USRE36743E - Pre-mix flame type burner - Google Patents

Pre-mix flame type burner Download PDF

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Publication number
USRE36743E
USRE36743E US08/629,329 US62932996A USRE36743E US RE36743 E USRE36743 E US RE36743E US 62932996 A US62932996 A US 62932996A US RE36743 E USRE36743 E US RE36743E
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United States
Prior art keywords
burner
flame
heat exchanger
iaddend
iadd
Prior art date
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Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US08/629,329
Inventor
Chester D. Ripka
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Carrier Global Corp
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Carrier Corp
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US08/243,353 priority Critical patent/US5458484A/en
Application filed by Carrier Corp filed Critical Carrier Corp
Priority to US08/629,329 priority patent/USRE36743E/en
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Publication of USRE36743E publication Critical patent/USRE36743E/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/02Premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air upstream of the combustion zone
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/46Details, e.g. noise reduction means
    • F23D14/48Nozzles
    • F23D14/58Nozzles characterised by the shape or arrangement of the outlet or outlets from the nozzle, e.g. of annular configuration

Abstract

A burner for burning a combustible gas comprising fuel gas and air that has been mixed before being supplied to the burner. The burner has a flame holder .[.concavely.]. .Iadd.axially and radially .Iaddend.recessed into a flame outlet. The .[.concave.]. configuration of the flame holder focuses the individual flames on the combustion surface toward a central location where the individual flames interact with and reinforce one another in a direction axial to the burner. Thus very little heat is transmitted directly from the burner in a direction normal to the burner axis. This characteristic of the burner allows it to be used to fire a flue type heat exchangers where the walls of the heat exchanger are very close to the burner without excessive temperatures being produced in the heat exchanger walls adjacent the burner.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to burners for burning a combustible gas comprised of a mixture of fuel gas and air. More particularly, the invention relates to a burner of the pre-mix type where the mixing of the fuel gas and air has occurred before the combustible gas reaches the burner.

Burners for burning a combustible gas find use in a wide variety of applications. One use is in hot air furnaces, where the burning gas heats air for the purpose of warming the interior of a building such as a house. In such a furnace, the burning gas and gases of combustion are confined with a heat exchanger, such as heat exchanger 50 in FIG. 1, while air to be heated passes over and around the exterior of the heat exchanger. Heat exchanger 50 is of the clamshell type and is typical of the heat exchangers found in residential warm air furnaces. Such a heat exchanger is manufactured by embossing two matching raised patterns into sheet metal and joining the embossed patterns together to form heat exchanger flue path 51. The joints are made so that flue path 51 is gas tight except for flue inlet 52 and flue outlet 53. The typical furnace has more than one heat exchanger, the number being dependent on the size and heat transfer characteristics of each individual heat exchanger and the desired furnace heating capacity. Other furnace structure isolates the flue inlets and outlets from the air to be heated. Other furnace designs use tubular heat exchangers such as heat exchanger 60 shown in FIG. 2. Heat exchanger 60 is functionally similar to heat exchanger 50 in that air to be heated passes around the exterior of flue 61 and the burning gas and gases of combustion are confined to the interior of the flue path between flue inlet 61 and flue outlet 62.

In the typical prior an hot air furnace, an inshot burner, such as burner 30 depicted schematically in FIG. 3, burns fuel gas and air to produce hot gases of combustion. Fuel gas is supplied to burner 30 through gas inlet 32. Air, introduced through primary air inlet 36, mixes with the fuel gas and burns, producing primary flame 33. Other air, known as secondary air, mixes with the unburned gas in primary flame 33 and produces secondary flame 34. The result is that the total length of flame from an inshot burner is relatively long. An inshot burner is positioned at the flue inlet, such as flue inlet 52 (FIG. 1) or flue inlet 62 (FIG. 2), of each heat exchanger in the furnace so that the flame projects into the heat exchanger flue.

The combustion of a fuel gas such as methane, particularly at very high temperatures can produce, as products of combustion, various oxides of nitrogen, collectively known as NOx. These oxides vent to the atmosphere with other combustion products. Limiting the concentration of NOx .[.in.]. .Iadd.is .Iaddend.desirable, as certain .[.jurisdiction.]. .Iadd.jurisdictions .Iaddend.may place restrictions on NOx emissions. Furnaces sold in those jurisdictions must comply with very stringent emission standards.

