CN102472486A - Waste management system - Google Patents

Waste management system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102472486A
CN102472486A CN2010800294359A CN201080029435A CN102472486A CN 102472486 A CN102472486 A CN 102472486A CN 2010800294359 A CN2010800294359 A CN 2010800294359A CN 201080029435 A CN201080029435 A CN 201080029435A CN 102472486 A CN102472486 A CN 102472486A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
pyrolysis
combustiblerefuse
vacuum desiccator
gas
heat
Prior art date
Application number
CN2010800294359A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102472486B (en
Inventor
约翰·杰勒德·斯维尼
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约翰·杰勒德·斯维尼
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Priority to GB0911220.2 priority Critical
Priority to GB0911220.2A priority patent/GB2471462B/en
Application filed by 约翰·杰勒德·斯维尼 filed Critical 约翰·杰勒德·斯维尼
Priority to PCT/EP2010/003848 priority patent/WO2011000513A1/en
Publication of CN102472486A publication Critical patent/CN102472486A/en
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Publication of CN102472486B publication Critical patent/CN102472486B/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • F23G5/16Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/303Burning pyrogases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/304Burning pyrosolids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/60Separating
    • F23G2201/603Separating recyclable material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2202/00Combustion
    • F23G2202/10Combustion in two or more stages
    • F23G2202/103Combustion in two or more stages in separate chambers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/12Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste

Abstract

System (1) and method of integrated waste management, comprising the use of a source (2) of a combustible waste material, a separator (3) for separating the combustible waste material from a recyclable material, an airless drier (4) for drying the combustible waste material to generate a pyrolysis feedstock, and a pyrolyser (5) for pyrolysing the pyrolysis feedstock to form char and pyrogas. A system and method for power generation comprising the waste management system or method according to the invention, further comprising the use of an oxidiser (7) for the high-temperature oxidation of syngas generated from the pyrolysis feedstock to generate heat for power production.

Description

Refuse disposal system

Technical field

The present invention relates generally to a kind of refuse disposal system and a kind of electricity generation system that comprises described refuse disposal system.Refuse disposal system of the present invention is usually directed to comprise the rubbish of combustible.

Technical background

To the cleaning of the life that comprises combustiblerefuse and industrial refuse, effectively and environmental protection treatment become the challenge that continues that industry, national governments and local authority face.

For example the waste disposal method of the landfill waste in the landfill of municipal systems has many shortcomings.These shortcomings comprise that needs can be by the large tracts of land soil of good utilisation more; The scene that wind rubbish disorderly flies; Attract mouse and possibly bring the insect of health risk to community with other, disagreeable taste with maybe from rubbish biodegradation produced such as the generation of the greenhouse gases of methane.

Other processing method comprises incineration, and it comprises the burning of rubbish.Though incinerate for the processing of deleterious material normally easily, incinerating is the unwelcome method of a kind of garbage disposal, because it possibly be released into toxic gas and other pollutant in the atmosphere.And existing incinerator has a large amount of carbon emissions and high configuration.

Substitute as a kind of of above-mentioned waste disposal method, combustiblerefuse acts as a fuel, and to be used for energy-producing use be known.The fossil fuel deposit greatly reduces, because geographic factor causes routine supply uncertain of natural gas and oil, and nuclear energy can cause environmental risk, in this case, is considered to attractive field by the obsolete material produce power.This is because it has not only solved the problem of garbage disposal but also optionally fuel source is provided.But, many known method waste resources, the high and low efficiency of cost.Therefore, found the alternative of garbage disposal and rubbish has been converted into the mode of the energy, hoped that they are to economize on resources, low cost and high energy efficiency.The objective of the invention is to realize the part in these devices.

Summary of the invention

According to the present invention, a kind of comprehensive refuse disposal system is provided, comprising:

The combustiblerefuse source;

Be used for separator that described combustiblerefuse is separated from recyclable rubbish;

Be used for described combustiblerefuse drying to produce the vacuum desiccator of pyrolysis feed; With

Be used for described pyrolysis feed pyrolytic to generate the pyrolysis apparatus of coke and pyrolysis gas.

In addition,, a kind of integrated approach of garbage disposal is provided, comprises according to the present invention:

(a) the combustiblerefuse source is provided;

(b) selectively separate described combustiblerefuse in the recyclable rubbish that from said combustiblerefuse source, exists;

(c) in vacuum desiccator with described combustiblerefuse drying to produce pyrolysis feed; With

(d) with the described dry pyrolysis feed pyrolytic of crossing to generate coke and pyrolysis gas.

