- d Φ P φ Φ φ d rt tu: d tu d: P- ddd 3 P P- P cn P t tr cn ZP 1 tr P ω cn Φ tr dd P Φ P P- P d O rt CΛ CΛ d J d uq tx TJ cn d P tu CΛ P er rt P P- α uq d tu uq Hl N rt P α t Φ Pi ö n cυ uq er rt CD rt P- Φ to φ P- rjd d P "P] rt Hi" P CΛ rt Φ cυ φ d tu tr IV ) φ tu d • j ^ rv> d P tu ω D. P- d PV 00 Φ d P 1 tr P- tu n cn

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<rt Ό P- N d φ P- d fX tu rt P N Hi Z tu Pi Φ d V Φ er

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Φ P Φ Φ Φ Φ 1 d P- P Φ D- Φ Φ d co -> CD D P- N 1 dd tr dd P- d P d 1 d Φ P σ P- rt 1 * * Φ φ d tx d 1 P 1 1 PP

When the waste A dries, the moisture content of the waste A decreases. The moisture is drawn off as the water vapor V from the first discharge device 7. The steam D condenses at least partially as a result of the heat emission and leaves the drying drum 6 as condensate K. The condensate K is fed to the condensate container 38 via the condensate line 37. When the waste A leaves the device 6 for drying and reaches the heating chamber 10 via the conveyor 8, it is largely dry.

If more steam D is generated in the steam generator 32 than is necessary for drying the waste A, part of the steam D can be fed directly from the steam generator 32 to the turbine 34 via a further steam line 45. The turbine 34 is additionally supplied with steam D from the waste heat boiler 28 via a steam line 47.

The heating chamber 10 is preferably inclined relative to the horizontal for easier transportation of the waste A. The heating chamber 10, like the device 6, is heated for countercurrent drying. For this purpose, a heating gas H enters the end of the heating chamber 10 oriented towards the discharge device 12. The heating gas H leaves it at the opposite end, which is oriented toward the conveying device 8. The heating gas H typically has a temperature of 520 ° C. on entry and a temperature of 300 ° C. typically on exit. The heating chamber 10 can be designed as an internally-tubular heating drum.

According to Figure 2, the heating chamber 10 is designed as a heating drum 10A. The drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A together form a unit. They can be rotated about a common longitudinal or rotational axis 50. The rotation of the drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A brings about a homogeneous and uniform heat input into the waste A. The drum-like design is particularly robust and enables largely trouble-free operation. In particular, through this Design achieved that even very inhomogeneous waste A is effectively mixed in a simple manner for a homogeneous heat input. The drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A are each sealed off from the environment. Mechanical seals 52 are preferably used for this.

The drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A are indirectly via internal, i.e. Heating tubes 54 and 56 arranged in the interior of the drums are heated. The drying drum 6 is heated with steam D and the heating drum 10A with heating gas H. The heating gas H enters the heating drum 10A via an inlet housing 53A and leaves it again via an outlet housing 53B. The steam D likewise enters the drying drum 6 via an inlet housing 55A and exits again via an outlet housing 55B. As an alternative to the steam D, a heating gas H can also be used as the heating medium for the drying drum 6.

By heating the waste A, part of the moisture or liquid stored in the waste A evaporates and water vapor V is formed. This water vapor V is led out of a device 57 for drying at the end oriented towards the filling device 2 from a fume cupboard 57. This is illustrated by an arrow 58.

According to FIG. 2, the waste A is introduced into the drying drum 6 via the filling device 2 by means of the screw conveyor 4. The waste A passes from the drying drum 6 directly, that is to say without an intermediate conveying device, into the heating drum 10A. The drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A are connected to each other. This is ensured by a tubular connector 59. The drums 6, 10A virtually form a single structural unit designed as a drum. After the heating drum 10A, the pyrolyzed waste A reaches the discharge device 12 via a discharge pipe 60 as carbonization gas S and pyrolysis residue R. According to FIG. 3, between the drying drum 6 and the heating drum 10A, a first discharge device 7 and a conveyor device 8 arranged downstream of it are arranged with a screw conveyor 9. The waste A passes from the drying drum 6 into the first discharge device 7. The discharge device 7 also forms a filling funnel for the screw conveyor 9, so that the waste A automatically slides down to the screw conveyor 9. The discharge device 7 has at its upper end an outlet 66 for the water vapor V arising in the drying drum 6. The waste A for pyrolysis enters the heating drum 10A via the screw conveyor 9 and leaves it via the further discharge device 12 as carbonization gas S and pyrolysis residue R.