Furnace designers have found that the use of pre-mix burners can greatly reduce NOx emissions. Unlike an inshot burner, where fuel gas and air mix in the burner, the fuel gas and air are mixed to form a combustible gas at a point in the fuel gas and air supply paths before reaching the pre-mix burner. FIG. 4 depicts schematically a typical prior art pre-mix burner. Burner 40 has burner body 41, combustible gas inlet 42 and flame holder 44. Flame holder 44 is perforated so that combustible gas can pass through the holder and burn as flames 49 slightly off its surface. In such a burner as burner 40, the flames, and thus the heat output, are concentrated in the immediate vicinity of the burner.

A pre-mix burner having physical and operating characteristics similar to burner 40 would not be suitable for use with a heat exchanger such as heat exchanger 50 or 60. The heat exchanger wall would necessarily be in close proximity to the burner and thus the concentration of the heat produced in the immediate vicinity of the burner would result in excessively high temperatures in the wall of the heat exchanger. Such high temperatures would increase surface temperatures of the surrounding heat exchanger and shorten the life of the heat exchanger. U.S. Pat. No. 4,960,102, issued 2 Oct. 1990 to Shellenberger, describes and depicts a furnace having a burner like burner 40. The furnace avoids the problem of excessive temperatures in the heat exchanger wall by constructing the wall to be sufficiently far from the burner that excessive temperaures do not occur.

The figures of U.S. Pat. No. 3,525,325, issued 25 Aug. 1970 to Perl, appear to disclose a gas flame burner having a concave flame holder but a close reading of the disclosure shows that the '325 burner is of the radiant infrared and not of the flame type.

Clamshell and tubular type furnace heat exchangers offer a number of operational, cost and manufacturing advantages. Large numbers are in use and they are still in production. What is needed is a burner of the pre-mix type, with its low NOx emission qualities, that can be used with a clamshell or tube type heat exchanger. Such a burner should not have combustion characteristics that would lead to excessive heat exchanger wall temperatures, even if the wall is in close proximity to the burner.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is a burner of the pre-mix type in which a combustible gas, comprised of a mixture of fuel gas and air, is burned. The physical configuration of the burner affects the flame that it produces so that excessive temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the burner are avoided. It is thus possible to use the burner in conjunction with a clamshell or tubular type heat exchanger with little or no modification to the heat exchanger.

The burner has a flame outlet having a flame holder .[.concavely.]..Iadd.which is axially and radially .Iaddend.recessed into the outlet. The .[.concavity.]. .Iadd.shape .Iaddend.of the flame holder causes the individual flames produced on the flame holder to be directed to a central focus, where they reinforce each other and combine to produce a flame that is projected along an axis normal to the plane of the flame outlet for some distance from the burner. In this way, the heat produced by the flame is distributed over a greater distance than is possible with prior art pre-mix burners. It is this distribution of heat in an extended flame downstream of the burner that allows the burner to be used with clamshell and tubular heat exchangers.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings form a part of the specification. Throughout the drawings, like reference numbers identify like elements.

FIG. 1 is a view of a clamshell heat exchanger.

FIG. 2 is a view of a tubular heat exchanger.

FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an inshot type burner.

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a prior art pre-mix burner.

FIGS. 5A and 5B are respectively a schematic view and an isometric view, partially broken away, of one embodiment of the burner of the present invention.

FIGS. 6A and 6B are respectively a schematic view and an isometric view, partially broken away, of another embodiment of the burner of the present invention.

FIGS. 7A and 7B are respectively a schematic view and an isometric view, partially broken away, of another embodiment of the burner of the present invention.

FIG. 8 is a view of a portion of the flame holder of the burner of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Burner 510, shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B, is one embodiment of the present invention. Combustible gas flows into rectangular burner body 511 through combustible gas inlet 512. The gas flows through flame holder 514 by means of a number of perforations. During burner operation, combustion of the gas occurs on the outer or downstream face of flame holder 514. The entire surface of flame holder 514 contains perforations.

FIG. 8 depicts one satisfactory arrangement of perforations, with groups of perforations 14 separated by imperforate zones 16. U.S. Pat. No. 4,397,631, issued 9 Aug. 1983 to Fisher, fully discloses and discusses the reasons for and advantages of such an arrangement.