The integrated system of garbage disposal of the present invention and method provide a kind of industry and the economy of house refuse and mode of high energy efficiency handled; Obtained to be suitable for being converted into the combustiblerefuse of energy thus in downstream; Be considered to be inappropriate for and be used for that energy transforms but callable rubbish, they can be in that to reclaim factory separated and by individual processing.Therefore, utilize the present invention can realize minimal harm, thereby be contributive the whole ecological benefit of garbage disposal to regenerated environment protecting.

The common more effective reduction of pyrolytic process is by the moisture of the material in the pyrolysis.In the present invention, use vacuum desiccator producing significant whole energy consumption saving aspect system's operation, compare with existing air dryer, the material that is dried of per unit weight uses vacuum desiccator approximately to reduce by about 30% the energy.In addition, compare, reduce waste material and be generally 40 to 50 minutes drying time, thereby be increased in the whole efficiency of the system of processing time aspect with the drying of other form.

In addition,, an electricity generation system is provided, has comprised, also comprised the oxidator that is used for the heat that synthesis gas that high-temperature oxydation produces from described pyrolysis feed and pyrolysis gas be used to generate electricity with generation according to refuse disposal system of the present invention according to the present invention.

Also, provide a kind of, comprised integrated approach, and preferably also comprise the steps: according to waste disposal of the present invention according to electricity-generating method of the present invention according to the present invention

(d) gas coke is to produce synthesis gas;

(e) heat that high-temperature oxydation synthesis gas and/or pyrolysis gas are used to generate electricity with generation in oxidator.

Comprehensive generating system comprises according to comprehensive refuse disposal system of the present invention, from the combustiblerefuse source the deposition of destructor plant up to the institute of generating in steps the power generation of the Steam Turbine of routine (for example, from) can carry out at the three unities.Remarkable like this cost and the resource of having practiced thrift; Because it (has for example reduced cost of transportation; Refuse classification factory; Drying garbage factory and pyrolysis, the cost of transportation between gasification and the oxidation/power plant), but also can improve whole energy use efficiency through the heat energy feedback cycle between the various parts that system is provided.

In addition, the combustion process that is used to generate electricity of prior art is generally passed through pyrolysis, as the gasification and the oxidation processes of the synthesis gas (or other burning gases) of an one step.By contrast, electricity generation system according to the present invention and method are suitable for separating the pyrolysis of the dry hot resolution of waste material raw material of crossing, the gasification of thermal decomposition product and from the oxidation of the fuel gas of gasification.One step than for example in the incinerator of traditional burning in batch that is used to generate electricity, carrying out allows each step height control like this.

In addition, in the present invention, preferably all combustiblerefuses are heated in pyrolysis apparatus or gasification furnace to obtain to be no more than 900 ℃ constant temperature (being generally 250 to 600 ℃).In the incineration on traditional cupola well, focus and cold spot usually occur, cause can not and not burning of some combustiblerefuses, stay in the lime-ash of generation by abundant heating.On the contrary, some combustiblerefuses may be overheated and may be discharged the combustion by-product of toxic gas.By contrast, in the present invention, it can guarantee all basically combustiblerefuses in pyrolysis apparatus or gasification furnace by thermal decomposition.In addition, it is overheated not having combustiblerefuse basically, makes gaseous state and/or volatile toxic pollutant be reduced to minimum.

In addition, according to the present invention, the burning in the oxidator (oxidation) has medium calorific value gas (being synthesis gas and/or pyrolysis gas) in the oxidation environment of the high degree of controlled with constant oxidizing temperature.Under this mode; The combustion zone of the incinerator that burns in batch with tradition is compared; Focus and cold spot are held minimum once more or are eliminated, thereby have the carbon monoxide of low concentration and the gas of VOC in the gas that substantially the completing combustion oxidator is discharged.In addition, nitrogen oxide (the hot NO of the constant feasible intensification of oxidizing temperature x) generation further reduce, and because their character of minimizing, pyrolysis and gasification have reduced (the fuel NO of the nitrogen oxide of generation fuel x) generation.Level of nitrogen oxides in the gas of the discharging of the oxidator that therefore, uses in the present invention is lower slightly than the level of nitrogen oxides in traditional incinerator that burns in batch usually.