According to FIG. 4, the drying drum 6, like the heating chamber 10, is heated with a heating gas H. The heating gas H for the drying drum 6 is previously brought to a temperature suitable for drying the waste A in a steam / heating gas heat exchanger 70. In the heat exchanger 70, the heating gas H takes heat, for example, from that generated in the steam generator 32

Steam D on. For example, air is used as the heating gas H for the drying drum 6.

Claims

claims
1. Plant for thermal waste disposal with a heating chamber (10) for the thermal treatment of waste (A), the heating chamber (10) being connected upstream of a drying drum (6) which can be rotated about its longitudinal axis (50) for drying the waste (A) .
2. Plant according to claim 1, wherein the drying drum (6) has internal heating pipes (54).
3. Installation according to one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the drying drum (6) and the heating chamber (10) form a unit.
4. Plant according to one of claims 1 to 3, in which between the drying drum (6) and the heating chamber (10) a conveyor (8) for the waste (A) is arranged.
5. Plant according to one of claims 1 to 4, in which a heating gas (H) and / or a steam (D) is provided for drying the waste (A).
6. Plant according to claim 5, wherein an already existing waste heat boiler (28) is provided for generating the Da pfes (D).
7. Installation according to claim 5 with a combustion chamber (18) for the combustion of a gas produced in the heating chamber (10), in particular carbonization gas (S), and with a device (28, 33) connected downstream thereof for flue gas cleaning, whereby to generate the steam (D) a steam generator (32) is provided, which is connected to a flue gas line (22).
8. Installation according to claim 7, wherein the steam generator (32) is arranged between a waste heat boiler (28) and an electrostatic filter (33).
9. Plant according to one of claims 5 to 8 with a steam-heating gas heat exchanger (70) for heating the heating gas (H).
10. Installation according to one of claims 6 to 9, wherein the drying drum (6) with a condensate container (38), the condensate container (38) via a condensate line (39) with a feed water container (40) and the feed water container (40) are connected to the steam generator (32) via a feed water line (42).
11. Plant according to one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the heating chamber (10) is designed as a pyrolysis drum for pyrolysis of waste (A), in which the waste (A) in carbonization gas (S) and in pyrolysis residue (R) is convertible , with a separation device (14) for the pyrolysis residue (R) connected to the pyrolysis drum (10), with a combustion chamber (18) to which the carbonization gas (S) can be fed for combustion, and with one downstream of the combustion chamber (18) Device (28,33) for flue gas cleaning.
12. A method for thermal waste disposal, in which the waste (A) is dried in a drying drum (6) before it is thermally treated in a heating chamber (10).
13. The method according to claim 12, in which a gas produced in the heating chamber (10), in particular a carbonization gas (S), is burned in a combustion chamber (18), and in which the heat of the flue gas (G ) is used for drying.
14. The method according to claim 13, wherein from the heat of the flue gas (G) steam (D) is generated for drying.
15. The method according to claim 14, in which the heat of condensation of the steam (D), in particular saturated steam, is used for drying the waste (A).
16. The method according to claim 14 or 15, in which excess steam (D) from the steam generator (32) is guided to a turbine (34).
17. The method according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the heating chamber (10) and the drying drum (6) are preferably rotated simultaneously about a common axis of rotation (50).
PCT/DE1998/002362 1997-08-27 1998-08-14 Installation and method for thermal removal of waste WO1999010682A1 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1312662A2 (en) * 2001-05-07 2003-05-21 Cirad-Foret Biomass gasification process, and apparatus, and their applications
EP1312662A3 (en) * 2001-05-07 2003-09-24 Cirad-Foret Biomass gasification process, and apparatus, and their applications
WO2008017149A1 (en) * 2006-08-08 2008-02-14 Fralma Technologie Inc. Apparatus for destruction of organic pollutants
GB2471462A (en) * 2009-06-29 2011-01-05 John Gerard Sweeney Waste management system/method including pyrolysis and power generation
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WO2012095119A3 (en) * 2011-01-13 2013-04-18 Ribegla S. A. Method and system for the recovery of energy from biomass and combustible waste, in particular renewable resources, and for carbonation

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