Combustion occurs at each perforation in flame holder 514. Because flame holder 514 is configured to .[.concavely.]. .Iadd.axially and radially .Iaddend.recess into burner body 511 from burner outlet 513, individual flames are directed inward toward a central focus where they combine and reinforce and are projected out of burner outlet 513 in a direction normal to the plane of outlet 513.

FIGS. 6A and 6B and 7A and 7B depict other embodiments of the present invention. Burners 616 and 710 differ from burner 510 primarily in the shapes of their respective burner bodies 611 and 711 and in the configurations of their respective flame holders 614 and 714. The shape of burner 610 would make it suitable for use with a tubular heat exchanger while the shapes of burners 510 and 710 are adapted for use with a clamshell type heat exchanger. The oval shape of burner body 611 offers no operational advantage over the rectangular shape of burner body 510 but burner 710 may offer increased life as compared to burner 510 because it does not have square corners. These corners could increase the thermal and physical stresses present in burner body 511.

Theoretical work confirmed by experiments indicate that the precise .[.concave.]. shape of flame holders 514, 614 and 714 is not critical. FIG. 5A depicts a flame holder having one axial cross section that is comprised of an arc of a circle and straight lines. FIG. 6A depicts a flame holder having .[.a.]. .Iadd.an axial .Iaddend.cross section that is the arc of a circle. And FIG. 7A depicts a flame holder having an elliptical cross section. Any of these shapes should provide satisfactory performance. It is merely necessary to have a shape that directs the individual flames on the outer surface of the flame holder toward a central focus.

I have built and tested a prototype of the burner of the present invention. During bench operational testing at full burner feed rate, it is possible for one to hold a hand within two centimeters of the burner body continuously with only a slight increase in temperature detectable. This is because the combined flame and resultant heat from the burner is projected downstream from the burner outlet. In addition, the unignited and relatively cool combustible gas entering the burner body serves to remove heat from the burner body wall.

Claims (6)

I claim:
1. A flame type burner (510, 610, 710) for burning a combustible gas comprising:
a burner body (511, 611, 711);
a combustible gas inlet means for mixing a fuel gas and air and conveying it (512, 612, 712) into said burner body;
a flame outlet (513, 613, 713) from said burner body; and
a perforated flame holder (514, 614, 714) having a combustion surface that is .[.concavely.]. .Iadd.axially and radially .Iaddend.recessed into said flame outlet and that directs flames toward a central focus.
2. The burner of claim 1 in which said flame holder is comprised of a single thickness of a single material.
3. The burner of claim 1 in which at least one .Iadd.portion of an axial .Iaddend.cross section of said flame holder is a .[.segment of an parabola.]. .Iadd.straight line.Iaddend..
4. The burner of claim 1 in which at least one .Iadd.axial .Iaddend.cross section of said flame holder is a segment of an ellipse.
5. The burner of claim 1 in which at least one .Iadd.axial .Iaddend.cross section of said flame holder is an arc of a circle.
6. A flue gas-to-fluid heat exchanger (50, 60) and flame type burner (510, 610, 710) assembly comprising:
a flue gas-to-fluid heat exchanger having a flue inlet (52, 62); and
a flame type burner, positioned at said flue inlet, having a burner body (511, 611, 711);
a combustible gas inlet means for mixing a fuel gas and air and conveying it (512, 612, 712) into said burner body;
a flame outlet (513, 613, 713) from said burner body; and
a perforated flame holder (514, 614, 714) having a combustion surface that is .[.concavely.]. .Iadd.axially and radially .Iaddend.recessed into said flame outlet and that directs flames toward a central focus.
US08/629,329 1994-05-16 1996-04-08 Pre-mix flame type burner Expired - Fee Related USRE36743E (en)

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US08/243,353 US5458484A (en) 1994-05-16 1994-05-16 Pre-mix flame type burner
US08/629,329 USRE36743E (en) 1994-05-16 1996-04-08 Pre-mix flame type burner

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040253559A1 (en) * 2003-06-12 2004-12-16 Honeywell International Inc. Premix burner for warm air furnace
US6880548B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2005-04-19 Honeywell International Inc. Warm air furnace with premix burner
US20090098496A1 (en) * 2007-10-16 2009-04-16 Lennox Manufacturing Inc. Heat exchanger with nox-reducing triangle
US20110104622A1 (en) * 2009-10-30 2011-05-05 Trane International Inc. Gas-Fired Furnace With Cavity Burners
US20140170580A1 (en) * 2012-12-19 2014-06-19 Worgas Burners Limited, A British Company Gas burner
US8998605B2 (en) 2010-10-07 2015-04-07 Carrier Corporation Inshot burner flame retainer
US9228742B2 (en) * 2011-12-28 2016-01-05 Noritz Corporation Rich-lean combustion burner and combustion apparatus
US9316411B2 (en) 2012-07-20 2016-04-19 Trane International Inc. HVAC furnace
US9982914B2 (en) 2012-12-04 2018-05-29 Thermolift, Inc. Combination heat exchanger and burner