Preferably, the separator that uses in according to the present invention comprises one or more trommels, magnetic separator, ballistic separator, whirlpool separator, optical fractionation device and pulverizer.This makes that the present invention is fit to separate dissimilar rubbish according to component of refuse.For example, from only comprising life biologic garbage and possibly mostly just need comprising the separator of trommel and pulverizer based on the rubbish that the rubbish source of paper obtains.On the other hand, same life biologic garbage has also comprised callable plastic material (for example: bottle, packaging for foodstuff etc.), and it possibly comprise also that also the automated optical separating component is to isolate the rubbish of these reusable edibles from these rubbish like this.Before getting into its each part separation combustiblerefuse, can use automatic bag opener to open the sack of the rubbish that is sent to destructor plant from the for example external position at municipal garbage station.

Preferably, the vacuum desiccator drying has the combustiblerefuse of superheated steam (usually at 135 to 145 ℃), and superheated steam is as drying medium.In vacuum desiccator, preferably under the situation of anoxic, carry out drying, to prevent the burning of combustiblerefuse.Therefore, preferred vacuum desiccator prevents the entering of atmosphere basically in the drying process process.Minimum for heat loss is dropped to, preferred vacuum desiccator comprises a heat insulation outer surface, to keep heat and to improve the whole efficiency of system.Vacuum drying system known in the prior art is described in GB2281383 A and GB2378498 A.

In the system and method for the present invention, combustiblerefuse have weight ratio 30% to 40% usually initial moisture (like H 2O) content.To after the combustiblerefuse drying, preferred pyrolysis feed has the moisture of weight ratio 0 to 20%, more preferably is the moisture of weight ratio 2 to 18%, more preferably the moisture of weight ratio 5 to 15% in vacuum desiccator.

Preferably, refuse disposal system also comprises: be used for described pyrolysis feed with the dry combustiblerefuse of crossing of pyrolysis and generate coke and the pyrolysis apparatus of pyrolysis gas.Preferably, the pyrolysis of pyrolysis feed is carried out 250 to 600 ℃ temperature.Coke is the unburnt solid residue product of organic material.Except the non-flammable VOC that comprises tar and other high molecular weight component that exists in the pyrolysis, pyrolysis gas is generally defined as and comprises methane, water vapour, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Preferably, refuse disposal system also comprises: the gasification furnace that is used for coke and/or pyrolysis gas are changed into synthesis gas through gasification.Synthesis gas (or be called " forming gas ") is meant the carbon monoxide that the carbon that in coke or other organic compound, exists and water vapour and air or oxygen pyroreaction produce and the pure or approaching pure mixture of hydrogen.Preferably, gasification need be carried out 850 to 900 ℃ temperature.

In one aspect of the invention, vacuum desiccator comprises pyrolysis apparatus.That is to say, vacuum desiccator than its drying mode (for example 110 to 150 ℃) can have adaptation higher temperature (for example, 250 to 600 ℃) be configured to use as pyrolysis installation.In system according to the present invention, exist like this and reduced the benefit of an assembly, have the garbage disposal factory that saves space and cost thereby provide.

Preferably; Comprehensive refuse disposal system comprises vacuum desiccator; Produce vapours output in its moisture of in dry run, discharging by combustiblerefuse; Wherein, the output of a part of vapours can be supplied with gasification furnace (otherwise being released in the atmosphere), with through energy and the reaction needed that heat and water vapour are assisted provides gasification furnace is provided.This function can contribute to the whole efficiency according to system of the present invention.

Preferably, the energy according to electricity generation system of the present invention and method generation is an electric energy.Preferably, the generation of electric energy comprises use vapor recycle device.Described vapor recycle device can be traditional Steam Turbine well-known to those having ordinary skill in the art.A part of vapours output of vacuum desiccator can be used for the vapor recycle of preheating Steam Turbine.In addition, the vapor recycle device can be suitable for guiding the energy demand of heat energy with the assisted vacuum drier.This can realize by the direct transmission of heat energy or through heat-insulation unit.Equally, each of these functions can contribute to the service efficiency according to the whole energy of system of the present invention.

Steam Turbine generally includes the boiler that is designed to make rapidly the waste gas chilling that produces in the oxidator.Generally, the chilling of this EGT is from 450 ℃ to 200 ℃.Chilling preferably carried out less than about 0.5 second in this temperature range.The rapid quench of waste gas is to reduce from boiler, to be disposed to from the beginning the synthesizing of toxic compounds that atmosphere produces for example dioxin and the furans of contamination hazard as far as possible.Because the pyrolysis of electricity generation system of the present invention, the validity of the sequential steps of gasification and oxidation step (for example, temperature control) is assisted and in each step, is destroyed from the beginning synthetic precursor, so this from the beginning synthesizing also is minimized.

Preferably, electricity generation system of the present invention also comprises: for being adsorbed on pyrolysis, the smoke gas treatment unit of the pollutant that discharges in gasification or the oxidation step.This is because environmental pollution legislation possibly need to administer the flue gas (for example, hydrogen chloride, oxysulfide, HF etc.) of sour gas, removes particulate and reduces nitrogen oxide in the waste gas that from the oxidator that uses in the present invention and/or Steam Turbine, produces.This can realize through traditional wet or dry scrubber device.Particularly, except bag filter, can use sodium acid carbonate reagent to administer hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and particle from waste gas.Can use the SCR unit to administer nitrogen oxide.About 180 to 220 ℃ of temperature, preferred about 200 ℃ is optimum temperature in the governance process of using always.

If to be higher than 200 ℃ temperature discharging, energy will be wasted flue gas from Steam Turbine.Therefore, heat recovery units can be bonded to according in the system of the present invention, is set at the downstream of Steam Turbine usually.In practice, heat recovery units is cooled to about 140 ℃ with waste gas, thereby can select heat energy is guided to the heating that vacuum desiccator is used for the heat medium of superheated steam.This has improved the whole efficiency of use according to the factory of system of the present invention.Generally, select 140 ℃ as suitable useless exhanst gas outlet temperature.This helps to prevent the inaesthetic feathering at outlet of chimney that acid gas condenses, and for vacuum desiccator the heat with high temperature difference is provided.

Alternatively, utilize according to the present invention and to have used the organic Rankine circulation, the Stirling circulation, brayton cycle is in the equipment produce power of gas engine or combustion gas gas-turbine or the synthesis gas that in fuel cell, directly burns.In addition, the heat with the generation of the form of steam or hot water is provided for the refrigeration that Absorption Refrigerator was used or be used to use to process.

In one aspect of the invention, the heat that preferably includes surplus of oxidator provides outlet and device to vacuum desiccator and/or pyrolysis apparatus.This can improve the integral energy and the operational paradigm of system, and the domestic electricity needs of Where topical be possibly reduce the time (for example, the time at night), but needs to continue to produce pyrolysis feed, pyrolysis gas, coke and synthesis gas the time, described system turns round.

The source of combustiblerefuse can be any life or industrial refuse that contains combustible material.This material possibly be a swill, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, garment material, the construction material of garden rubbish and for example timber etc.Combustiblerefuse is organic material preferably.

The preparation that in vacuum desiccator, is used for dry combustiblerefuse comprises the use of separator.Separator can comprise that one or more being suitable for separates into the assembly with different physical properties with rubbish.Particularly; Described separator can comprise the trommel (cylinder of rotation comprises and being used for the hole of material by predetermined size separation) that some or independent being used for classified rubbish by size; Be used for ballistic separator that rubbish is classified by weight; Be used to extract and eliminate the magnet of ferrous metal rubbish, be used to extract and eliminate the whirlpool separator of non-ferrous metal rubbish and be used to extract the for example automated optical separator of plastic and glass of recyclable material.Metal values rubbish and recyclable plastics material can be transported to other place and be used for reclaiming.In addition, the against vacuum dried is considered to excessive or overweight rubbish and can before drying, be transferred to suitable its size and the weight of reducing in the pulverizer.

As an example of the combustiblerefuse separating step that is used for system and a method according to the invention, a collection of rubbish of taking from the house refuse station can be stored on the trommel that has the hole (for example, diameter is 80 millimeters) of confirming size in advance at Qi Bishang.Trommel is around the rotation of its longitudinal axis, and according to the diameter in the hole on the trommel wall, combustiblerefuse is separable into thin waste component (for example,<80 millimeters) and volume waste component greatly (for example,>80 millimeter).Thin waste component is placed in magnetic separator and is used to extract non-flammable ferrous metal.It is transferred to the container that is used for to the vacuum desiccator feed then.Handle big volume waste component, remove metal, plastics, glass and other callable and/or not flammable component.Then, the big volume constituents of handling is sent to the automated optical separator to remove remaining recyclable component, and it is sent to pulverizer and is used for the material of similar particle size is converted into thin waste component then.Then, the big volume waste component of pulverizing is transferred into and is used in the container that contains thin waste component carrying out drying at vacuum desiccator.