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US5520536A (en) * 1995-05-05 1996-05-28 Burner Systems International, Inc. Premixed gas burner
DE19648808A1 (en) * 1996-11-26 1998-06-04 Schott Glaswerke Gas burner
US5975883A (en) * 1998-01-23 1999-11-02 Gas Research Institute Method and apparatus for reducing emissions in combustion products
US6021775A (en) * 1998-10-01 2000-02-08 Carrier Corporation Mobile home furnace
US6162049A (en) * 1999-03-05 2000-12-19 Gas Research Institute Premixed ionization modulated extendable burner
DE19914666B4 (en) * 1999-03-31 2009-08-20 Alstom Burner for a heat generator
US20050023939A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Barry Kramer Mountable gravity-feed dispenser
US10006628B2 (en) * 2011-01-10 2018-06-26 Carrier Corporation Low NOx gas burners with carryover ignition
USD667538S1 (en) * 2011-12-30 2012-09-18 Asia Vital Components Co., Ltd. Heat pipe
EP2870409B1 (en) * 2012-07-03 2020-03-25 Dreizler, Ulrich Surface combustion burner
ITPD20120282A1 (en) 2012-09-27 2014-03-28 Systema Polska Sp Zo O Gas combustion head for premix burners
US9222729B2 (en) * 2012-12-07 2015-12-29 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Plant and method for hot forming blanks
US9464805B2 (en) * 2013-01-16 2016-10-11 Lochinvar, Llc Modulating burner
US10119704B2 (en) 2013-02-14 2018-11-06 Clearsign Combustion Corporation Burner system including a non-planar perforated flame holder
CN104884866B (en) 2013-02-14 2017-08-25 克利尔赛恩燃烧公司 Perforation flameholder and the burner for including perforation flameholder
US10571124B2 (en) 2013-02-14 2020-02-25 Clearsign Combustion Corporation Selectable dilution low NOx burner
GB2512894A (en) * 2013-04-10 2014-10-15 David Thomas Bell Inward firing multiple zoned gas burner
US20150104748A1 (en) 2013-10-14 2015-04-16 Clearsign Combustion Corporation Electrodynamic combustion control (ecc) technology for biomass and coal systems
US20180106500A1 (en) * 2016-10-18 2018-04-19 Trane International Inc. Enhanced Tubular Heat Exchanger

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040253559A1 (en) * 2003-06-12 2004-12-16 Honeywell International Inc. Premix burner for warm air furnace
US6880548B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2005-04-19 Honeywell International Inc. Warm air furnace with premix burner
US6923643B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2005-08-02 Honeywell International Inc. Premix burner for warm air furnace
US20090098496A1 (en) * 2007-10-16 2009-04-16 Lennox Manufacturing Inc. Heat exchanger with nox-reducing triangle
US20110104622A1 (en) * 2009-10-30 2011-05-05 Trane International Inc. Gas-Fired Furnace With Cavity Burners
US8591222B2 (en) * 2009-10-30 2013-11-26 Trane International, Inc. Gas-fired furnace with cavity burners
US8998605B2 (en) 2010-10-07 2015-04-07 Carrier Corporation Inshot burner flame retainer
US9228742B2 (en) * 2011-12-28 2016-01-05 Noritz Corporation Rich-lean combustion burner and combustion apparatus
US9316411B2 (en) 2012-07-20 2016-04-19 Trane International Inc. HVAC furnace
US9982914B2 (en) 2012-12-04 2018-05-29 Thermolift, Inc. Combination heat exchanger and burner
US20140170580A1 (en) * 2012-12-19 2014-06-19 Worgas Burners Limited, A British Company Gas burner
US9587826B2 (en) * 2012-12-19 2017-03-07 Worgas Burners, Limited, A British Company Gas burner

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US5458484A (en) 1995-10-17
CA2146805A1 (en) 1995-11-17
CA2146805C (en) 1999-04-27

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