Be used for vacuum desiccator of the present invention and can use the heat medium of dry superheated steam as dry combustiblerefuse.In vacuum desiccator, use superheated steam to have the following many benefits that are superior to existing air dryer.

Compare with overfire air, the steam of same mass flow is because more than the high twice of specific heat ratio air of steam, the above heat of twice can be transferred to the article that will be dried.Therefore, when between the flammable organic waste of humidity and drying medium, having the identical temperature difference, obtain particular thermal and transmit needed blower fan energy and can reduce over half.

Use another benefit of superheated steam to be, because it is than air viscosity low (low about 50%), it can infiltrate the flammable organic waste that is being dried, thereby has accelerated dry run.

Vacuum desiccator is closed system normally, and it is according to the running of complete recirculation principle, rather than the combination that combines of the fresh air the environment of beyond drier, introducing between recirculation water steam/steam and dry period.In addition, can use indirect coal-fired heat exchanger, in case the fresh air in the stop ring border gets into vacuum desiccator, the inefficient combustion of the material that causes being dried.In addition, for preventing the entering and the steam leakage of surrounding air (or its remarkable quantity), vacuum desiccator should be constructed with the air-tightness of height.In dry run, in drier, do not contain under the situation of oxygen air, help to prevent the burning or the blast of the inflammable product that in drying, exists in the flammable organic waste.Vacuum desiccator can be heat insulation to help prevent heat to scatter and disappear.

Do not having under the situation of air or oxygen, pyrolysis apparatus is heated to high temperature (normally at about 600 ℃, but generally in 250 to 600 ℃ of scopes) with combustiblerefuse indirectly.This can realize through the thermal decomposition tube that heated by auger conveyor through the combustiblerefuse (pyrolysis feed) that drying is crossed.Thermal decomposition tube is comprised in the pyrolysis chamber, can pass through the pyrolysis chamber from the waste gas of the heat in oxidator outlet or other source.The waste gas of heat through thermal decomposition tube outer surface and through convection current and radiation with the heat transferred pipe.Then thermal decomposition tube with heat through from conduction and the radiative transfer of the inner surface of the inner pipe wall of pipe to combustiblerefuse.Heat energy is heated to about 600 ℃ and be pyrolysis gas and coke with the rubbish thermal degradation usually with combustiblerefuse.Can prevent that under the situation that does not have air or oxygen combustiblerefuse is in the thermal decomposition tube internal combustion.Use the benefit of pyrolysis apparatus of the present invention to comprise to produce the drying that is used for gasification furnace, heat, high-quality pyrolysis feed pyrolysis in advance and homogeneity.This makes in the operation of gasification furnace subsequently more simply and is more efficient.

Preferably, the pyrolysis chamber comprises heat insulation outer surface, to keep heat and to improve the whole energy use efficiency of system and a method according to the invention.

In another aspect of the present invention, pyrolysis apparatus can have modularized design, has a usefulness and is included in single thermal decomposition tube or a plurality of thermal decomposition tube in pyrolysis chamber and/or a pyrolysis chamber or a plurality of pyrolysis chamber.These be provided with can help in pyrolysis apparatus optimizing table area with the gas heat-transfer of auxiliary heating from oxidator outlet or other source to by the combustiblerefuse of pyrolysis, thereby improve the efficiency of system.

Gasification furnace receives coke and the pyrolysis gas from thermal decomposition tube.Coke leaves pyrolysis apparatus and is changed over to gasification furnace from the outlet of thermal decomposition tube usually, and the inner surface in the gasification furnace bottom forms coke beds.Gasification furnace is ascending air formula gasification furnace type preferably; Wherein steam and air are injected on the low surface near the coke beds of the inner surface of the bottom of gasification furnace; And upwards infiltrate coke; Pass through various chemical reactions and reduced steam and coke, produced the synthesis gas that mainly comprises carbon monoxide and hydrogen.This reaction usually occurs in about 850 ℃, and is heat absorption and exothermal nature and they self regulating and control reactions in different temperatures differential responses speed through competitive reaction.Synthesis gas combines the pyrolysis gas from the pyrolysis apparatus in the top headroom of gasification furnace coke beds, and all gas gets into oxidator through pipe-line system.Contain the residual ash of a small amount of unreacted carbon and be disposed to airtight lime-ash container, get into the gasification furnace bottom to prevent uncontrolled air from the outlet on the inner surface of gasification furnace bottom.Residual ash is processed.

Utilize the advantage of ascending air formula gasification furnace to be, compare with for example downdraft gasification furnace or fluidized-bed gasification furnace, it makes the simple of gasification furnace design, and to granularity, uniformity and moisture are insensitive.Simple design makes the operation of ascending air formula gasification furnace easier, more reliable, more cheap, has the advantage above the gasification furnace of all other types.Yet,, if necessary, also can use downdraft gasification furnace or fluidized-bed gasification furnace according to the present invention.

Ascending air formula gasification furnace can further comprise the cyclone persuader that is used for headspace gas.This low-down particulate that helps being carried in synthesis gas or the pyrolysis gas is transferred to the oxidator that is used for oxidation.From gasification furnace, exist in the coke low-level particulate is transferred to oxidator, also help to reduce to greatest extent byproduct from the bad oxidation of the waste gas of oxidator.

In one aspect of the invention, gasification furnace can receive the steam from the outlet of vacuum desiccator, is used to drive gasification, to improve the whole energy use efficiency of system and a method according to the invention.

Preferred vaporizer comprises heat insulation outer surface, to keep heat and to improve the whole energy use efficiency of system and a method according to the invention.

In another aspect of the present invention, being provided with of pyrolysis apparatus and gasification furnace can be modular, makes a thermal decomposition tube or a plurality of thermal decomposition tube to be admitted to and can gasification furnace and/or a gasification furnace chamber or a plurality of gasification furnace chamber to oxidator be provided with synthesis gas.

Provide to oxidator through the synthesis gas and the pyrolysis gas of pipeline gasification furnace.Oxidator mixes synthesis gas and pyrolysis gas with air, it is in the chemical energy of the oxidized released heat form of high temperature at this.The quantity that is imported into the excessive inflammable air of oxidator through regulation and control controls the temperature of oxidator outlet.Through guaranteeing that synthesis gas (or synthesis gas/pyrolysis gas mixture) and inflammable air fully mix the burning that reaches good at vortex conditions (for example, cyclone) and long residence time at high temperature.Generally, in oxidizing process, the temperature of oxidator is maintained at about 1250 ℃, but it can turn round being low to moderate under 850 ℃ the temperature.Generally, the time of staying of the synthesis gas in oxidator (or synthesis gas/pyrolysis gas mixture) was greater than 2 seconds.Generally, through being injected oxidator and inflammable air is flowed the center of introducing synthesis gas (or synthesis gas/pyrolysis gas mixture) injection port with high speed (greater than 20 meter per seconds), inflammable air reaches good mixing and turbulent flow.Air and synthesis gas (or synthesis gas/pyrolysis gas mixes) are injected by the tangential, in oxidator, to induce the cyclone rotation of waste gas.This has further mixed flammable waste gas, and also can assist and be adsorbed on the microparticle material that exists in the waste gas to obtain the more overall process of cleaning.

Preferred oxidator comprises heat insulation outer surface, to keep heat and to improve the whole energy use efficiency of system and a method according to the invention.

Preferably, keep negative pressure according to the system of the present invention form of garbage disposal or power plant (for example).This can use one or more air-introduced machines to realize.The use of air-introduced machine helps to guarantee process safety, and the leakage in the system or other fault can not cause gas to discharge system, but the substitute is the entering of atmosphere.Usually will consider the backup air-introduced machine, use treatment plant of the present invention keeping work under the negative pressure condition (with producing gas) like this.

Description of drawings

Through with reference to accompanying drawing, specific embodiment of the present invention is further described, wherein:

Fig. 1 is the sketch map according to the embodiment of electricity generation system of the present invention that comprises according to refuse disposal system of the present invention.

Fig. 2 a is the sketch map according to the embodiment of refuse disposal system of the present invention, wherein shows the preparation of vacuum desiccator (wetting) raw material.

Fig. 2 b is the sketch map according to electricity generation system of the present invention that comprises according to refuse disposal system of the present invention, and the embodiment of hookup 2a shows the process of vacuum desiccator (wetting) raw material to generating of handling.

The specific embodiment

With reference to figure 1, electricity generation system 1 has combustiblerefuse source 2, is used for the rubbish separator 3 of combustiblerefuse and is used for dry combustiblerefuse (not shown) to produce the vacuum desiccator 4 of pyrolysis feed (not shown).

System 1 has the pyrolysis apparatus 5 that is used for being produced by pyrolysis feed coke and pyrolysis gas (not shown); Be used for producing the gasification furnace 6 of synthesis gas (not shown) by coke; With in the presence of air, be used for high temperature (for example, 1250 ℃) oxidation synthesis gas and pyrolysis gas to produce oxidator 7 by arrow 8 described heats.Use these heats to produce electric power by the Steam Turbine 9 of routine.

In use, the combustiblerefuse that source 2 provides is to be provided to separator 3 along conveyer belt 10, is used for it is separated into combustiblerefuse component and other valuable rubbish; Comprise and be not the material that reproduces capable of circulation that is used to burn; Like metal, glass, (not shown)s such as plastics.The combustiblerefuse component is admitted to vacuum desiccator 4 along conveyer belt 11 then, uses superheated steam to be dried at 110 to 150 ℃ this its, up to from combustiblerefuse, removing whole moisture (promptly mainly being water) basically to produce pyrolysis feed.

Pyrolysis feed is transferred in the pyrolysis apparatus 5 along endless belt conveyer 12, in 600 ℃ oxygen-free environment, carries out pyrolysis.Pyrolysis produces the mixture (not shown) of coke and pyrolysis gas.Coke and pyrolysis gas are transferred to gasification furnace 6 along pipeline 13.Coke is obtained to be collectively referred to as the hydrogen and the CO gas product (not shown) of synthesis gas by gasifying in about 850 ℃ temperature in gasification furnace 6.In another embodiment, when vacuum drier 4 in temperature when running that is higher than 600 ℃, it can also be as pyrolysis plant.

Synthesis gas and pyrolysis gas can optionally be stored and be provided with the back use; Perhaps can be transferred to oxidator 7 along pipeline 14; Burning at this synthesis gas and pyrolysis gas is carried out at 1250 ℃, thereby produces by the arrow 8 described heats that are used for driving steam turbine group 9.Steam Turbine 9 produces electric power, and described electric power is admitted to electrical network 15, and this can be the network (for example, in factory or processing factory) of a part or other part of family expenses power supply grid.

According to current energy demand, can be directed to selectively at the excessive heat energy 16,26 that discharges by vacuum desiccator 4 in each stage of system 1 or the excessive heat energy 17 that discharges by oxidator 7, with the energy demand of other part of accessory system 1.Specifically, the heat energy 16 with the steam raising form can be directed to gasification furnace 6.Heat energy 26 with the steam raising form can be directed to Steam Turbine 9, with the condensed water preheating that will in Steam Turbine, reclaim.Heat energy 17 from oxidator 7 can be directed to pyrolysis apparatus 5.In addition, the excessive heat energy with the steam raising form from Steam Turbine 9 can be directed to vacuum desiccator 4.Can be transferred to heat recovery units 24 by arrow 23 described too much heat, be used for that 25 demonstrations are transferred to vacuum desiccator 4 like arrow.Whole energy use efficiency and adaptability that it is system 1 that these selections that are used for the heat energy feedback make some feedback mechanisms of heat energy have efficiently been made contribution.

For the efficiency that further makes system 1 improves, each part can partly or entirely cover with heat-resisting thermal insulation layer 19,20,21,22, is used for the heat-insulating property of improvement system 1.

With reference to figure 2a, Fig. 2 a is the schematic general introduction according to an aspect of another instance of refuse disposal system of the present invention, wherein, produces wet feed material and is used for vacuum desiccator (referring to Fig. 2 b).Fig. 2 a has shown that preface successively provides combustiblerefuse and this rubbish is separated into recyclable (flammable) component of (wet) raw material that is formed in the drier, and the non-combustible component (for example metal) or the combustiblerefuse component (for example plastics) that need not be used to burn.

With reference to figure 2b, Fig. 2 b is the schematic overview according to the extendible portion of garbage disposal process of the present invention, and wherein (wet) raw material according to the drier of the embodiment shown in Fig. 2 a preparation is dried in vacuum desiccator, produces the dry raw material of crossing.The described dry raw material of crossing by pyrolysis to form coke and pyrolysis gas; Described coke and pyrolysis gas are gasified to generate pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas and lime-ash discarded object; Described then pyrolysis gas/syngas mixture is before mixed in cyclonic arrangement with air oxidation; Be used for the high-temp waste gas of heating boiler with generation, thereby drive the existing turbine that is used to generate electricity.

Claims (25)

1. comprehensive refuse disposal system comprises:
The combustiblerefuse source;
Be used for separating the separator of described combustiblerefuse from recyclable material;
Be used for described combustiblerefuse drying to produce the vacuum desiccator of pyrolysis feed; With
Be used for described pyrolysis feed pyrolytic to generate the pyrolysis apparatus of coke and pyrolysis gas.
2. comprehensive refuse disposal system according to claim 1, wherein said separator comprises trommel, magnetic separator, ballistic separator, whirlpool separator, one or more in automated optical separator and the pulverizer.
3. comprehensive refuse disposal system according to claim 1 and 2, wherein said vacuum desiccator adopt superheated steam as the dry described combustiblerefuse of drying medium.
4. according to each described comprehensive refuse disposal system in the claim 1 to 3, wherein seal described vacuum desiccator to prevent the entering of atmosphere.
5. according to each described comprehensive refuse disposal system in the claim 1 to 4, wherein said vacuum desiccator comprises heat insulation outer surface.
6. according to each described comprehensive refuse disposal system in the claim 1 to 5, also comprise the gasification furnace that is used for said coke is changed into synthesis gas.
7. comprehensive refuse disposal system according to claim 6, also comprise be used for produce in pyrolysis feed process produced offers the device of said gasification furnace from the steam of the heating of said vacuum desiccator output.
8. one kind comprises the electricity generation system according to each described refuse disposal system in the claim 1 to 7, also comprises oxidator, is used for the heat that synthesis gas that high-temperature oxydation produces from said pyrolysis feed and/or pyrolysis gas are used to generate electricity with generation.
9. electricity generation system according to claim 8, wherein said energy is an electric energy.
10. according to Claim 8 or 9 described electricity generation systems, wherein said oxidator comprises the outlet of the heat that is used to provide superfluous, offers with the heat with described surplus:
(i) said vacuum desiccator; And/or
(ii) said pyrolysis apparatus.
11. each described electricity generation system in 10 according to Claim 8, wherein said vacuum desiccator comprises the outlet that is used for the steam that the drying steps at described vacuum desiccator forms is offered said gasification furnace.
12. each described electricity generation system in 11 according to Claim 8, wherein said electricity generation system comprises the steam circulating equipment of the for example Steam Turbine that is used to generate electricity.
13. each described electricity generation system in 12 also comprises the heat recovery units that is used for preferably offer said vacuum desiccator from the excessive heat energy of steam circulating equipment according to Claim 8.
14. each described electricity generation system in 13 also comprises the smoke gas treatment unit that is used to adsorb pollutant according to Claim 8.
15. the integrated approach of a garbage disposal comprises:
(a) the combustiblerefuse source is provided;
(b) selectively separate described combustiblerefuse in the recyclable material that from said combustiblerefuse source, exists;
(c) in vacuum desiccator with described combustiblerefuse drying to produce pyrolysis feed; With
(d) with the described dry pyrolysis feed pyrolytic of crossing to generate coke and pyrolysis gas.
16. the integrated approach of garbage disposal according to claim 15, wherein said combustiblerefuse source is to comprise swill, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, garden rubbish, the house refuse of garment material and/or timber.
17. according to the integrated approach of claim 15 or 16 described garbage disposals, the separation of wherein said combustiblerefuse comprises trommel, magnetic separator, ballistic separator, whirlpool separator, one or more use in automated optical separator and the pulverizer.
18., wherein use superheated steam dry described combustiblerefuse in said vacuum desiccator according to the integrated approach of each described garbage disposal in the claim 15 to 17.
19. integrated approach according to each described garbage disposal in the claim 15 to 18; Wherein dry described combustiblerefuse; Has weight ratio 0 to 20% with generation, preferred weight ratio 2 to 18%, or the more preferably pyrolysis feed of weight ratio 5 to 15% moistures.
20. an electricity-generating method comprises the integrated approach according to each described garbage disposal in the claim 15 to 19.
21. electricity-generating method according to claim 20, wherein said energy is an electric energy.
22., further comprising the steps of according to claim 20 or 21 described electricity-generating methods:
(d) with described coke gasification to produce synthesis gas; With
(e) heat that described synthesis gas of high-temperature oxydation and pyrolysis gas are used to generate electricity with generation in oxidator.
23. according to claim 21 or 22 described electricity-generating methods, wherein the generation of electric energy comprises the use vapor recycle.
24. comprehensive refuse disposal system, as at this basically with reference to accompanying drawing 1,2a and 2b describe.
25. electricity generation system, as at this basically with reference to accompanying drawing 1,2a and 2b describe.
CN201080029435.9A 2009-06-29 2010-06-29 Waste management system CN102472486B (en)

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MX2012000063A (en) 2012-04-30
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